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Hardened Concrete Properties


strength 2000-8000 psi tensile strength 200-800 psi flexural strength compression >> tension since concrete is notch sensitivite

Factors Affecting Strength

Curing conditions, humidity temperature w/c , (inversely related) Abrams law air content, (inversely related), short and long term aggregate characteristics, roughness,grading, minerological. cement type, composition, fineness, type I vs. type III cement content (directly related) Strength porosity relationship mixing water

Strength and Curing

Strength moist cured entire time

in air after 7 days 100%

in air after 3 days in air entire time



Factors Affecting Concrete Strength

Resistance Cracking Internal

to freezing and thawing

Problems Rebar Corrosion

Resistance to freezing and thawing-Major factors

Air Entrainment w/c, low water -cement ratio/ water content volume stability, stiff aggregates with low coefficient of thermal expansion

Air Entrainment

Water gains 9% in volume upon freezing nighttime freezing followed by daytime thawing, approximately 40 cycles per year, average. max of 200 cycles per year. fatigue loading of ice formation within pores Air Entraining Admixture (AEA) Must provide:

Pore size Pore spacing Pore specific surface area

Internal voids

Influence Of Voids

in water content increase the voids in concrete, lowering the durability, watertightness and compressive strength. Good dense concrete requires a sufficient amount of cement to achieve strength, suitable gradation to minimize the void content & proper consolidation to remove air bubbles trapped within the mass. Amount of water should just be enough to guarantee the hydration of all cement grains.


for harmful material to get into concrete sulfates- soils


severe expansion, and deterioration


-deicing salts




Durability-internal problems

reaction excessive sulfates

Effects Of Water-To-Cement Ratio


proper hydration, w/c ratio should be 0.35 The w/c is the ratio between the weight of water and cement in a concrete mix. In practice, w/c 0.55-0.65, for workable concrete Increase in amount of mixing water, while keeping the cement content constant would lead to increase in the void content and the concrete strength drops. Increase water lead to decrease of concrete strength

Effects Of Aggregate

of concrete improves with increase in the fineness modulus of the fine aggregate. A higher number of fineness modulus means a coarser gradation Increase in fineness modulus, the surface area of particles goes up, requiring less mixing water at the same consistency. Decrease in amount of water improves the compressive strength of concrete.

Benefits Of Curing

ripen and grow stronger with age &

curing The strength of properly cured concrete at 1 day after mixing is about 10-15% of its 28 days strength. At 7 days, it is about 50-60 percent.' Improvement in strength of concrete beyond a year is small Increase of water temperature, either at mixing stage or during curing, augments the rate of gain in strength.

Any excess water in the mix (water that doesn't participate in hydration process) hikes the amount of voids that will be filled with air or water depending on moisture content. Increase in voids, diminishes the quality of concrete. A good quality concrete need to be considered on the following aspects during concrete making such as: a) sufficient amount of cement b) well-graded aggregate c) ample compaction d) minimum mixing water.

Larger max. size coarse aggregate with lower water requirement can produce strong concrete. Reduction in w/c ratio improves the strength of concrete. Using larger aggregate without decrease in amount water decreases the compressive strength Strength of concrete could also be affected by the type and size of coarse aggregate. Angular & rough surface texture particles granite aggregates may contribute to an increment in compressive strength of up to 20% compared to concrete made with river gravel at the same w/c ratio.

Rebar corrosion

+ -

Mechanism of corrosion

Corrosion Protection

cover of at least 2 lower w/c denser concrete avoid using chlorides

Strength Durability Water



cement ratio Permeability




deformation with no load applied creep deformation under sustained loading

Load Induced Volume Changes



Tangent modulus

Secant modulus

Econcrete 33


f 'c

unit weight of concrete, lbs / cubic ft

f 'c compressiv e strength , psi

Load Induced Volume Changes



Creep deformation


Creep in Concrete

Creep in Concrete


Consequences of creep

in pre-stress possibility of excessive deflection stressing of non load bearing members







cement required at the minimum water cement ratio, with the maximum strength and durability

Compressive Strength Test

ASTM C39: cylindrical specimen (6 in. by 12 in.)

- For normal-weight concrete: fc range is 21 MPa to 34 MPa (3000 psi to 5000 psi) Compressive strength depends on specimen size - Larger specimens = greater probability for weaker elements, reducing strength - Larger specimens have less variability and better representation of actual concrete How does failure occur? Weakest location of hardened concrete is the interface between cement paste and aggregate

Split Tension Test

Measures the tensile strength on concrete (ASTM C496) Cylinder is subjected to compressive load along vertical diameter at a constant rate until fatigue Failure occurs along vertical diameter due to tension developed in transverse direction Split tension is computed by T = 2p/BLD T = tensile strength, MPa (psi) p= load at failure, N (psi) L = length of specimen, mm (in.) D = diameter of specimen, mm (in.) Tensile strength varies from 2.5 MPa to 31 MPa (360 psi to 450 psi), about 10% of compressive strength

Rebound Hammer Test (Schmidt Hammer Test)

Measures the velocity of an ultrasonic wave passing through the concrete The length between transducers/the travel time = average velocity of wave propagation It is used to detect discontinuities, cracks and internal deterioration in the structure of concrete

. Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Test (ASTM C597)

Non-destructive test performed on hardened concrete - A spring-loaded mass hits the concretes surface - A scale measures how far the mass rebounds - The higher the rebound, the harder the concretes surface, and the greater the concretes strength Use a calibration chart graphs supplied to related the rebound to strength - 10 to 12 reading are performed per specimen The test is used to test the uniformity of the concrete