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Biological Hazards

Upon completion of this module you should be able to: Describe biological and chemical food hazards.

explain the nature of food safety hazards (biological, chemical, physical, and allergens) and factors influencing such as characteristics, symptoms and prevention.

Biological Hazards Pathogens

Pathogens are microorganisms that cause foodborne illness. Pathogens come in three forms: bacteria single-celled organisms that live independently viruses small particles that live and replicate in a host parasites intestinal worms or protozoa that live in a host animal or human.

Bacteria are very resilient microorganisms that are found everywhere. Some examples of where they can live and multiply are: in air, soil, and water in intestines of animals and humans on skins of fruit and vegetables on raw meat, poultry, and seafood on shells of nuts on insects and rodents on hands, skin, hair, and clothing of people.

Single-celled organisms that can live independently.

When the conditions are correct, they can divide and multiply very quickly. To multiply, bacteria need moisture, nutrients, warmth, and time. Moisture and nutrients are found on most foods, so bacterial growth on foods is very common.

Major Food borne Illness caused by Bacteria

Type of Bacteria
Salmonella FBI= Salmonellosis

Symptoms Nausea, vomiting, abdominal Cramps, headache, fever And diarrhea. May cause severe dehydration in infants and elderly. Diarrhea (may be bloody) Abdominal pain, fever, Nausea, cramps, vomiting, Chills, fatigue, dehydration. Fever and diarrhea Especially to those who are not immunized.

Source Water, soil, insects, domestic and wild animals, Poultry and swine. Human intestinal tract, Flies. Also found in Polluted Water by feces. Soil, water, plants, cold damp environments, domestic and wild animals

Food Involved In Outbreaks Poultry products, meat products, fish, shrimp, milk, custard, sauces and Pastry cream. Tofu, sliced melons, tomatoes and raw sprouts. Salads (potato, tuna, shrimp, chicken) Lettuce, raw Vegetables; milk and dairy Products; poultry. Unpasteurized milk and soft Cheeses, raw vegetables; Poultry and meat; seafood Products. Ready to eat foods Such as soft cheese, deli foods and hot dogs.


FBI= Shigellosis
Listeria FBI= Listeria Monocylogenes

Major Food borne Illness caused by Bacteria

Type of Bacteria
Staphylococcus Gastroenteritis FBI= Staphylococcus aurerus Clostridium perfringens FBI= Clostridium Perfringens Gastroenteritis Bacilus Cereus FBI= Bacilus cereus Gastroenteritis

Symptoms Vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, abdominal cramps. Headache, muscle cramps, Changes in blood pressure And pulse rate. Abdominal pain and cramping, diarrhea, nausea, (fever, headache and vomiting) Vomiting and nausea, Sometimes abdominal cramps or diarrhea, watery Diarrhea. nausea

Source Humans, nose, Skin, hair, throat, And infected Sores and Animals Humans and domestic animals (intestinal tracts) and soil. Soil and dust Cereal crops

Food Involved In Outbreaks Reheated or improperly hot Held ready to eat food; meat And meat products; poultry, Egg products and other protein food; sandwiches and dairy products. Meat, meat dishes such as Stew and gravy, poultry, beans that have been temperature abused. Rice products; starchy food (pasta, and cheese products) Food mixtures such as sauces Puddings, soups, casseroles, Pastries,salads, dairy products

Major Food borne Illness caused by Bacteria

Type of Bacteria
Clostridium botulinum FBI= Botulism Campylobacter Jejuni FBI= Campylobac teriosis Shiga Toxin Escherichia Coli

Symptoms Fatigue, weakness, vertigo followed by blurred or Double vision, difficulty Speaking and swallowing, Dry mouth. Diarrhea (watery or bloody) Fever and nausea. Abdominal pain, headache And muscle pain. Diarrhea (watery or bloody) Severe abdominal cramps and pain, vomiting, Mild or no fever; may cause Kidney failure in the very young

Source Present on Almost all food of Either animal or Vegetable origin Soil and water. Poultry and other Animals; Unpasteurized Milk. UnchlorinaTed water Animals; found in The intestinal tracts of cattle and humans; raw unpasteurized milk

Food Involved In Outbreaks Food that was under Processed or temperature Abused in storage, improperly Canned foods. Left over baked Potatoes, meat and poultry. Unpasteurized milk and dairy Products, raw poultry, non Chlorinated or fecal Contaminated water Raw and undercooked ground Beef, unpasteurized milk and Apple cider juice. Improperly Cured dry salami, lettuce, nonChlorinated water.

FBI= Hemorrhagic Colitis

Major Food borne Illness caused by Bacteria

Type of Bacteria
Vibrio parahaemolyticu s FBI= Vibrio Para Haemolyticus Gastroenteritis Vibrio Vulnificus FBI= Vibrio vulnificus Yersiniosis FBI= Yersinia Enterocolitica



Food Involved In Outbreaks Raw or partially cooked Oysters, shellfish, clams and Mussels. Cross contaminated Crabs, lobster, shrimp

Diarrhea, abdominal cramps Crabs, clams, Nausea, vomiting and Oysters, shrimp Headache Lobster and Scallops Fever, chills, nausea, Hypotension, skin lesions May also develop.

Raw oysters, Raw or partially cooked Particularly those oysters. Harvested during Warmer months; Clams and crabs Domestic Animals, soil and water Contaminated pasteurized Milk, raw unpasteurized milk, tofu; non chlorinated water; Meat (pork, beef, lamb) Oysters and Fish.

May be vary by age group, But diarrhea is common; Symptoms may mimic Appendicitis

Smallest microbial contaminants Rely on living cell to reproduce Unlike bacteria they do not reproduce in food. Transmitted from person to person, from people to food and from people to food-contact surfaces. Viruses can be transmitted in water; potable water must, therefore, be used for ice- making or as an ingredient in food. Usually contaminate food through improper food handling.

Major Food borne Illness caused by Virus

Type of Viruses

Symptoms Sudden onset of fever, Fatigue, nauseam loss of Appetite, vomiting, abdominal pain and Jaundice after several days Nausea, vomiting (more common in children) Watery diarrhea with Abdominal cramps and mild Fever Vomiting, watery, diarrhea, Abdominal pain and mild Fever (illness more common in children)

Source Human intestinal Tract; feces Contaminated Water Human Intestinal tract and feces Contaminated Water Human intestinal tract feces Contaminated water

Food Involved In Outbreaks Shellfish; salads, cross Contaminated deli meats and Sandwiches; fruit and fruit Juices. Milk and milk product. Food not heated properly Ready to eat food including Salad; sandwiches and bakery Products. Liquid items such as Dressing and cake icing. Water and ice, raw and ready to eat food such as salads, Fruits and contaminated water

FBI= Hepatitis A


FBI= Norovirus Gastroenteritis Rotavirus

FBI= Rotavirus Gastroenteritis


They are living micro-organisms that need a host to survive. Grow naturally in many animals such as pigs, cats, rodents and fish and can be transmitted to humans. Most are very small, often microscopic but larger than bacteria. Transmit hazards through food and water.

Major Food borne Illness caused by Parasites

Type of Parasites
Trichinella spiralis

Symptoms Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, Fever and fatigue followed By facial swelling and Muscle pain

Source Domestic pigs; Wild game such As bears Marine Fish (salt water Species only)

Food Involved In Outbreaks Raw and undercooked pork or Pork products such as Sausage Raw, undercooked or improperly frozen seafood. Such as salmon and sashimi.

FBI=Trichinosis Anisakis Simplex

Tickling sensation of throat Vomiting or coughing Severe abdominal pain, Vomiting, nausea and FBI= Anisakiasis Diarrhea.
Giardia duodenalis FBI= Giardiasis

Intestinal gas, diarrhea, Abdominal cramps, nausea Weight loss and fatigue

Intestinal tract of Humans, Contaminated water

Contaminated Water and ice Salads and other raw Vegetables washed with Contaminated water.

Major Food borne Illness caused by Parasites

Type of Parasites
Toxoplasma gondii

Symptoms Often no symptoms. But when it occurs includes lymph nodes in head and neck. Severe headache and Muscle pain and rashes. Mild to severe nausea Abdominal cramping Watery diarrehea Onset of symptoms in Sudden; mild to severe Nausea, abdominal Cramping, mild fever, Watery diarrhea

Source Animal feces

Food Involved In Outbreaks Contaminated water; raw or Undercooked meat especially Pork, lamb and poultry.

FBI=Trichinosis Cryptosporidiu m FBI= Intestinal Cryptosporidum Cyclospora cayetanensis

Intestinal tract of Humans,cattle And other Domestic Animal Intestinal tract of humans; Contaminated Water supplies

Water, raw produce, marine Fish, raw milk

Water Marine Fish Raw Milk

FBI= Cyclospora

Range from microscopic to single-celled organisms to very large, multi-cellular organisms. Found in air, soil, plants, water and some food. Example of fungi:
Molds Yeast Mushrooms

A type of fungus that causes food spoilage. Grow under any condition, well in acidic food with low water activity. Freezer temperature prevent or reduce the growth of molds but do not destroy them. Can be killed through heating, some toxins are not destroyed by normal cooking methods.

Known for their ability to spoil food rapidly. Yeast spoilage may therefore produce a smell or taste of alcohol. Yeast may appear as a pink discoloration or slime and may bubble. Similar to molds that they grow well in acidic foods with low water activity such as jams, jellies, syrup, honey and fruit juice.

Types of Biological Toxins

Food borne Intoxication occurs when a person eats food containing toxins. The toxin may have been produced by pathogens found on the food or may be the result of a chemical contamination. These are toxins produced by pathogens, plants or animals. May also occur in animals as a result of their diet.

Seafood Toxins
Ciguatera poisoning illness that occurs when a person eats fish that has consumed ciguatera toxin. This toxin occurs in certain predatory tropical reef fish, such as amberjack, barracuda, grouper and snapper. Scombroid poisoning illness that occurs when a person eats a scombroid fish that has been time-temperature abused. This includes tuna, mackerel, bluefish, skipjack and bonito.

Mushroom Toxins
Foodborne illness associated with mushroom are almost always caused by consumption of wild mushrooms. Cooking or freezing will not destroy toxins produced by toxic wild mushrooms. Mushrooms should be assured purchased from approved suppliers.

Chemical Contamination
Contamination can come from a variety of substances normally found in restaurants and food service establishments. Toxic Metals utensils and equipment that contain toxic metals such as lead, copper, brass, zinc, antimony and cadmium can cause toxic metal poisoning. Use food grade storage containers. Do not use utensils and equipment made of materials that contains lead.

Chemical Contamination
Chemicals and Pesticides cleaning products such as polishes, lubricants and sanitizers can contaminate food if they are improperly used or stored. Follow directions supplied by the manufacturer. Store chemicals away from food, utensils and equipment used for food. Tools used in dispensing chemicals should never be used on food. Label each container
Properly specially if it should Be transferred to a different Container or spray bottle.

Infection and Disease

Infection, often the first step, occurs when bacteria, viruses or other microbes enter your body and begin to multiply. Disease occurs when the cells in your body are damaged as a result of the infection and signs and symptoms of an illness appear. In response to infection, your immune system springs into action. For instance, in fighting off the common cold, your body might react with fever, coughing and sneezing.

Food Poisoning
Infection or intoxication due to consuming food or beverages. Food infectious is the poisoning that occur after consuming food which include harmful bacteria. Food intoxication is the poisoning that occur after consuming food which is contaminated by bacteria origin toxin.

What Are The Symptoms Of Food Poisoning?

Generally food poisonings symptoms start abruptly and arise 30 min. To 72 hours after consuming contaminated food. Together with diarrhea, cramps, fever also arise as a symptom. The species of the bacteria or toxin. The ratio of food contamination. The consumed food amount. Sensitivity of person to the bacteria.

To keep in mind!
improper handling, preparing, and storing of food improper washing of hands and fingernails poor personal hygiene habits of food employees people who may seem well but who carry bacteria that can make other people sick improperly cleaned and sanitized eating and cooking utensils and equipment contamination of food, utensils, and equipment from flies, roaches, and other insects and pests use of foods from unapproved sources

Food Infection

Occurs when germs are present in foods and are allowed to multiply until there is enough of them to cause sickness. Salmonella is caused by a microorganism, which after ingestion, grows in the intestine. The main sources of the food borne salmonella poisonings are humans and other warm-blooded animals. Cooking poultry to 165 degrees F for at least 15 seconds, will eliminate the presence of the salmonella.

Food Intoxication
Occurs when microorganisms that are present in food produce a toxin It is the toxin the causes the illness rather than the actual microorganisms. The only prevention for food poisoning is to keep germs out of food and to keep food stored at the proper temperature. Staphylococcus is the most common type of food intoxication. If the toxin is ingested, within a few hours, severe reactions will occur including nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

Food Intoxication
It may be found on the skin, in the nose, and on the throat of normal people. These germs cause common boils and may be the reason for infected pimples or cuts. Staphylococcal food poisoning can be prevented by careful sanitation methods such as washing hands and cleaning work areas. Foods refrigerated at 41 degrees F and below will prevent staphylococcus germs from multiplying.

Food Intoxication
Foods at risk for staphylococcal food poisoning are: ham salad, chicken salad, tuna salad, sandwiches, meat products, dairy products improperly prepared or stored custard and cream filled baked goods and puddings, creamy salad dressing left out in heat for long periods of time to control is to ensure proper employee hygiene and to minimize exposure to unsafe temperatures.

Food Intoxication
Botulism is the most severe type of food intoxication. It is caused by the consumption of food containing toxins produced by the microorganism, Clostridium botulism. This germ can also grow without air and produces spores. These spores are inactive forms of the microorganism that can withstand extreme temperatures and become active under favorable conditions.

Food Intoxication
Foods containing these spores are very dangerous when ingested. Foods at risk for botulism food poisoning are: home canned goods , significantly damaged canned goods (nonacid foods such as string beans, corn, beets, that are canned or preserved at temperatures not high enough to kill the botulism microorganism) sauted onions, garlic in oil, baked potatoes acidified foods smoked fish and meat

Warding off germs and infection

Hand-washing. Often overlooked, handwashing is one of the easiest and most effective ways to protect yourself from germs and most infections

Warding off germs and infection

Hand-washing. Often overlooked, hand-washing is one of the easiest and most effective ways to protect yourself from germs and most infections Vaccines. Vaccination is your best line of defense for certain diseases. Many vaccines are given in childhood, but adults still need to be routinely vaccinated to prevent some illnesses, such as tetanus and influenza.

Warding off germs and infection

Vaccines. Vaccination is your best line of defense for certain diseases. Many vaccines are given in childhood, but adults still need to be routinely vaccinated to prevent some illnesses, such as tetanus and influenza. Medicines. Some medicines offer short-term protection from particular germs.

Facts! Study results can surprise us! Did you know:

80% of germs are transmitted by hands 30% of people do not wash their hands when leaving a restroom Many people sneeze or cough into their hands however few wash their hands immediately after sneezing into them 80% of people who do wash their hands dont use soap or wash long enough to get rid of germs

Shelf Life

Shelf Life

Food Allergens
Six to seven million Americans have food allergens. Food Allergy is the bodys negative reaction to a particular food protein. Symptoms: Itching in and around the mouth, face or scalp. Tightening feeling of the throat. Wheezing or shortness of breath. Swelling of the face, hands, eyes or feet Gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal cramps, vomiting or diarrhea. Loss of consciousness.

Food Allergens
Employees should be aware of most common food allergens: milk, dairy products, milk, eggs, fish, shellfish, wheat, soy and soy products and peanuts. To help customers with allergies enjoy a safe meal:
Be able to fully describe each the menu items. Specify the ingredients and how the item is being prepared. If you are not sure, encourage to order another menu.

Food Allergens
Make sure all cookware, utensils and table ware are allergen-free to prevent food contamination. Serve menu items as simple as possible. Sauces and garnishes are often source of food allergens. Instead serve this on the side.

The Safe Food Handler

How Food handlers contaminate food?

Have a food borne illness. Show symptoms of gastrointestinal illness (illness relating to the stomach or intestine) Have infected wounds or injuries Live with or is exposed to a person who is ill. Touch anything that may contaminate their hands.

The Safe Food Handler

Actions to avoid includes:
Scratching the scalp Running fingers through hair Wiping or touching the nose Rubbing an ear Touching a pimple or an open sore Wearing a dirty uniform Coughing or sneezing into the hand Spitting in the establishment

The Safe Food Handler

Personal Hygiene program: A. Maintaining personal cleanliness
Proper bathing Hair washing

B. Wearing proper work attire

Clean hat or hair restraint Clean clothing Appropriate shoes Removing jewellery

The Safe Food Handler

Personal Hygiene program: C. Following hygienic hand practices - Hand washing - Hand maintenance - Proper use of gloves

Employees must also avoid unsanitary habits and actions, maintain good health and report any illness or injury.

1. Wet your hands with running water as hot as you can comfortably stand (at least 100F/38C). 2. Apply soap. 3. Scrub hands and arms for at least twenty seconds. 4. Clean under finger nails and between fingers. 5. Rinse thoroughly under running water. 6. Dry hands and arms with a single-use paper towel or warm-air hand dryer.

Foodhandlers must wash their hands before they start work and after the ff:
Using the restroom Handling raw food (before and after) Touching the hair, face or body Sneezing, coughing or using a handkerchief Smoking, eating, drinking or chewing gum Handling chemicals that might affect safety of food. Taking out garbage or trash Clearing tables or busing out dirty dishes Touching clothing or apron Touching anything else that may contaminate hands, Such as unsanitized equipment and work surfaces.

Hand Maintenance
Keep fingernails short and clean. Long fingernails maybe difficult to keep clean. Do not wear false fingernails. Difficult to keep clean and can break off into food. Do not wear nail polish. May flake off into food. Cover all hand cuts and sores with clean bandages.

Policies regarding eating, drinking, chewing gum and tobacco

Saliva can be transferred to the food handlers hands or directly to food being handled. Food handlers must not: smoke, chew gum or tobacco, eat or drink. When : preparing or serving food. In foodpreparation areas. And in areas used to clean utensils and equipment. Report health problems and illness.

Glove Use
Buy the right glove for the task. Long gloves should be use for hand-mixing salads. Colored gloves can also be used to help prevent crosscontamination. Provide a variety of glove size. Gloves that are too big will not stay on the hand and those too small will tear. Focus on safety, durability and cleanliness. Should never be re-used.

Glove Use
Food handlers should change their gloves: As soon as they become soiled or torn. Before beginning a different task. At least every four hours during continual use and more often when necessary. After handling raw meat and before handling cooked or ready to eat food.

Proper Work Attire

Wear a clean hat or other hair restraint. Wear clean clothing daily. Remove aprons when leaving food-preparation areas. Remove jewellery prior to preparing or serving food. Wear appropriate shoes.
Clean, closed-toe shoes with a sensible, non-slip sole.

Policies regarding eating, drinking, chewing gum and tobacco

Food handlers must not smoke, chew gum or tobacco, eat or drink. When preparing or serving food, in food preparation areas and in areas used to clean utensils and equipment. If food must be tasted during preparation, it must be placed in a separate dish and tasted with a clean utensil. Report health problems, illness and injuries.

Managements Role
Responsibilities include: Establishing proper personal hygiene policies Training food handlers on personal hygiene policies Modeling proper behavior for food handlers at all times. Supervising sanitary practices continuously and retraining food handlers Revising policies when laws and regulations change.

Thank you for listening =)