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DENTAL COMPOSITES

Manipulation and Properties


DENT112, UNC School of Dentistry

Stephen C. Bayne
Professor and Chair Department of Cariology, Restorative Sciences, and Endodontics School of Dentistry University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1078
2006, Bayne and Thompson.

MANUFACTURER WEBSITES
Accessing Information
BISCO Caulk Denmat Dentsply DMG Hamburg ESPE GC-America Ivoclar Jeneric-Pentron Jelenko Kerr Dental Kulzer 3M Morita SDI Shofu Sun Medical Ultradent http://www.bisco.com/ http://www.caulk.com/ http://www.dentalmaterial.com/ http://www.dentsply.com/ http://www.dentalmaterial.com/ http://www.espe.de/english/ http://www.gcamerica.com/ http://www.ivoclar.com/ http://www.jeneric.com/ http://www.jelenko.com/ http://www.kerrdental.com/ http://www.kulzer.com/ http://www.mmm.com/dental/ http://www.jmorita.com/ http://www.sdi.com.au/ http://www.shofu.com/ http://www.sunmedical.co.jp/ http://www.ultradent.com/

http:// www.iadr.com/ dmg/

COMPOSITE REFINEMENTS
Reviewing the last 50 years.
Dentin-Bonded Unbonded Composites Composites 3c, 2c, 1c Dentin Bonding System Acid-Etching and Enamel Bonding

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

Original Development

MACROFILL Self-Cured Composites

MICROFILL Composites MIDIFILL Composites

FLOWABLES PACKABLES

NanoHYBRID COMPOSITE
CONTROLLED SHRINKAGE Prototypes

MIDIFILL Composites

Midi-HYBRID Composites

SELF-CURED UV-CURED

Mini-HYBRID Composites

VLC-CURED [QTH, PAC, Laser, LED]

DEFINITION OF COMPOSITE
Phases and Interfaces

INTERFACE INTERFACE
Enamel Surface Unfinished Composite Surface

INTERFACE
Finished Composite Surface

INTERFACE
Etched Enamel Rods Silicate Reinforcing Filler COMPOSITE Crosslinked Resin Matrix

INTERFACE
Voids at Margins

50 v/o filler = 75 w/o filler

CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES
Filler (or Matrix) Classification

70%

30%

TEXTURES

FILLER PARTICLES
Schematic Examples
MEGAFILL MACROFILL MIDIFILL MINIFILL MICROFILL NANOFILL

Different Filler Particle Sizes

Not Shown

Not Shown

HYBRID (MIDIFILL)

HYBRID (MINIFILL)

Mixtures Of Filler Sizes

Heterogeneous MIDIFILL

Heterogeneous MINIFILL

Heterogeneous MICROFILL

Mixtures Of Pre-Cured Pieces of Composite

HOW DO YOU MAKE FILLERS?


Not Shown Not Shown

Crushing, Grinding, Sieving Vapor Phase Condensation Sol-Gel Precipitation

What is all this nano stuff all about?


70% Midi-Hybrid 30%

NANOCOMPOSITES
Mini-Hybrid Nano-Hybrid

MegaFiller

MacroFiller

MidiFiller

MiniFiller

MicroFiller

NanoFiller

100 METERS 100 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-4

10

1 mm

0.1

0.01

0.001 0.0001

10-5

10-6

10-7

10-8

10-9 1 nm

10-10 1

1m

1 dm

1 cm 1 mm

1 mm
Dentinal Tubule Width
IPS Target Bacteria for Wear Resistance Standard Dentistry Reference

Atomic Dimensions

COMMERCIAL EXAMPLES
Historical vs Recent Commercial Products

Second Generation Flowables


Bayne SC, Thompson JY, Swift EJ Jr, Stamatiades P, Wilderson M. A characterization of first-generation flowable composites. J Am Dent Assoc 1998;129:567-577.

Enamel
Composite Dentin Flowable Composite

FLOW BUTTONS
(area calculated in mm2)

Second Generation Flowables


Problems with flow onto bonding systems.
Good Wetting

= 25

Flowable (Company) StarFlow (Danville) Wave (SDI) FlowLine (Kulzer) Heliomolar Flow (Ivoclar) UniFil Flow (GC) Revolution F2 (Kerr) LuxaFlow (DMG)

Flow (mm2) 208 16 a 206 20 ac 197 31 ac 191 13 ac 173 21 ac 159 17 ac 156 6 ac

,
PBNT 31 5 22 4 24 2

,
OSP 22 3 17 6 19 1

,
PLP 40 7 31 3 39 4

Porosity (%)

29

26 2
24 1 23 1 39 4 38 1 38 1 41 5 54 3 51 2

19 1
15 2 34 3 37 5 23 4 35 5 47 7 53 10 35 3

44 1
33 3 61 5 55 3 45 3 52 4 72 4 73 3 58 4 5 5 5 6

Tetric Flow (Ivoclar)


Flow-It ALC (Pentron) MetaFil Flo (Sun Dental) Filtek Flow (3M-ESPE) Point 4 Flowable (Kerr)

156 13 ac
152 10 bc 148 27 b 144 10 b 140 2 b

PACKABLE RESTORATIVES
Available in 2005

SOLITAIRE and SOLITAIRE 2 (Hereaus-Kulzer) A.L.E.R.T. CONDENSABLE (Jeneric-Pentron) SUREFIL (LD Caulk) GLACIER (Southern Dental Industries) PYRAMID (BISCO) PRODIGY CONDENSABLE (Kerr) FILTEK P60 (3M) SYNERGY COMPACT (Coltene / Whaledent) HELIOMOLAR HB (Ivoclar-Vivadent) HI-DENSE CONDENSABLE GI (Shofu) FUJI IX PACKABLE (GC-America)

PACKABLE COMPOSITES
Laboratory Mechanical Properties
300

STRENGTH (MPa)

250 200 150 100 50 0 CS DTS FS DPH MECHANICAL PROPERTY Solitaire ALERT SureFil Prodigy C Herculite

Ruddell DE, Thompson JY, Stamatiades PJ, Ward JC, Bayne SC, Shellard ER. Mechanical properties and wear behavior of condensable composites. J Dent Res 1999; 78 (Spec Issue):156, Abstr 407.

COMPOSITE MANIPULATION
Operative Procedure Considerations

COMPOSITE MANIPULATION
Operative Procedure Considerations

COMPOSITE MANIPULATION
Operative Procedure Considerations

AIR Second increment First increment AIR 1.5 to 2.0 mm

Quartz-Tungsten-Halogen (QTH) , Plasma-Arc (PAC), Lasers, Light-Emitting Diode (LED)

FACTORS AFFECTING CURE


Equipment + Procedural + Restorative Factors
Bulb frosting or degradation Light reflector degradation Optical filter degradation Fiber-optic bundle breakage Light-guide fracture Tip contamination by resin buildup Line voltage inconsistencies Sterilization problems Infection control barriers Light tip direction Access to restoration DISTANCE from surface Size of tip Tip movement TIME of exposure Restoration thickness Cavity design Filler - amount and size Restoration shade Monomer ratios

Curing Equipment Factors

Procedural Factors

Restoration Factors

FACTORS AFFECTING CURE


Equipment + Procedural + Restorative Factors
Bulb frosting or degradation Light reflector degradation Optical filter degradation Fiber-optic bundle breakage Light-guide fracture Tip contamination by resin buildup Line voltage inconsistencies Sterilization problems Infection control barriers Light tip direction Access to restoration DISTANCE from surface Size of tip Tip movement TIME of exposure Restoration thickness Cavity design Filler - amount and size Restoration shade Monomer ratios

Curing Equipment Factors

Procedural Factors

Restoration Factors

INTENSITY

INTRAPULPAL HEAT, GINGIVAL IRRITATION

UV band-pass filter

UV

Visible

CQ

IR band-pass filter

IR

WAVELENGTH (nm)

Power Supply Cycle Timer (Circuit Board) Bulb / Reflector Filter Fan Fiber-Optic Train

Check Fiber Optic Tips

Clean Reflector

Check Bulb and Reflector

LED LIGHTS
Light Emitting Diodes
180-1100 mW/cm2

INTENSITY

Advantages: Matched to CQ peak. Reduced I needed. Easy to clean. Totally quiet; No fan. Small; Handy. No wires.

Visible

CQ

WAVELENGTH (nm)

LED CURING LIGHTS


[Output = LED power; #; focusing]
Visible Light LED: Elipar FreeLight NRG Ultra Lume LED 1 Ultra Lume LED 2 CoolBlue Nova GC e-Light Allegro Elipar FreeLight 2 LEDemetron Ultra-Lume LED 5 the CURE SmartLite iQ Radii Cool Blue Wand Company: 3M ESPE Dentsply/Caulk Ultradent Ultradent Dental Systems Curing Techologies GC America Denmat 3M ESPE Kerr Ultradent Spring Health Products Caulk/Dentsply SDI Milestone Price: $ 999 $ 949 $ 899 ($699) $1299 ($999) $1195 $1495 $1495 ----$1495 --------$ 499 ----$ 695 ----# LEDs: 19 7
First Generation

7 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 1
LOW COST

FINISHING AND POLISHING


Original rough surface

SURFACE ROUGHNESS = Ra Average up-and-down geometry =


20 mm
COARSE finished

2 mm
FINE finished

0.2 mm

Polished

Significant material removal

New surface approximates abrasive size

Fine grooves

Smearing and burnishing to smoothen surface

TWO CRITICAL FACTORS for Finishing and Polishing: (1) Abrasive size (2) Filler particle size

POLYMERIZATION SHRINKAGE
5 65% Conversion 50% Filler 25% Bis-GMA 25% TEGDMA 4

SHRINKAGE (%)

Porosity Formation
15-25% = Gellation
(Internal Contraction)

Bond Stretching
(External Contraction)

1
0 0 25 50

Flow
75 100

CONVERSION (%)

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Curing Light
3. DEPTH-OF-CURE
0 mm 1 2 Z100

65%

3 4 2. SHAPEOF-CURE

45% 25%
1. DEGREE-OFCONVERSION

COMPOSITE WEAR
5 Wear Types: CFA = food bolus wear OCA = impact wear FCA = sliding wear PCA = sliding wear TBA = abrasive wear

1st Premolars 30% 40% 100% BOLUS FOOD 60% 2nd Premolars 1st Molars

2nd Molars

Wilder AD, May KN, Bayne SC, Taylor DF, Leinfelder KF. 17-year clinical evaluation of UV-cured composite resins in posterior teeth. J Dent Res 1996; 75: 173, Abstr 2100.

WEAR (CFA, mm)

300 MACRO PROTECTION 200

R2 = 0.99
ENAMEL

LATE WEAR MIDDLE WEAR

100

MICRO PROTECTION
1 2 5 10 20

EARLY WEAR

TIME (years)
SC Bayne

BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES
Very poorly understood.

???
Degradation by esterase, bleaching, . Generation of formaldehyde and water.

THANK YOU