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Diana Frank

2008 Summer Research Fellowship

Principal Investigator: Dr. Marion Frank


Study Coordinator: Dr. Larry Savoy
Introduction
 Taste Cells
Taste Pore
Microvilli
Gustatory afferent nerve
 Taste Mechanisms
Salty: Na+ passage through Na+ channels
Sour: H+ passage through Na+ channels or
blockage of K+ channels
Sweet: G protein-coupled processes
Bitter: G protein-coupled processes or
blockage of K+ channels
Taste Bud Regions
 CN VII-Facial Nerve
Fungiform: innervated by the Chorda Tympani
(CT) branch
Palate: innervated by the Greater Superficial
Petrosal (GSP) branch
 CN IX- Glossopharyngeal (GL) Nerve
Foliate: innervated by the lingual branch
Circumvallate Papillae: innervated by the lingual
branch
Palate
Foliate
Circumvallate

Fungiform

Diagram of tongue and palate showing regions stimulated in the


Spatial Taste Test. (Figure modified from Bartoshuk [1989]).
Taste Study
 Chlorhexidine
The active ingredient in the prescription
mouthwash, Peridex*, to treat Gingivitus
Affects salty and bitter taste qualities and
intensities
Has a bitter taste
 Why is Chlorhexidine’s effect on taste so
interesting?
Regional Specificity of
Chlorhexidine Effects on Taste
Perception
Grover and Frank, 2008
 Chlorhexidine reduced the intensity of NaCl
at fungiform and palatal area stimulation
sites (CN VII)
 Control intensity ratings were significantly
higher at foliate and circumvallate sites (CN
IX)
 The increased sensitivity of 9th nerve sites
could have affected the results
Hypothesis
 The decrement in NaCl intensity ratings with
CHX rinses would remain larger for CN VII
than CN IX regions
 The decrement in quinine intensity ratings
with CHX rinses would remain equal for CN
VII than CN IX regions
 Lowering the concentrations for CN IX areas
would not produce results different from the
Grover et al study
Materials and Methods
 Subjects: 6 subjects (anticipated), aged 18-
28
 Exclusion Criteria: non-smokers, no history
of taste and smell disorders, and in general
good health
 Consists of a single, 1 hour session
 Subjects are compensated $8
Materials and Methods
2 training trials to familiarize subjects with
taste stimuli and experience rating intensities
using the 0-9 point, fixed interval scale
Training solutions:
○ 0.1M NaCl (Salty), 0.1M Sucrose (Sweet), 3mM
Citric Acid (Sour), Water (Tasteless), and 0.1mM
Quinine (Bitter)
1st trial: solution identity given
2nd trial: subject identifies and rates solution
intensity
Fixed
Interval
Scale

Taste Qualities
Data
Collection
Materials and Methods

 Subject rinses with a rinse and then given a


5 minute break
 Subject is given a diagram of the areas of
the mouth to be tested (show diagram again)
Materials and Methods
 Two testing sessions
Test solutions: CN VII CN IX
NaCl 1M 0.32 M
Quinine 1 mM 0.32 mM
Sucrose 1M 0.32 M

1st session: 3 - 5mL water rinses


2nd session: 3 - 5mL 1.34 mM CHX rinses
Materials and Methods
 Each taste stimulus was
sequentially applied to
the same areas:
fungiform, foliate,
circumvallate, and palate
 Before each solution
was applied, subject was
given directions on how
to present mouth (by
experimenter
demonstration)
Preliminary Results
Preliminary Results

NaCl Quinine Sucrose


Related Article
 Green,B.G. and Schullery, M.T. (2003)
Stimulation of Bitterness by Capsaicin and
Menthol: Differences Between Lingual Areas
Innervated by the Clossopharyngeal and
Chorda Tympani Nerves. Chem. Senses 28:
45-55.
Introduction
 Capsaicin is traditionally used to
desensitize a class of trigeminal nerves
Evokes sensations of heat and acidity-
producing a burning sensation
 Menthol is used as an artificial cooling
agent
 There is minor evidence that capsaicin
and methnol may have gustatory
properties
Hypothesis
 Capsaisin and Menthol would both
stimulate taste via different gustatory
nerves
Methods and Materials
Results
Results
Conclusions
 Capsaicin and menthol produced
moderate bitterness in the circumvallate
region and weak bitterness in the folliate
and fungiform regions
 Sensory irritation from Capsaicin was
rated significantly higher at the fungiform
region
 Menthol coolness was rated higher in
the circumvallate region
Acknowledgements
Marion Frank
Thomas Hettinger
Larry Savoy
Jonathan Ryder
Kelly O’Neil
Lesley Mancini
Tom Kiely
Kathy Salomone
Lisa Burgio