How to Excel AWA, bringing the research simplified to the students of GMAT, GRE & TOEFL

By Satyadhar Joshi shivgan3@yahoo.com http://www.wiziq.com/shivgan_joshi

Contents of Plan
 What is E rater

 How to optimize you score
 Research on the structure of e rater  Basic errors of grammar derived from GMAT

 Minimizing errors using critical reading of your

own essay  Building basic Pre-knowledge  Sample Essays  Conclusion
http://www.ets.org/research/capabilities/automated_scoring www.ets.org/Media/Tests/GRE/pdf/awintro.pdf

Scoring Graph for GRE

http://www.powerscore.com/gre/help/scoringscale.cfm

thus. nevertheless. because. 2. first of all. etc. however. Ordinal numbers that introduce examples or reasons: first. . do. nonetheless. overestimate. except. underestimate. Counter-evidence indicators: actually. overlook. etc. Mood words that indicate the author's position: fail. does. etc. 3. in spite of. exaggerate. etc. third. may. therefore. second. admittedly. despite. might. ignore. misrepresent.Introduction to E-rater (GREGMAT)  It’s a software developed by ETS  It is used to rate Essays  Very sophisticated techniques used The E-rater favors transitional words 1. Transitional words that relate each sentence to other: since. although. even though. 4.

(i) .. the erater never identified my main point). my examples where out of place and the e-rater did not identify any main idea in my essays...Some experts advice that: to use transitional words (ii) to include a topic sentence in every paragraph (iii) that the e-rater is very sensitive to spelling and grammatical mistakes (contrary to the real GRE) and (iv) is not sensitive at all to the intuition of your writing and to the organization of your essay (e. Just I had to take care to give a LENGTHY and free of mistakes essay. Taking all these into consideration I took one more test and guess what.g. 6/6 although my ideas where a little bid stupid.

" more length is better to get a high score from the e-rater (software that ). I have read in a number of places that 300-500 words is a good length.  According to Princeton Review "Cracking the GMAT. Then it will be graded by a human grader who has about 2 minutes to read each essay. which is software that checks your essay for structural keywords and overall organization. However 800score suggests that going on and on will irritate the human grader. .Length  First note that your essay will be graded by an e- rater.

http://www.org/criterion .Criterion (ETS)  The Criterion® Online Writing Evaluation service provides instructors and students with reliable evaluations of English-language essays.ets.  It delivers immediate score reporting and diagnostic feedback that students can use to revise and resubmit their essays.  Instructors can use their own topics or select from the Criterion topic library of more than 400 essay assignments at various skill levels.

pdf .ets. Machine  It does not assess specific content knowledge  ETS Essay-Similarity-Detection Software http://www.org/Media/Tests/GRE/pdf/awintro.Controversial Areas pertaining to Essay  Human vs.

Essay writing has these basic functions  Grammar  Content (Examples related to the essay)  Critical Reasoning  Idioms  Punctuation  Triggering words  Arguments and counter arguments .

ETS says: .

EST further says: .

Evaluating Multiple Aspects of Coherence in Student Essays http://www.aclweb.org/anthology-new/N/N04/N04-1024.pdf .

ets. http://www. and typographical errors. and mechanics errors – agreement errors. and mechanics. wrong word use. verb formation errors.pdf .Exploring the Feedback and Revision Features of Criterion Yigal Attali ETS. identifies the essay’s discourse structure. usage. missing punctuation. NJ Paper presented at the National Council on Measurement in Education Summary  Relation of length to grade  Critique. is comprised of a suite of programs that evaluates and provides feedback for errors in grammar. Princeton. and recognizes undesirable stylistic features  The writing analysis tools identify five main types of grammar.org/Media/Research/pdf/erater_NCME_2004_Attali_B. usage.

ets.pdf .org/Media/Research/pdf/erater_NCME_2004_Attali_B.Types of error http://www.

org/Media/Research/pdf/erater_NCME_2004_Attali_B.Grammar Errors http://www.pdf .ets.

Three main errors in Grammar  Be very careful about fragmented sentences. ’s  Subject Very Agreement  Garbled sentences .  Possessive errors of vs.

Usage Errors in Essay .

Style Errors .

Inappropriate use of words or phases .Devastating errors Below are the ranking of most costly errors which can take your score down: 1. Missing Apostrophe 4. Capital Nouns 6. Repetition of words 3. Garbled sentences 2. Fused Words 5.

Garbled Words  I cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty unesdnatnrd waht I was rdgnieg>The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at > Cmabrigde Uinervtisy. the olny iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. it deosn't mattaer in whaht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are. . The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm.

and a concluding paragraph. . or main point. identification of main points beyond the minimum three would not contribute to the score.Framing of Paragraph  First and last lines are important  Conveying words are important use all of them  Idioms are important  Paragraphs should have sentences of good length  Writing strategy must includes an introductory paragraph. conclusion. at least a three-paragraph body with each paragraph in the body consisting of a pair of main point and supporting idea elements.  Missing elements could include supporting ideas for up to the three expected main points or a missing introduction. On the other hand.

.

Using pre-knowledge  Examples are important  One area of each examples that the E-rater understand .

CAT Priyanka Prakshan .Idioms  Lexicon complexity is an important parameter. use as many good words as possible Book: Chandresh Agrawal.

interjections. clauses. conjunction)  Use of comma with transition words  Helps in avoided choppy sentences Page 508 of Book: Nova’s GRE .Punctuations One of the most important area of Essays  Comma (series. introduction.

Style  Transition  Figurative language  Dictions .

leader in the African American civil rights movement. current Barack Obama  Abraham Lincoln served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. and ended slavery. was an American clergyman. Worked for civil rights in the United States and around the world. Jr. He successfully led the country through the American Civil War.  Martin Luther King. using nonviolent methods .Pre-knowledge on USA  Areas to Quote examples in Essay can be:  American freedom History  George Washington ( the first president of USA).

Brin & Lawrence E.wikipedia.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christopher_Columbu s http://en.org/wiki/Wright_brothers http://en.wikipedia.wikipedia.Scientist  Thomas Alva Edison (American. Page(Google) http://en.org/wiki/Ferdinand_Magellan Charles Darwin . Bulb.wikipedia. camera.         etc) Sergey M.org/wiki/Erwin_Schr%C3%B6di nger http://en.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Newton (English) http://en.

org/wiki/Norman_Rockwell USA .wikipedia.Artists  Michelangelo (Italy)  Pablo Picasso (France)  Leonardo da Vinci (Italy) Painter  http://en.

wikipedia.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vladimir_Lenin  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_Marx  http://en.org/wiki/Mother_Teresa  World is Flat: Thomas Friedman ._Roosevelt  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_D.wikipedia.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mao_Zedong  http://en._Princess_of_W ales  http://en.Politics & Wars  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diana.org/wiki/Soviet_Union  Benito Mussolini (World War 2)  http://en.

org/wiki/Great_Depression  http://en.wikipedia.wikipedia.Economics  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warren_Buffett .wikipedia.org/wiki/Kyoto_Protocol  World Bank and International Monetary Fund  http://en.org/wiki/Chinese_yuan  http://en.

time.wikipedia.org/wiki/People_for_the_Ethica l_Treatment_of_Animals Kyoto Protocol Global Warming & Carbon Tax http://en.Sample Essay Content "Societies should try to save every plant and animal species. and financial well-being.” PETA http://en. regardless of the expense to humans in effort.org/wiki/World_Wide_Fund_for _Nature WWF Framing/ Grammar/ Punctuations / etc will reduce marks      .wikipedia.

―  All planning will help you .GRE Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Topic – 72 (ETS)  "The true value of a civilization is reflected in its artistic creations rather than in its scientific accomplishments.

―  "A nation should require all its students to study the same national curriculum until they enter college rather than allow schools in different parts of the nation to determine which academic courses to offer.‖  "The best ideas arise from a passionate interest in commonplace things.A few of GRE Analytical Writing ISSUES & Essay Topics (source ETS) seriously.net/GRE/awa-samples/gre-awa-essay.―  ―When someone achieves greatness in any field — such as the arts.―  "The most effective way to understand contemporary culture is to analyze the trends of its youth.testpreppractice. science.or her achievements are more important than any of his  "Most societies do not take their greatest thinkers . politics. or business — that person’s http://www. even when they claim to admire them."  "It is more important to allocate money for immediate. existing social problems than to spend it on long-term research that might help future generations.

.More topics  It is necessary for everyone to read poetry.  Academic disciplines have become so specialized in recent years that scholars' ideas reach only a narrow audience. novels. Until scholars can reach a wider audience.  All nations should help support the development of a global university designed to engage students in the process of solving the world's most persistent social problems. their ideas will have little use.  Governments must ensure that their major cities receive the financial support they need in order to thrive. because it is primarily in cities that a nation's cultural traditions are preserved and generated. mythology and other types of imaginative literature.

& Chodorow. In Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Computational Linguistics (pp. Tetreault.    Attali. (2005). J. & Higgins. & Han. J.. August). (2008). & Burstein. Native judgments of non-native usage: Experiments in preposition error detection (PDF). In Proceedings of the Fourth ACL-SIGSEM Workshop on Prepositions (pp. & Chodorow. N-R. Amsterdam. Y. M.Publication Referred  Tetreault. The ups and downs of prepositional error detection in ESL writing (PDF).. Manchester. Sentence similarity measures for essay coherence (PDF). 24-32). In COLING 2008: Proceedings of the workshop on Human Judgements in Computational Linguistics (pp.. (2008. J. M. Tetreault. The Netherlands. Higgins. D. The Netherlands. Prague. 25-30).   Chodorow. Advanced capabilities for evaluating student writing: Detecting off-topic essays without topic-specific training (PDF). Burstein. Detection of grammatical errors involving prepositions (PDF). (2006). 865-872). Exploring the feedback and revision features of Criterion . UK: COLING 2008 Organizing Committee. UK: COLING 2008 Organizing Committee. D.. Manchester. (2007). (2004. M. In Proceedings of the international conference on artificial intelligence in Education. April). J. Tilburg. Czech Republic: Association for Computational Linguistics. J. In Proceedings of the seventh international workshop on computational semantics (IWCS-7)..

Burstein. August). Evaluating multiple aspects of coherence in student essays (PDF). C. C.. Mexico. In S. Chodorow. Toward evaluation of writing style: Finding overly repetitive word use in student essays (PDF). J. Marcu.). M. & Leacock. Detecting errors in English article usage with a maximum entropy classifier trained on a large. Budapest. In Proceedings of the 39th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (pp. (2004). No. Andreyev. (2001. Burstein. Lisbon. C.. Portugal: European Language Resources Association. & Gentile. (2003. Toulouse. Burstein.... ETS RR-01-21). Roukos (Eds. (2001)... (2004). Chodorow. & Chodorow.. (This paper received an AAAI Deployed Application Award. July). & Wolska. Automatic assessment of vocabulary usage without negative evidence (TOEFL® Research Rep. April). C. Acapulco...Publication Referred continued       Han. Hungary. 67. In Proceedings of the 10th conference of the European chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics. Princeton.. Higgins.. NJ: ETS. Towards automatic classification of discourse elements in essays (PDF). J. 185-192). Leacock. Boston. In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation. S. France: Association for Computational Linguistics. N-R. D. D. Marcu. & Chodorow. 98-105). J. D.) Burstein. M. & Leacock. D. Proceedings of the fifteenth annual conference on innovative applications of artificial intelligence. J. Marcu. Criterion: Online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays (PDF). HLT-NAACL 2004: Main Proceedings (pp. diverse corpus (PDF). (2003. MA: Association for Computational Linguistics. & S. M. M. . M. Dumais.

Books  Book: Nova’s GRE  Barron’s GRE .

html .urch.com/forums/gmat-awa/50851-6- 0-my-awa-experience.Resources on internet  http://www.

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