• Customer relationship management (CRM) is a widely-implemented strategy for managing a company’s interactions with customers, clients and sales prospects. • It involves using technology to organize, automate, and synchronize business processes—principally sales activities, but also those for marketing, customer service, and technical support.

• The overall goals are to find, attract, and win new clients, nurture and retain those the company already has, entice former clients back into the fold, and reduce the costs of marketing and client service. • Customer relationship management describes a company-wide business strategy including customer-interface departments as well as other departments.

.Customer service and support • Recognizing that service is an important factor in attracting and retaining customers. organizations are increasingly turning to technology to help them improve their clients’ experience while aiming to increase efficiency and minimize costs.

• Therefore. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is the business strategy that aims to understand. ." This statement highlights the importance of customer relationship to be nimble and competitive organizations. manage and personalize needs of potential customers that can be integrated with current organizational target. but maintaining customer relationships is just as crucial. anticipate.• "Acquiring new customers is important for business success.

Philip Kotler (2006) and many other marketing experts have defined CRM as process of creating & retaining profitable customer with long term relation by delivering customer value and satisfaction. • Management Information System (MIS) experts like Jemes A O'Brien & Goerge M. .• Prof. Marakas (2007) argue that CRM is a cross functional enterprise system that helps a business to develop and manage its customer oriented business processes.

technology and business processes. • As a marketing component. • It can also be considered as a liaison process between a product and a consumer which is as old as marketing itself.• CRM is an approach a company takes toward its customers backed up by thoughtful investment in people. CRM is a relationship process which a company can cultivate with its customer groups/segments in such a way that it would benefit both the customer and the company. .

• Customer relationship management (CRM) converts information about customers into a rich asset for performance improvement. . • However. technology is often an enabler of the benefits that accrue from a well-crafted customer strategy. superior analytics. • The more complete an understanding a company has of its customer base. • CRM is fundamentally a strategic approach to managing customer value and experiences. and innovative programs. the more opportunity there is to use analytics to implement customer-facing initiatives in targeted ways that achieve measurable impact.

rather than a dominant focus on sales transactions. .Relationship Marketing • Relationship Marketing was first defined as a form of marketing developed from direct response marketing campaigns which emphasizes customer retention and satisfaction. • Relationship Marketing differs from other forms of marketing in that it recognizes the long term value of customer relationships and extends communication beyond intrusive advertising and sales promotional messages.

• Relationship Marketing extends to include Inbound Marketing efforts.• Relationship Marketing has continued to evolve and move forward as technology opens more collaborative and social communication channels. • This includes tools for managing relationships with customers that goes beyond simple demographic and customer service data. PR. Social Media and Application Development. . (a combination of search optimization and Strategic Content).

• The ultimate aim of a relationship marketing approach is for the customer to become a ‘partner’ of the organisation. but also aspects such as delivery.• As competition increases. the link with customers becomes increasingly important. • Information gathered through communication with customers can enable organisations to develop a marketing mix that is more likely to create customer satisfaction. and organisations realise that what customers value. image and brand associations. is not always just lower prices. . by contributing to marketing decisionsthrough a one-to-one relationship.

Building Customer Relationships .

. • Many consumers and business customers prefer to have an ongoing relationship with one organisation than to switch continually among providers in their search for value. a strategic orientation .Relationship Marketing • Relationship marketing essentially represents a paradigm shift within marketing – away from an accquisitions/transaction focus toward a retention/relationship focus. that focuses on keeping and improving relationships with current customers rather than on acquiring new customers. • Relationship marketing is a philosophy of doing business.

• The firms frequently focus on attracting customers but then pay little attention to what they should do to keep them . .

importance of the functions of customer service and quality in relationship marketing.• Relationship marketing: definition as the building of long-term relationships of mutual advantage with customers. . difference between transactional marketing and relationship marketing.

Stakeholders’ needs and expectations. Growing sophistication of direct marketing and ebusiness in business-to-business (B2B) and business-toconsumer (B2C) markets. lifetime value of customers. Connection with strategic aims and objectives. Cost of lost customers. • Role of information and communications technologies. . Link with organisational mission and objectives. Growth of services sector.Reasons for development of relationship marketing • • • • • • • • Difficulty of attracting new customers.

place. processes and customer service). importance of relationshipmarketing and brand building . the ladder of customer loyalty.people. promotion. client. price. advocate).supporter. customer.• Relationship marketing concepts: expanding the marketing mix to the 7 Ps (product. the augmented product and total product concept. (prospect.

largely interrelated • and difficult to consider in isolation. a number of factors may be identified. • namely: • The maturing of service marketing. . • A recognition of the benefits of RM for customers.Factors Influencing the Development of Relationship Marketing • The developments that have led to the emergence of RM are complex in nature. • Research within industrial markets. However. • A recognition of the benefits of RM for firms. • Advances in information technology.

• Customer as Strangers • Customer as Acquaintances • Customer as Friends • Customer as Partners .The Evolution of Customer Relationships • Firms relationships with their customers like other social relationships tend to evove over time.

• The firm’s primary goal with these potential customers is to initiate communication with them inorder to attract them and acquire their business.encoraging them to give the firm a try.Customer as Strangers • Strangers are those customers who are not aware of of or perhaps those who have not yet had any transactions with a firm. • The primary marketing efforts directed toward such customers deal with famiiarzing those potential customers with the firm’s vofferings and subsequently . .

• A primary goal for the firm at this stage of the relationship is satisfying the customer. • An acquaintanceship is effective as long as customer is relatively satsfied and what is being received in the exchange is perceived as fair value.Customer as Acquaintances • Once thye customer awarness and trialsare achieved . . creating the basis for an exchange relationship. familiarity is established and the customer and the firm become acquaintances. • At this stage firms are generally concerned about providing a value proposition to customers that is comparable with that of competitors.

• In acquaintance relationships. sales. helping to facilitate marketing. the customer gains experience and becomes more familiar with firm’s product offerings. . • Repetitive interactions improve the firm’s knowledge of the customer.• With repetitive interactions . and serviceefforts.these encounters can help reduce uncertainly about the benefits expected in the exchange. firms generally focus on providing value comparable to the competition often through the repetitive provision of standardized offerings.

.Customer as Friends • A customer continues to make purchase from a firm and to receive value in the exchange relationship. • This transition from acquaintanceship to friendship requires the development of trust. • The provisions of a unique offerings and thus differential value transforms the exchange relationship from acquaintance to friendship. allowing it to create an offerings that directly address the customer’s situation. • A primary goal for firms at the frienship stage of the relationship is customer retention. the firm begins to acquire specific knowledge of the customer’s needs .

creation of trust leads to creation of commitment and which is necessary for customers to extend the time perspective of a relationship.Customer as Partners • As customer continues to interact with a firm . the level of trust often depeens and the customer may receive more customized product offerings and interactions. • The trust developed in the friendship stage is necessary but not sufficient for customer–firm partnership to develop. .

• Customers are more likely to stay in the relationship if they feel that the company understands their changing needs and is willing to invest in the relationship by constantly improving and evolving its product and service mix.• The key to success in the partnership stage is the firm’s ability to organize and use information about individual customers more effectively than competitors. . • At this stage the firm is concerned with enhancing the relationship.

• Organizational Benefits • Cheaper to keep existing customers than to attract customers. • Confidence benefits • Social rewards . • Reduced costs • Not all customers have equal value • Lifetime value for customers. • Consumer Advantage • Overcomes risks and ambiguity of complex services.

the provider is more likely to pursue a closerv relationship. • The primary goal of relationship marketing is to build and maintain a base of committed customers who are profitable for the organization. .The Goal of Relationship Marketing • As the relationship valueof a customer increases.

Enhancing Retaining Satisfying Acquiring .

. thev formation of satisfaction n.• The goal of relationship marketing is to move customers up the ladder from the point at which they are strangers that need to be attracted through to the point at which they are highly valued. and partnerrespectively.solving perspective . • From a customer’s problem. friend. longterm customers whose relationship with the firm has been enhanced. trust and commitment corresponds to the customer’s willingness to engage in an exchange relationship as an acquaintance.

clearly the customer benefits and has an incentive to stay in the relationship. .Benefits to Customer • Customers will remain loyal to a firm when they receive greater value relative to what they expect from competing firms. • When firms can consistantly deliver value from the customer’s point of view .satisfaction. Consumers are likely to stay in a relationship when the gets (quality. • Value represents a trade off for the consumer between the give and the get components. specificbenefits) exceeds the gives (monetary and non monetary costs).

• Human nature is such that most consumers would prefer not to change service providers. • Example-cost of switching . particularly when there is a considerable investment in the relationship.• Confidence Benefits comprise feelings of trust or confidence in the provider along with a sense of reduced anxiety and comfort in knowing what to expect.

. • In some long term customer firm relationship .• Social Benefits customers develop a sense of familarity and even a social relationship with their service providers. • Example – Hairdresser • These type of personal relationship can develop for B2B customers as well as B2C. a service provider may actually become part of the consumer’s social support system. These ties make it less likely that they will switch . even if they learn about a competitor that might have better quality or lower price.

• Interestingly the special treatment benefits while important were less importaqnt than the other types of benefits received in service relationship. . being given a special deal or price.• Special Treatment Benefits includes getting the benefits of the doubt. or getting preferntial treatment .

• Economic Benefits • Customer Behaviour Benefits • Human Resources Management Benefits .Benefit for Firms • The benefits to organizations of maintaining and developing a loyal customer base are numerous.

Economic Benefits • One of the most commonly cited economic benefits of customer retention is increased purchases over time. . Cheaper to keep existing customers than to attract customers. • Another economic benefit is lower costs.

• The most easily recognized customer behaviour benefit that a firm receives a word of mouth communication. .Customer Behaviour Benefits • The contribution that loyal customers make to a service business can go well beyond their direct financial impact on the firm. • When a product is complex and difficult to evaluate and when risk is involved in the decision to buy it –as is the case with many services – consumers often look to others for advice on which providers .

often the more experienced customers can make the service emplolyees job easier. Loyal customers may because of their experience with and knowledge of provider .Human Resources Management Benefits • Loyal customers may alsoprovide a firm with human resourcemanagement benefits. be able to contribute to the coproductionof the service by assisting in serevice cdelivery. .

The Reasons why relationship marketing fails • Nelson and Kirby (2001) belive there are seven key reasons: • Data is ignored • Politics rule • The organization and business users do not work together • There is no plan • Relationship marketing is implemented for the company and not the customer • A flawed process is automated • No attention is paid to skills sets .

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