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INTRODUCTION TO THE

BIBLE

Catholic Bible

Protestant Bible

NATURE OF THE

BIBLE
Book of Shared Memories Word of God Means of Divine Revelation

theholybible

Library of Books

HOW THE BIBLE GOT ITS


NAME
BIBLE
Greek (neuter, plural) Greek (singular)

ta biblia
Meaning: The Books The bible is a collection of many individual books, different in size, style and content.

biblion
Diminutive of biblos It denotes any kind of written document

In ancient times, writing was done on papyrus and parchments. Joined together in long strips After the scribe had finished writing, he wound the strips on two rods. A roll was called a biblion.

In the New Testament, the word was a latecomer. Synonyms:


the writings the Scriptures Matthew 21:42 Have you never read in the Scriptures? (hai graphai) Timothy 3:15 Paul uses the sacred writings (ta grammata)

THE TWO TESTAMENTS OF


SCRIPTURE
TESTAMENT Latin: testamentum Greek: diatheke

Meaning: Covenant

Filipino: tipanan/ tipan Meaning: alliance between two persons which requires fidelity and commitment; connotes a love relationship

THE TWO TESTAMENTS OF


SCRIPTURE
Salvation History
Creation Period of Preparation
(Prophets, Judges, Kings)

Before Common Era (BCE) Old Testament (OT)

Jesus Christ
(The Living Word)

Common Era (AD)

Church
(Extension of Christ in Time and Space)

New Testament (NT)

THE CANON AND THE DIVISION OF THE

SCRIPTURES

The Hebrew Bible

The Christian Bible

thehebrewbible
Christians: Old Testament

Jews: Hebrew Scriptures or TaNaK


Torah (the Law/Instruction) Nebiim (the Prophets) Kethubim (the Writings)

TaNaK
KETHUBIM (The Writings) NEBIIM (The Prophets)

TORAH (The Law/ Instruction)

The Law or Instruction


Comprises the so-called: five books of Moses Considered by the Jews as the core and the most authoritative part of the Scriptures Torah written document of the covenant of love between God and Israel. Make up the instruction or guide for living that God wanted to pass on to his people.

TORAH

in the beginningGenesis

bereshit

Tells the story of the beginning of creation of humankind

and these are the namesExodus

weelleh shemot

Narrates the departure of the Israelites from Egypt

and he calledLeviticus

wayyiqra

Contains laws for priestly tribe of Levi

in the wilderness

bammidbar

wayyedabber

Numbers

and he spoke

Contains census lists and number of names

these are the wordsDeuteronomy

elleh haddebarim

Provides summary of the law of Moses

First used in the 2nd century C.E. Greek-speaking believers call the Torah as Pentateuch (pentateuchos, book in five parts)

Christian Tradition
Books Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy Origin Vulgate Vulgate Vulgate Septuagint (Arithmoi) Vulgate

The Prophets
Nebiim
from the word nabi, which means prophet

NEBIIM

Two Main Groups


1. Former Prophets 2. Latter Prophets
Difference is only on the length of the text.

Former Prophets
Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings
The Historical Books in the Christian Bible Tells us how the Covenant and Torah were practiced (Israelites entering the Promised Land) How they became a monarchy fall of Davidic monarchy and Jerusalem in 586 BCE Covers about 600 years of history

Latter Prophets
3 Major Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel 12 Minor Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi
Role: Give light on the Law and to remind the people about the Covenant

KETHUBIM
The Writings
Kethubim
from the word kethab, which means to write
Contain the rest of the books. They are books of poetry and wisdom They show the important place of temple worship.

a. b. c. d.

Psalms Proverbs Job Megilloth or scrolls

the PARTS

Song of Songs: 1st month; Feast of the Passover Ruth 3rd month; Feast of Weeks or Pentecost Lamentations 5th month; Feast mourning the destruction of the Temple Ecclesiastes 7th month; Feast of the Tabernacles Esther 12th month; Feast of Purim

e. Daniel f. Ezra-Nehemiah g. Chronicles

thechristianbible
Difference in the number and order of Christian Old Testament are based on the Septuagint text (LXX) in the 3rd century BCE. Greatly influenced by Hellenistic Culture and learning. Greek was their basic language. LXX
72 scholars from Palestine (6 scholars representing each of the 12 tribes of Israel) Septuagint: from the Greek word seventy

THE CANON AND THE


JEWISH BIBLE (24) TORAH (5) Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy PROTESTANT BIBLE (39) PENTATEUCH (5) Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy

OLD TESTAMENT
CATHOLIC AND ORTHODOX (46) PENTATEUCH (5) Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy

JEWISH BIBLE (24)


NEBIIM (8) Former Prophets Joshua, Judges, Samuel & Kings Latter Prophets
Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, The Twelve: Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi

PROTESTANT BIBLE (39)


HISTORICAL BOOKS (12) Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1&2 Samuel, 1&2 Kings, 1&2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther

CATHOLIC AND ORTHODOX (46)


HISTORICAL BOOKS (16)
Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1&2 Samuel (1&2 Kingdoms in Gk), 1&2 Kings (1&2 Kingdoms in Gk), 1&2 Chronicles (1&2 Paralipomenon), Ezra, Nehemiah, Tobit, Judith, Esther, 1&2 Maccabees

JEWISH BIBLE (24)


KETHUBIM (11) Emeth (Truth)
Psalms, Proverbs, Job

PROTESTANT BIBLE (39)


POETRY AND WISDOM (5) Job Job Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon

CATHOLIC AND ORTHODOX (46)


POETRY AND WISDOM (7) Job Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes (Quoheleth), Song of Songs (Canticle of Canticles), Wisdom of Solomon, Sirach (Ecclesiasticus)

Megilloth (Scrolls)
Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther

Daniel Ezra-Nehemiah Chronicles

PROTESTANT BIBLE (39)


PROPHETIC WRITINGS (17) Major Prophets (5) Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, Daniel Minor Prophets (12) Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi

CATHOLIC AND ORTHODOX (46)


PROPHETIC WRITINGS (18) Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Baruch, Ezekiel, Hosea, Amos, Jonah, Nahum, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi, Daniel, Joel, Obadiah, Micah, Habakkuk,

THE CANON OF THE


1. The Jesus Event

NEW TESTAMENT

Three Stages of Gospel Tradition


It all started with an event: the words and deeds of Jesus himself The apostles and disciples of Jesus told stories of the things they remembered about him Many of the stories and sayings were written down and later on edited

2. Apostolic Preaching

3. The Written Gospel

THE CANON OF THE


HEBREW CANON
CANONICAL (authoritative list of the books of the Hebrew bible)

NEW TESTAMENT
CATHOLIC CANON
PROTOCANONICAL (those belonging to a first list of books that were universally accepted)

Law, Prophets, Writings


APOCRYPHA (books not included in the list of inspired writings) DEUTEROCANONICAL (second listing of inspired books) Tobit, Judith, Wisdom, Sirach, Baruch, 1-2 Maccabees, Add. To Esther, Add. To Daniel PSEUDEPIGRAPHA (false writings) APOCRYPHA

THE BIBLICAL

INSPIRATION

inspired by God
English translation of the Greek theopneustos which literally means, God breathed

WHAT IS NOT: - verbal dictation - revelation NATURE: - divine influence on the human writers of the bible

THE BIBLICAL
A. Hebrew

TRANSLATIONS

Masoretes
Heb.: masar to hand down Masoretic what is handed down or traditional

B. Greek

Septuagint text (LXX) Vulgate common


By St. Jerome

C. Latin

TODAYS EXCELLENT TRANSLATIONS


BY THE BIBLE

SCHOLARS

A. The Revised Standard Version/ New Revised Standard Version (1946/1990) B. The New English Version (1961 and 1970) C. The Good News Bible or Todays English Version (1966 and 1976) D. The New Jerusalem Bible (1985) E. The New American Bible (1970) F. The New International Version (1972 and 1979)

THE TYPES OF ENLISH

TRANSLATIONS

A. Formal Correspondence
Word for word (by scholars) Meaning for meaning

B. Dynamic Equivalence

C. Paraphrased Version

END

Prepared by: Cristina G. Tan 10725504 De La Salle University

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picture SOURCES

http://www.kiltmen.com/moses.jpg
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