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Maxima and minima

1 1 2 2
2 2 2
2 2
rule
As f(x,y) is given
step :1 find
step :2 Equate 0 0
these eqations for x and y
say A=(a b ),B=(a b )....are the solutions
step :3 find , ,
Working
f f
and
x y
f f
and
x y
solve
f f f
r s t
x x y y
o o
o o
o o
o o
= =
c c c
= = =
c c c c
at points A,B
2
2
2
2
there are different possibilities
1: rt-s 0 and r<0 maximum
2: rt-s 0 and r>0 minimum
3: rt-s 0 and whatewer be r saddle point
4: rt-s 0 further investigation is requared
Now
>
>
<
=
3 3
3 3
2 2
2 2
1: Determine the points where the function
x 3 has a minima or maxima
Sol: Let f(x,y)=x 3
3 3 and 3 3
3 3 0 and 3 3 0
simplification we get A=(0,0),B(a,a),C(
Q
y axy
y axy
f f
x ay y ax
x y
x ay y ax
on
o o
o o
+
+
= =
= =
2 2 2
2 2
a,-a)
But the point C not satisfy the function hence rejected
6 , 3 , 6
f f f
x a y
x x y y
c c c
= = =
c c c c
2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
at point A(0,0)
rt-s 36 9 9 0
it is a saddle point
at point A(a,a)
rt-s 36 9 36 9 27 0
6 0
it is a minima
now
xy a a
so
xy a a a a
r a
so
= = <
= = = >
= >
Lagrange's methods
f(x,y,z) is given ,for which we have to find
out maxima and minima and (x,y,z) is the given
condition then
Step1: find out , ,
Step2: find out , ,
Lagrenge equations are

If
f f f
x y z
x y z
now
|
o o o
o o o
o| o| o|
o o o
0 ...1
0 ...2
0 ...3
f
x x
f
y y
f
z z
o o|

o o
o o|

o o
o o|

o o
+ =
+ =
+ =
condition (x,y,z)=0 find the value of
x,y,z, now put all these value in the
function f(x,y,z)
which gives the desire result
under the |

1: Find the maximum value of the function


u=x the condition ax+by+cz=p+q=r
Sol: u=x
log log log log
1

p q r
p q r
Q
y z under
y z
u p x q y r z
u p
u x x
u pu
x x
similarly
u qu u ru
y y z z
o
o
o
o
o o
o o
= + +
=
=
= =
( , , )
, ,
Lagrenges equations are
0
0
0
x y z ax by cz p q r
a b c
x y z
The
pu pu
a x
x a
qu qu
b y
y b
ru ru
c z
z c
|
o| o| o|
o o o

= + +
= = =

+ = =

+ = =

+ = =
put all these value in the condition,we get
similarly y= ,z=
these value in the function,we get
u=
p q r
now
apu bqu cru
p q r
a b c
u
pu p q r
x
a a b c
replace
p q r
a b c

= + +
=

= =
| | | | | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
2: Show that the ractangular solid of maximum
volume that can be inscribed in a sphere is a cube
Sol: Let 2x,2y,3z be the length,breadth and height
of the solid
let R be the radious of the
Q
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
sphere
volume of the solid V=8xyz
Equation of the sphere x +y +z =R
( , , ) x +y +z -R x y z | =
2
2
2
8 2 8yz+2x =0
8 2 8xz+2y =0
8 2 8xy+2z =0
multiply the equation by x,y,z
we get
8xyz=-2
8xyz=-2
8xyz=-2
V
yz x
x x
V
xz y
y y
V
xy z
z z
x
y
z
o o|

o o
o o|

o o
o o|

o o

= =
= =
= =
2 2 2
2 2 2
-2 x =-2 =-2
x = =
x=y=z
which is the required condition
of a cube
y z
y z

3 3
3 2 2 2
Determine the points where the
function has minima or maxima
1:f(x,y)=x +y -63(x+y)+12xy
2:f(x,y)=xy(a-x-y)
3:f(x,y)=x +3xy -15(x +y )+72x
Q4: A rectanguler box which is open at the
top has a capecity
3
of 256 cube m determine
the dimentions of the box such that the l
least material is required to construct it
2 2 2
Q5:find the volume of the largest
rectangular parelelopiped which can be
inscribed in a ellipsoied
Q6:Find the maximum and minimum
distance of the point (3,4,12) from the sphere
x +y +z =4