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Stephen Robbins defines motivation as The willingness to exert high level of effort toward goals, conditioned by the efforts ability to satisfy individual need
The Motivation Process

Physiological / Psychological deficiency (NEED)

Individual behaves in a certain manner (DRIVE)

Achieves a particular goal (INCENTIVE)

Drives Incentives

Classification of Motives
Primary Motives
General Motives
The curiosity, manipulation and activity motives The affection motives

Secondary Motives
The power motives The achievement motives > Moderate degree of risk taking > Need for prompt and precise feedback > Satisfaction with accomplishment than material rewards > Total dedication towards the task > The affiliation motive > The security motive > The status motive

The Content Theories of Work Motivation

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
Physiological needs
Self Safety needs actualization (Challenging projects, Love needs needs opportunities for Esteem needs Esteem needs innovation, creativity Self-actualization needs (important projects training) recognition, prestigious office location) Social needs (Good coworkers, peers, superiors, customers) Safety or Security needs (Job security, benefits like Life Insurance, Safety Reg) Physiological Need (Basic pay, workplace, heat, water, company cafeteria)

Herzbergs Two Factor Theory of Motivation

Herzberg asked 200 accountants and engineers two basic questions pertaining their job:
1. 2. When did you feel particularly good about your job what were the incidents to your job that made you feel satisfied? What did you feel exceptionally bad about your job- what were the incidents in your job that made you dissatisfied?

After detail analysis it emerged Job satisfiers were associated with the job content, and job dissatisfiers were related to job context The satisfiers were termed as motivators, while dissatisfiers were termed as hygiene factors While hygiene factors were responsible for preventing dissatisfactions, motivators were essential to keep the employees satisfied Thus, Motivators and Hygiene Factors are two factors in Herzbergs Two Factor Theory

Application of Herzbergs Theory of Motivation in todays world

Application of Hergbergs theory in real life is not an easy task. In order to make employees satisfied and motivated, Hygiene Factors are to be created. Administrative policies of the organization Presence of able supervisors Fair pay Good interpersonal relations Conducive working conditions Once the hygiene factors have been addressed, organization should attempt the motivating factors The work itself Clear achievable goals Appreciation for good work Giving adequate responsibility to employees Career growth

Contribution of Herzbergs theory to work motivation Critical evaluation of Herzbergs theory Alderfers ERG Theory
According to Alderfer, there are three basic groups of core needs: 1. Existence needs These are associated with the survival and physiological well-being of an individual 2. Related needs These needs emphasize the significance of social and inter personal relationships 3. Growth needs These needs are related to persons inner desire for personal growth and development

The relationships between Maslows Hierarchy of needs, Hergbergs Hygiene Theory and Alderfers ERG Theory MASLOW HERGBERG ADLERFER Work itself, achievement Self actualization possibility of growth Growth and fulfillment MF responsibility Advancement,recognition Esteem and Status Status

Belonging & social needs HF Safety and security

Relation with superv. peers, subordinates quality of supervision


Company policy and admn. Job security Working conditions Pay Existence

Physiological needs

The Process Theories of Work Motivation

Vrooms Expectancy Theory of Motivation
Person possessing preference among Among various outcomes Goals and associated outcomes ( Direct & Correlated) 1st level 2nd Level Outcomes Outcomes Action Outcome Outcome 1 1a Outcome 1b 1c Feedback ( modification of preferences) Net valence or values of all outcomes (Satisfaction dissatisfaction Walence = Valence x Instrumentality (Valence denotes the strength of an individuals preference for a particular outcome. Other terms of valence are value, incentive etc) Cont.

Expectancy Motivational force = walence* Expectancy


If the person prefers attaining a particular outcome but do not attain it, then the valence is positive. The valence is said to be zero when the person is not interested about the outcome, and it is negative when the person prefers not attaining it. Instrumentality refers to the degree to which a first-level outcome would help in attaining the desired second level outcome. Instrumentality serves as input for valence.

Vrooms VIE Expectancy Theory

EFFORT EXPECTANCY Belief that if I try hard I can do better PERFORMANCE INSTUMENTALITY Belief that if I do better, I get a better reward OUTCOME VALENCE Value of the outcome to the person vs indifference or aversion M O T I V A T I O N

1. Effort-performance relationship 2. Performance- reward relationship 3. Rewards-personal goals relationship

The Porter-Lawler Model This models hold that performance in an

organization is dependent on three factors: 1. An employee should have the desire to perform, i.e. he must feel motivated to accomplish the task. 2. Motivation alone cannot ensure successful performance of a task. The employee should also have the abilities and skills required to successfully perform the task. 3. The employee should have a clear perception of his role in the organization and an accurate knowledge of the job requirements This will enable him to focus his efforts on accomplishing the assigned tasks

The important variables in the model are: Efforts Performance Rewards Satisfaction

The Porter-Lawyer Motivation Model

8. Perceived Equitable Rewards 4. Abilities & Traits

1. Value of Reward

7a. Intrinsic Rewards 3. Efforts 6. Performance

2. Perceived Effort 5. Role Perception


7b. Extrinsic Rewards

The Contemporary Theory of Motivation

J Stacy Adams propounded the equity theory of Motivation
Equity is represented schematically as: Persons outcomes = Others outcomes Persons inputs Others inputs

Inequity is represented as follows: Persons outcomes < Others outcomes Persons inputs Others inputs OR Persons outcomes > Others outcomes Persons inputs Others inputs The various referent comparisons used by an employee are: Self-inside Self-outside Other-inside Other-outside

If an employee perceives (after comparing his position with that of his referent) that there exists an inequity, he is likely to make as below: Change in inputs Change in outcomes Distort perceptions of self Distort perceptions of others Choose a different referent Leave the field

However, equity theory proposes four methods by which employees overcome perceived inequity 1. When payment is made on an hourly basis and rewards match with their inputs 2. W hen payment is made on piece rate basis, employees produce more quality products 3. When payment is based on an hourly basis, under rewarded employees will restore equity 4. When payment is made on the basis of numbers of units produced, under rewarded employees tend to produce more.