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How Cells Release

Stored Energy
Chapter 8
“Killer” Bees
• Descendents of African honeybees that
were imported to Brazil in the 1950s
• More aggressive, wider-ranging than other
honeybees
• Africanized bee’s muscle cells have large
mitochondria
Mitochondria
ATP Is Universal
Energy Source
• Photosynthesizers get energy from the
sun

• Animals get energy second- or third-hand


from plants or other organisms

• Regardless, the energy is converted to the


chemical bond energy of ATP
Making ATP
• Plants make ATP during photosynthesis
• Cells of all organisms make ATP by
breaking down carbohydrates, fats, and
protein
Main Types of
Energy-Releasing Pathways

Anaerobic pathways Aerobic pathways

• Evolved first • Evolved later


• Don’t require oxygen • Require oxygen
• Start with glycolysis in • Start with glycolysis
cytoplasm
in cytoplasm
• Completed in
cytoplasm • Completed in
mitochondria
Question 1
• 1. State two characteristics of anaerobic
respiration pathways.
Answer 1
• 1. State two characteristics of anaerobic
respiration pathways.

• Evolved first
• Don’t require oxygen
• Start with glycolysis in cytoplasm
• Completed in cytoplasm
Question 2
2. State two characteristics of aerobic
pathways.
Answer 2
2. State two characteristics of aerobic
pathways.
• Evolved later
• Require oxygen
• Start with glycolysis in cytoplasm
• Completed in mitochondria
Summary Equation for Aerobic
Respiration

C6H1206 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H20


glucose oxygen carbon water
dioxide
CYTOPLASM glucose

2 ATP 4 ATP
Glycolysis
e- + H+ (2 ATP net)
2 NADH 2 pyruvate

Overview of Aerobic
e- + H+ 2 CO2
2 NADH
e- + H+
8 NADH 4 CO2
Respiration
Krebs
Cycle
2 FADH2
e +H
- +
2 ATP

e- Electron
Transfer 32
ATP
Phosphorylation

H+ water

e- + oxygen
Typical Energy Yield: 36 ATP

Figure 8.3
Page 135
The Role of Coenzymes
• NAD+ and FAD accept electrons and
hydrogen
• Become NADH and FADH2
• Deliver electrons and hydrogen to the
electron transfer chain
Glucose
• A simple sugar
(C6H12O6)

• Atoms held
together by
covalent bonds

In-text figure
Page 136
Glycolysis Occurs
in Two Stages
• Energy-requiring steps
– ATP energy activates glucose and its six-carbon
derivatives

• Energy-releasing steps
– The products of the first part are split into three-
carbon pyruvate molecules
– ATP and NADH form
Energy-Requiring
Energy-Requiring Steps of Glycolysis
2 ATP invested
Steps
glucose
ATP
ADP
P
glucose-6-phosphate

P
fructose-6-phosphate
ATP
ADP
P P
fructose1,6-bisphosphate

P P Figure 8.4(2)
PGAL PGAL Page 137
P P
PGAL PGAL
NAD+ NAD+
Pi NADH Pi NADH

P P Energy-
1,3-bisphosphoglycerate
P P
1,3-bisphosphoglycerate
ADP
Releasing
ATP
ADP
ATP
P
3-phosphoglycerate Steps P
3-phosphoglycerate

P P

2-phosphoglycerate 2-phosphoglycerate
H2O H2O
P P

PEP PEP
ADP ADP
ATP ATP

pyruvate pyruvate
Figure 8.4
Page 137
Glycolysis: Net Energy Yield

Energy requiring steps:


2 ATP invested

Energy releasing steps:


2 NADH formed
4 ATP formed

Net yield is 2 ATP and 2 NADH


ATP Structure
NADH Structure
Question 3
3. Give the summary equation for
respiration.
Answer 3
3. Give the summary equation for
respiration.
C6H1206 + 6O2  6CO2 + 6H20

glucose oxygen  carbon water


dioxide
Question 4
• 4. what are the two stages of glycolysis
and the net yield?
Answer 4
• 4. what are the two stages of glycolysis and the
net yield?
Energy requiring steps:
2 ATP invested

Energy releasing steps:


2 NADH formed
4 ATP formed

Net yield is 2 ATP and 2 NADH


Second Stage Reactions
• Preparatory reactions
– Pyruvate is oxidized into two-carbon acetyl
units and carbon dioxide
– NAD+ is reduced
• Krebs cycle
– The acetyl units are bond to coenzyme A
– NAD+ and FAD are reduced (add H+ and 2 e-)
Preparatory Reactions

pyruvate
coenzyme A (CoA)
NAD+

NADH O O carbon dioxide

CoA
acetyl-CoA
Krebs =CoA
acetyl-CoA

Cycle
CoA

oxaloacetate citrate
NADH H2O
NAD+ H2O

malate isocitrate
+
NAD
H2O O O
NADH
fumarate
FADH2 α-ketoglutarate
FAD NAD+ CoA
NADH O O
succinate
succinyl-CoA

Figure 8.6 ADP +


Page 139 ATP phosphate group
The Krebs Cycle
Overall Reactants Overall Products

• Acetyl-CoA • Coenzyme A
• 3 NAD+ • 2 CO2
• FAD • 3 NADH
• ADP and Pi • FADH2
• ATP
Results of the Second Stage
• All of the carbon atoms in pyruvate end up
in carbon dioxide
• Coenzymes are reduced (they pick up
electrons and hydrogen)
• One molecule of ATP forms
• Four-carbon oxaloacetate regenerates
Coenzyme Reductions during
First Two Stages
• Glycolysis 2 NADH
• Preparatory
reactions 2 NADH
• Krebs cycle 2 FADH2 + 6 NADH

• Total 2 FADH2 + 10 NADH


Electron Transfer
Phosphorylation
• Occurs in the mitochondria
• Coenzymes deliver electrons to electron
transfer chains
• Electron transfer sets up H+ ion gradients
• Flow of H+ down gradients powers ATP
formation
Creating an H Gradient
+

OUTER COMPARTMENT

NADH

INNER COMPARTMENT
Making ATP:
Chemiosmotic Model

ATP

INNER
COMPARTMENT
ADP ATP synthase
+
Pi
Importance of Oxygen
• Electron transport phosphorylation
requires the presence of oxygen

• Oxygen withdraws spent electrons from


the electron transfer chain, then combines
with H+ to form water
Question 5
5. What enzyme uses hydrogen ions to
product ATP from ADP and Pi ?
Answer 5
5. What enzyme uses hydrogen ions to
product ATP from ADP and Pi ?

ATP synthase
Question 6
6. What role does oxygen play in
respiration?
Answer 6
6. What role does oxygen play in
respiration?

It functions as a hydrogen ion and


electron acceptor molecule.
Summary of Energy Harvest
(per molecule of glucose)
• Glycolysis
– 2 ATP formed by substrate-level
phosphorylation
• Krebs cycle and preparatory reactions
– 2 ATP formed by substrate-level
phosphorylation
• Electron transport phosphorylation
– 32 ATP formed
Energy Harvest Varies
• NADH formed in cytoplasm cannot enter
mitochondrion
• It delivers electrons to mitochondrial
membrane
• Membrane proteins shuttle electrons to
NAD+ or FAD inside mitochondrion
• Electrons given to FAD yield less ATP
than those given to NAD+
Efficiency of
Aerobic Respiration
• 686 kcal of energy are released
• 7.5 kcal are conserved in each ATP
• When 36 ATP form, 270 kcal (36 X 7.5) are
captured in ATP
• Efficiency is (270 / 686) X 100 = 39 percent
• Most energy is lost as heat
Anaerobic Pathways

• Do not use oxygen


• Produce less ATP than aerobic
pathways
• Two types
– Fermentation pathways
– Anaerobic electron transport
Fermentation Pathways
• Begin with glycolysis
• Do not break glucose down completely to carbon
dioxide and water
• Yield only the 2 ATP from glycolysis
• Steps that follow glycolysis serve only to
regenerate NAD+
Lactate Fermentation
GLYCOLYSIS
C6H12O6

2 ATP

energy input 2 ADP 2 NAD+

2 NADH
4 ATP

energy output 2 pyruvate

2 ATP net

LACTATE
FORMATION
electrons, hydrogen
from NADH

2
lactate
GLYCOLYSIS
Alcoholic C6H12O6

Fermentation 2 ATP

energy input 2 ADP 2 NAD+

2 NADH
4 ATP

energy output 2 pyruvate

2 ATP net
ETHANOL
FORMATION 2 H2O
2 CO2

2 acetaldehyde

electrons, hydrogen
from NADH

2 ethanol
Anaerobic Electron Transport
• Carried out by certain bacteria
• Electron transfer chain is in bacterial
plasma membrane
• Final electron acceptor is compound from
environment (such as nitrate), not oxygen
• ATP yield is low
FOOD

Alternative
fats glycogen Energy Sources
complex
carbohydrates
proteins

fatty glycerol simple sugars amino acids


acids
glucose-6-phosphate NH3 carbon
GLYCOLYSIS backbones
PGAL urea

pyruvate

acetyl-CoA

KREBS
CYCLE

Figure 8.11
Page 145
Evolution of Metabolic
Pathways
• When life originated, atmosphere had little
oxygen
• Earliest organisms used anaerobic pathways
• Later, noncyclic pathway of photosynthesis
increased atmospheric oxygen
• Cells arose that used oxygen as final acceptor in
electron transport
Processes Are Linked

sunlight energy
PHOTOSYNTHESIS

water
+ sugar oxygen
carbon molecules
dioxide
AEROBIC
RESPIRATION

In-text figure
Page 146
Cellular Respiration Poisons

A number of poisons work by interfering


with some of the events that we have
just discussed.
They fall into three categories:

4. Electron transport chain blockers


5. ATP synthase inhibitors
6. Uncouplers
Electron transport chain blockers
These poisons bind tightly to one of the
electron carrier molecules in the electron
transport chain and render it dysfunctional.

Example: Rotenone is used to kill pest


insects and fish.
Cyanide and carbon monoxide are in this
category too.
Rotenone
Rotenone blocks
an electron carrier
Molecule
ATP synthase inhibitors

These molecules block ATP synthase


activity.
They don’t allow H +(aq) to pass through the
ATP synthase channel.

Example: the antibiotic oligomycin is used to


combat fungal skin infections.
Oligomycin

Oligomycin blocks here

ATP synthase can’t operate


Uncouplers

Uncouplers make the mitochondrial


membrane leaky to hydrogen ions
This prevents the formation of a H+(aq)
gradient resulting in no ATP formation!

Example: dinitrophenol (DNP)


Dinitrophenol (DNP)

• Highly toxic to humans.


• Causes an enormous metabolic rate increase.
• Profuse sweating, collapse and death.
• In the 1940’s some physicians prescribed DNP in low
dose for weight lose pills.

Fatalities soon made it clear that DNP was


dangerous and it is no longer used.
The End