. George Elton Mayo  Psychologist and sociologist  Active Australian Psychology reader  Moved to the United States to participate in the Philadelphia post opportunity.

 Adelaide University  University of Queensland  Pennsylvania University  Harvard Business School  Retirement  British government advisor .

 Human Relations Movement  Authored The human problems of an Industrial Civilization ( 1933)  WWII contributed to the Training Within Industry program for training supervisors .

.Mayo wanted to find out what effect fatigue and monotony had on job productivity and how to control them through various variables such as  Rest breaks  Work hours  Temperatures  Humidity He found a principle of human motivation that would help to revolutionize the theory and practice of management.

    Funded by General Electric Conducted by The National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academy of Sciences with engineers from MIT Measured Light Intensity vs. Worker Output Result – Each change (including decreases) resulted in higher output and reported greater employee satisfaction Conclusions: • Light intensity has no conclusive effect on output • Productivity has a psychological component – Researchers  interaction with the workers influenced higher performance  Concept of “Hawthorne Effect” was created .

• Strong social bonds were created within the test group. Workers are influenced by need for recognition. security and sense of belonging  .The change in the supervisiory arrangement was the major reason for increase in productivity.     Western Electric wanted more information Harvard researchers brought in to analyze the results – Elton Mayo & Fritz Roethlisberger Group of 6 Women – (5) Assemblers and (1) Layout Operator One Observer – Explained every incremental change and recorded results Manipulated factors of production to measure effect on output: • • • • Pay Incentives Length of Work Day & Work Week Use of Rest Periods Company Sponsored Meals   Management Visits / Special Attention Result – Most changes resulted in higher output and reported greater employee satisfaction Conclusions: • Experiments yielded positive effects.

  14 Male Workers Few Special Conditions • • • • Segregated work area No Management Visits Supervision would remain the same Observer would record data only – no interaction with workers     New incentive pay rate was established for the small group Any increases in output would be included in departmental pay incentives Result – No appreciable changes in output Conclusions: • Well established performance norms existed in the group • Informal Social Organization dictated little deviation from established production standards – Systemic Soldiering • Informal Social Organizations protect workers from managers who  Raise production standards  Cut pay rates  Challenge workplace norms .

 The Hawthorne experiment laid the foundation for understanding people’s social and psychological behavior at the workplace .

Project by Name  Ruchita bhaiya  Geetanjali johar  Anamika modi Roll No 09 38 43 .

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