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UNIT I - HIGH SPEED NETWORKS TOPICS TO BE COVERED PAGE IN TEXT BOOK/REFERENCE Introduction to HSN Frame relay networks Asynchronous transfer mode ATM protocol architecture and ATM logical connection ATM cell,ATM service categories , AAL High speed LANs - Fast ethernet, gigabit Ethernet, Fiber channel Wireless LANs Applications & Requirements Architecture of 802.11 R1(82-88) R1(91-92) R1(92-98) R1(98-117) R1(121-144)

REMARKS

ASSIGNMENT NO:1

7.

R1(144-147)

8.

R1(147-151)

SEMINAR NO:1

TEXT BOOK 1. Jean warland and Pravin Wadaja, HIGH PERFORMANCE COMMUNICATION NETWORKS, 2nd Edition, Jean Harcourt Asia Pvt. Ltd., 2001. REFERENCES 1. William Stallings, High Speed Networks and Internet, 2nd Edition, Pearson Education,2002. 2. Irvan Pepelnjk, Jim Guichard and Jeff Apcar, Mpls and Vpn Architecture, Volume 1 and 2, Cisco Press, 2003

1.INTRODUCTION TO HIGH SPEED NETWORKS

Introduction - Taxonomy
Communication Networks

Circuit -Switched

Packet -Switched

FDM

TDM

Datagram The Internet (TCP/IP)

Virtual Circuit Frame Relay ATM

Circuit-Switching
Historically long-haul telecom networks designed for voice and/or constant bit rate applications Network resources dedicated to one call after circuit setup Shortcomings when used for data:
Inefficient (high idle time) for bursty sources Constant data rate not appropriate for varied endpoint capabilities

Packet-Switching
Historically network technology designed for general data communications Basic technology is the same as in the 1970s One of the few effective technologies for long distance data communications in use today Frame relay and ATM are variants of packet-switching (using virtual circuits) Advantages: Disadvantages:
flexible, resource sharing, robust, responsive Time delays in distributed network, overhead penalties Need for routing and congestion control

Packet-Switching
Data transmitted in short blocks, or packets Packet length typically < 1000 octets Each packet contains user data plus control info (routing) Store and forward

Use of Packets

A Simple Switching Network

Advantages over Circuit-Switching


Greater line efficiency (many packets can go over shared link) Data rate conversions Non-blocking (e.g. no busy signals) under heavy traffic (but increased delays) Each packet can be handled based on a priority scheme

Disadvantages relative to CircuitSwitching node they Packets incur delay with every
pass through
Q * (dprop + dtrans + dqueue + dproc)

Jitter: variation in end-to-end packet delay Data overhead in every packet for routing information, etc More processing overhead for every packet at every node traversed circuit switching has little/no processing at each node

Large are messages broken up into smaller chunks, generically called packets Store and forward packet handling in core Two approaches to switching data:
Datagram
Each packet sent independently of the others No call setup More reliable (can route around failed nodes or congestion)

Switching Technique

Virtual circuit
Fixed route established before any packets sent No need for routing decision for each packet at each node

Packet Switching: Datagram Approach


Advantages: No call setup Flexible routes Reliability

Packet Switching: Virtual-Circuit Approach


Advantages: Network services sequencing error control Performance

Routing
Key function of any packet-switched network: forwarding packets to a destination Adaptive routing, routes are adjusted based on:
Node/trunk failure Congestion

Nodes (routers/switches) must exchange information about the state of the network

The Use of Virtual Circuits


Virtual end-to-end circuits

standard Motivates discussion of frame relay and ATM design X.25 defines 3 levels of functionality

X.25 network interface First commercial packet switched

L1 - Physical level (X.21, EIA-232, etc.): physical connection of a station to the link L2 - Link/frame level (LAPB, a subset of HDLC): logical, reliable transfer of data over the physical link L3 - Packet level: network layer, provides virtual circuit service to support logical connections between two subscriber stations (multiplexing)

User Data and X.25 Protocol Control Information

Virtual circuit id# Sequence #s


3 bytes 128 bytes

Flags, address, control, FCS Link layer framing Reliable physical transfer

Call control packets

X.25 Features
Processing Overhead (tproc) at each node! RESULT: 64kbps Max. data rate

set up and tear down virtual circuits use same channel and VC as data packets

Multiplexing of VCs at layer 3 Layers 3 (packet) and 2 (frame) both include extensive flow control and error control mechanisms

2.FRAME RELAY NETWORKS

Frame Relay Networks


Most widely deployed WAN link-layer protocol in use today Designed to eliminate much of the processing overhead in X.25 Designed to support bandwidth on demand for modern, bursty applications Throughput is an order of magnitude higher than X.25 ITU-T Recommendation I.233 indicates effective rates of frame relay of up to 2 Mbps, but current practice is much higher (up to T-3 equivalent, or 44.376 Mbps)

Frame Relay Networks


Important Improvement over X.25: Call control signaling is on a separate logical connection from user data Multiplexing/switching of logical connections is at layer 2 (not layer 3) No hop-by-hop flow control and error control; responsibility of higher layers Frames sizes can vary (up to 9000 bytes), supporting all current LAN frame sizes Direct support for TCP/IP packets, since no network layer redundancy

Comparison of X.25 and Frame Relay Protocol Stacks

Virtual Circuits and Frame Relay Virtual Connections

(a) X.25 Packet Switching

X.25 Packet-Switching network

(b) Frame Relay

Frame Relay network

Frame Relay Architecture


X.25 has 3 layers: physical, link, network Frame Relay has 2 layers: physical and data link (or LAPF) LAPF core: minimal data link control
Preservation of order for frames Small probability of frame loss

LAPF Core
Frame delimiting, alignment and transparency Frame multiplexing/demultiplexing Inspection of frame for length constraints Detection of transmission errors Congestion control

LAPF-core Formats

User Data Transfer Frame


No connection control fields, which are normally used for:
Identifying frame type (data or control) Sequence numbers, used for error/flow control

Implication:
Connection setup/teardown carried on separate channel No flow and error control, must be handled by higher layer in protocol stack

Frame Relay Call Control


Frame Relay Call Control
Details of call control depend on the context of its use Assumes FR over ISDN Generally simpler for point-to-point use

Data transfer involves:


Establish logical connection and assign a unique DLCI Exchange data frames Release logical connection

Frame Relay Call Control


4 message types needed SETUPrequest link establishment CONNECTreply to SETUP with connection accepted RELEASErequest to clear (tear down) a connection RELEASE COMPLETE reply to SETUP with connection denied, or response to RELEASE

3.ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSFER MODE(ATM)

Introduction
ATM Protocol Architecture Logical connections ATM cell structure Service levels/categories ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL)

Introduction
ATM evolved from B-ISDN development efforts
Frame Relay: high-speed WAN (1.5+ Mbps) ATM: very high speed WAN (155 Mbps and 622Mbps)

ATM, like Frame Relay, was built on the assumption that the underlying physical media was reliable and flexible
minimal error and flow control capabilities even more streamlined, therefore faster, than Frame Relay

Specifications developed by ITU-T and ATM Forum

ATM Protocol Architecture


Fixed-size packets called cells
cell switching like packet switching

2 primary protocol layers relate to ATM functions:


Common layer providing packet transfers, logical connections (ATM) Service dependent ATM adaptation layer (AAL)

AAL maps other protocols to ATM


like IP (AAL5)

Protocol Model has 3 planes


User provides for user information transfer and associated controls (flow control, congestion control) Control performs call control and connection control functions (signaling) Management provides plane management and layer management and coordination functions

ATM Protocol Reference Model

Map data to the ATM cell structure Framing, cell structure & Logical Connections Various data rates (155.52 Mbps, 622.08 Mbps) over various physical media types (Fiber Optic, SONET, UTP, etc.)

User Plane Layers


User information User information
AAL ATM PHY ATM PHY ATM PHY AAL ATM PHY

End system Network End system

User Plane Layers


User information User information

Logical Connections
VCC (Virtual Channel Connection): a logical connection analogous to a virtual circuit in X.25, or Frame Relay data link connection
full-duplex flow between end users user-network control signaling network-network management/routing

VPC (Virtual Path Connection): a bundle of VCCs with the same end points (not necessarily same end-users)
and switched along the same path

ATM Connection Relationships

Virtual Channel: basic logical communications channel Virtual Path: groups of common virtual channels Physical Transmission Path: physical communications link

Exchange between end users


user data control signaling (more later)

VCC (logical connection) Uses

Exchange between an end user and a network entity


control signaling (more later)

Exchange between 2 network entities


traffic management routing functions

Advantages of Virtual Paths


Simplified network architecture allows separation of
functionality into into individual logical connections and related groups of logical connections

Increased network performance and reliability


network consists of fewer aggregated entities

Reduced processing and short connection setup time complex setup tasks are in virtual paths, simplifies setup
of new virtual channels over existing virtual path

Enhanced network services supports user-specified


closed groups/networks of VC bundles

Virtual Path/Virtual Channel Terminology


Virtual Channel (VC) A generic term used to describe unidirectional transport of cells associated by a common unique identifier Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI) A unique numerical tag for a particular VC link Virtual Channel Link A means of unidirectional transport of cells between the point where a VCI is assigned and where it is translated or terminated Virtual Channel Connection (VCC) A concatenation of VC links that extends between two connected ATM end-points

Virtual Path/Virtual Channel Terminology


Virtual Path Virtual Path Identifier Virtual Path Link (VP) A generic term which describes unidirectional transfer of cells that are associated with a common unique identifier (VPI) Identifies a particular VP A group of VC links identified by a common identifier between the point where the identifier (VPI) is assigned and where it is translated or terminated (VPC) A concatenation of VP links that extends between ATM end-points where the VCIs are assigned and where they are translated or terminated

Virtual Path Connection

ATM Connection Relationships

VPC/VCC Characteristics
Quality of Service (QoS) Switched and semi-permanent virtual channel connections Cell sequence integrity Traffic parameter negotiation and usage monitoring
average rate, peak rate, burstiness, peak duration, etc.

(VPC only) virtual channel identifier restriction within a VPC

Call Establishment with Virtual Paths

ATM Signaling
Private UNI

X
Q-2931

X
PNNI

Private NNI

UN ic bl Pu

Public ATM network A

Private ATM network

X
PNNI

NNI Public UNI

X
B-ICI Public ATM network B

X
PNNI

Public UNI
Q-2931

Control Signaling
A mechanism to establish and release VPCs and VCCs (per ITU-T Rec. I.150) 4 methods for VCCs:

Semi-permanent VCC: no control signaling required Meta-signaling channel: permanent, low data rate channel for setting up signaling channels User-to-network signaling virtual channel: set up between user and network User-to-user signaling virtual channel: set up between users within a VPC, allowing users to set up and tear down VCCs, without network intervention

Control Signaling
3 methods for VPCs
Semi-permanent: no control signaling required Customer controlled: customer uses a signaling VCC to request VPC from the network Network controlled: Network establishes VPC for its own control and signaling use

ATM Cells
Fixed size
5-octet header 48-octet information field

Small cells may reduce queuing delay for high-priority cells (essential for low delay) Fixed size facilitates more efficient switching in hardware (essential for very high data rates)

ATM Cell Format

Header Format
Generic flow control (more ->) Virtual path identifier (VPI) Virtual channel identifier (VCI) Payload type (3 bits: identifies cell as user data or network management cell, presence of congestion, SDU type) Cell loss priority (0: high; 1: low) Header error control (more ->)

Control traffic flow at user to network interface (UNI) to alleviate short term overload Two sets of procedures
Uncontrolled transmission Controlled transmission

Generic Flow Control (GFC)

Every connection either subject to flow control or not Subject to flow control
May be one group (A) default May be two groups (A and B)

Flow control is from subscriber to network


Controlled by network side

Single Group of Connections (1)


Terminal equipment (TE) initializes two variables
TRANSMIT flag to 1 GO_CNTR (credit counter) to 0

If TRANSMIT=1 cells on uncontrolled connection may be sent any time If TRANSMIT=0 no cells may be sent (on controlled or uncontrolled connections) If HALT received, TRANSMIT set to 0 and remains until NO_HALT

If TRANSMIT=1 and no cell to transmit on any uncontrolled connection:


If GO_CNTR>0, TE may send cell on controlled connection
Cell marked as being on controlled connection GO_CNTR decremented

Single Group of Connections (2)

If GO_CNTR=0, TE may not send on controlled connection

TE sets GO_CNTR to GO_VALUE upon receiving SET signal


Null signal has no effect

Generic Flow Control (GFC) Field Coding

Header Error Control


8-bit field - calculated based on the other 32 bits in the header
CRC based on x8 + x2 + x + 1 generator is 100000111 ->

error detection in some cases, error correction of single-bit errors in header 2 modes:
Error detection Error correction

HEC Operation at Receiver

Based on recognition of fact that bit errors occur in bursts.

Effect of Error in Cell Header

Impact of Random Bit Errors on HEC Performance

Use of HALT
To limit effective data rate on ATM Should be cyclic To reduce data rate by half, HALT issued to be in effect 50% of time Done on regular pattern over lifetime of connection

ATM Service Categories


Real-time service
Constant bit rate (CBR) Real-time variable bit rate (rt-VBR)

Non-real-time service
Non-real-time variable bit rate (nrt-VBR) Available bit rate (ABR) Unspecified bit rate (UBR) Guaranteed frame rate (GFR)

ATM SERVICE CATEGORIES


Class CBR RT-VBR Description Constant Bit Rate Example T1 circuit

Real Time Variable Bit Rate Real-time videoconferencing Multimedia email Browsing the Web Background file transfer

NRT-VBR Non-real-time Variable Bit Rate ABR UBR Available Bit Rate Unspecified Bit Rate

Real Time Services


Amount of delay Variation of delay (jitter)

CBR
Fixed data rate continuously available Tight upper bound on delay Uncompressed audio and video
Video conferencing Interactive audio A/V distribution and retrieval

rt-VBR
Time sensitive application
Tightly constrained delay and delay variation

rt-VBR applications transmit at a rate that varies with time e.g. compressed video
Produces varying sized image frames Original (uncompressed) frame rate constant So compressed data rate varies

Can statistically multiplex connections

nrt-VBR
May be able to characterize expected traffic flow Improve QoS in loss and delay End system specifies:
Peak cell rate Sustainable or average rate Measure of how bursty traffic is

e.g. Airline reservations, banking transactions

May be additional capacity over and above that used by CBR and VBR traffic
Not all resources dedicated Bursty nature of VBR

UBR

For application that can tolerate some cell loss or variable delays
e.g. TCP based traffic

Cells forwarded on FIFO basis Best efforts service

ABR
Application specifies peak cell rate (PCR) and minimum cell rate (MCR) Resources allocated to give at least MCR Spare capacity shared among all ARB sources e.g. LAN interconnection

Designed to support IP backbone sub networks Better service than UBR for frame based traffic
Including IP and Ethernet

Guaranteed Frame Rate (GFR)

Optimize handling of frame based traffic passing from LAN through router to ATM backbone
Used by enterprise, carrier and ISP networks Consolidation and extension of IP over WAN

ABR difficult to implement between routers over ATM network GFR better alternative for traffic originating on Ethernet
Network aware of frame/packet boundaries When congested, all cells from frame discarded Guaranteed minimum capacity Additional frames carried of not congested

ATM Bit Rate Service Levels

AAL

ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL)


Support higher-level protocols and/or native applications
e.g., PCM voice, LAPF, IP

AAL Services
Handle transmission errors Segmentation/reassembly (SAR) Handle lost and misinserted cell conditions Flow control and timing control

Voice

ATM Adaptation Layers


A/D AAL

s1 , s2
Digital voice samples

cells

Video
A/D

picture frames

Compression compressed frames

AAL cells

Data
Bursty variable-length packets
Copyright 2000 The McGraw Hill Companies

AAL

cells

Leon-Garcia & Widjaja: Communication Networks

Figure 9.3

ATM ADAPTATION LAYER (AAL)


The ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) provides support for higher-layer services such as signaling, circuit emulation, voice, and video. AALs also support packet-based services, such as IP, LANs, and Frame Relay Specifically, the AAL receives packets from upperlevel protocols and breaks them into the 48-byte segments that form the payload field of an ATM cell. AALprotocol model consists of a Segmentation and Reassembly (SAR) sublayer and Convergence Sublayers (CPCS and SSCS). Convergence Sublayers further subdivided as Common part & Service Specific

AAL layer has 2 sublayers:


Convergence Sublayer (CS)

AAL Protocols

Supports specific applications/protocols using AAL Users attach via the Service Access Point (like a port number) Common part (CPCS) and application servicespecific part (SSCS)

Segmentation and Reassembly Sublayer (SAR)


Packages data from CS into ATM cells and unpacks at other end

AAL

ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL)

AAL Types

Applications of AAL and ATM


Circuit emulation (e.g., T-1 synchronous TDM circuits) VBR voice and video General data services IP over ATM Multiprotocol encapsulation over ATM (MPOA) LAN emulation (LANE)

AAL Protocol and Services

Basis for classification: requirement for a timing relationship between source and destination requirement for a constant bit rate data flow connection or connectionless transfer

AAL Protocols and PDUs

AAL Protocol Descriptions

C lass A
T ing im R elatio n betw een so urce & destinatio n

Service Classes and AAL types


C lass B R u eq ired

C lass C

C lass D

N tR u o eq ired

B R it ate

Cn o stan t C n ectio O ted on n rien A L1 A A L2 A

V ariab le C n ectio on n less A L3 A / 4 5 , A L3 4 A /

C n ectio on n Md oe A L T es A yp

AAL Type 1
Constant-bit-rate source SAR simply packs bits into cells and unpacks them at destination One-octet header contains 3-bit SC field to provide an 8-cell frame structure No CS PDU structure is defined since CS sublayer primarily for clocking and synchronization

AAL 1
AAL1, a connection-oriented service, is suitable for handling constant bit rate sources (CBR), such as voice and videoconferencing. The sequence number field (SN) and sequence number protection (SNP) fields provide the information that the receiving AAL1 needs to verify that it has received the cells in the correct order. The rest of the payload field is filled with enough single bytes to equal 48 bytes. AAL1 requires timing synchronization between the source and destination and, for that reason, depends on a media that supports clocking, such as SONET. The standards for supporting clock recovery are currently being defined.

AAL 1

Structured mode AAL1 SAR and CS

AAL Type 1

AAL 1
Higher layer User data stream

b1

b2

b3

Convergence sublayer

CS PDUs
47 47 47

SAR PDUs SAR sublayer


H H H

1 47

1 47

1 47

ATM layer

ATM Cells
48

48

48

Copyright 2000 The McGraw Hill Companies

Leon-Garcia & Widjaja: Communication Networks

Figure 9.10

Intended

for use with applications with variable bit-rate service on multiple channels (multiplexing), or low bit rate, short-frame traffic

AAL Type 2

AAL Type 3/4


Intended for variable bit rate applications that generate bursty data and demand low loss Originally, connectionless (AAL4) or connection (AAL3) oriented, now combined into single format (AAL 3/4) Provides comprehensive sequencing and error control mechanisms

AAL 2
Designed to support Variable Bit Rate (Bandwidth on Demand) Provides for partial payloads to support low rate data Error protection over full PDU Simple flag to indicate position in message Also AAL 2 was designed to multiplex a number of such low variable bit rate data streams on to a single ATM connection.

AAL2 Operation
CPS packet

Channel identifier (CID): CPS can multiplex several streams onto a single ATM connection. The CID identifies each channel. CID values are allocated as follows: the 0 value is used as padding, and the 8 to 255 values are valid CID values used to identify channels. Length indicator (LI): Its value is one less than the number of bytes in the CPSpacket payload. The default maximum length of the CPS-packet payload is 45 bytes. Header error control (HEC): It use the pattern x5 + x2 + 1. The receiver uses the contents of the HEC to detect errors in the header. User-to-user-indication (UUI): used for transferring information between the peer CPS users. The CPS transports this information transparently.

CPS packet

AAL2 Operation
(CPS) PDU format

CPS-PDU
Parity (P): A 1-bit field used to detect errors in the STF. Sequence numbers (SN): A 1-bit field used to number modulo 2 the successive CPSPDUs. Offset field (OSF): The CPS-PDU payload can carry CPS packets in a variety of different arrangements. To extract the CPS-packets from the CPS-PDU payload, a 6-bit offset field (OSF) is used to indicate the start of a new CPS-packet in the CPS-PDU payload. Specifically, OSF gives the number of bytes between the end of the STF and the start of the first CPS-packet in the CPS-PDU payload.

AAL2 Operation

AAL 3/4
AAL3/4 supports both connection-oriented and connectionless data. It was designed for network service providers and is closely aligned with Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS). AAL3/4 is used to transmit SMDS packets over an ATM network. Originally 2 separate AALs:

AAL3: Connection-oriented packet svcs (X.25) AAL4: Connectionless svcs (IP) Eventually combined into a single type for all data service

AAL3/4 CS PDU

AAL3/4 SAR PDU

AAL3/4 Operation

AAL 3/4

AAL 3/4
Higher layer Service specific convergence sublayer Common part convergence sublayer
H
4

Information

User message

Assume null

Information

PAD

T
4

Pad message to multiple of 4 bytes. Add header and trailer.

SAR sublayer

2 44 2

2 44 2

2 44 2

Each SAR-PDU consists of 2-byte header, 2-byte trailer, and 44-byte payload.

ATM layer
Copyright 2000 The McGraw Hill Companies

Figure 9.15 Leon-Garcia & Widjaja: Communication Networks

AAL Type 5
Streamlined transport for connection oriented protocols
Reduce protocol processing overhead Reduce transmission overhead Ensure adaptability to existing transport protocols primary function is segmentation and reassembly of higher-level PDUs

AAL 5 is used for the transfer of data. Due to its simplicity, it is the most popular adaptation layer. AAL5 is a Simple Efficient Adaptation Layer (SEAL). The Common Part (CP) AAL5 supports Variable Bit Rate (VBR) traffic, both connectionoriented and connectionless. It is used to transfer most non-SMDS data, such as classical IP over ATM and LAN Emulation (LANE). Efficiency: AAL3/4: 4 bytes per message + 4 bytes per cell => 44 User Data Bytes / Cell AAL5: 8 bytes per message => 48 User Data Bytes / Cell, 8% improvement

AAL5

AAL5 CS PDU

AAL5 CS PDU
Padding (Pad): It can be between 0 and 47 bytes long, and is added so that the entire CPS-PDU including the padding and the remaining fields in the trailer becomes an integer multiple of 48 bytes. CPS user-to-user indication (CPS-UU): A 1-byte field used to transfer transparently CPS user-to-user information. Common part indicator (CPI): A 1-byte field to support future AAL 5 functions. Length: A 2-byte field used to indicate the length in bytes of the CPSPDU payload . CRC-32: This 4-byte field contains the FCS calculated by the transmitting CPS over the entire contents of the CPS-PDU The pattern used is: x32 + x26 + x23 + x22 + x16 + x12 + x11 + x10 + x8 + x7 + x5 + x4 + x2 + x + 1.

AAL5 SAR
Simply breaks CS PDU into 48-byte chunks and passes them to ATM Layer. No overhead bytes added.

AAL5 Operation

AAL5

AAL 5
Higher layer Service specific convergence sublayer Common part convergence sublayer
Information
PAD

Information

Assume null
T

SAR sublayer

48 (0) 48 (0) 48 (1)


Figure 9.18

ATM layer
PTI = 0 PTI = 0

PTI = 1

Copyright 2000 The McGraw Hill Companies

Leon-Garcia & Widjaja: Communication Networks

ATM Adaptation LayerAAL


ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) ATM Layer
PBX

AAL C S S A R

Physical Layer

AAL = CS + SAR
CScell tax SARcell <-> packet

AAL Cell Tax


AAL-1 Cell Tax
5 Byte Header 47 Byte Payload

AAL-2 Cell Tax


5 Byte Header 147 Byte Payload

1 Byte

148 Bytes

AAL-3/4 Cell Tax


5 Byte Header 44 Byte Payload 4 Bytes

AAL-5 Cell Tax


5 Byte Header 48 Byte Payload

no tax

HIGH SPEED LAN


Range of technologies
Fast and Gigabit Ethernet Fibre Channel High Speed Wireless LANs

Why High Speed LANs?


Office LANs used to provide basic connectivity
Connecting PCs and terminals to mainframes and midrange systems that ran corporate applications Providing workgroup connectivity at departmental level Traffic patterns light
Emphasis on file transfer and electronic mail

Speed and power of PCs has risen


Graphics-intensive applications and GUIs

MIS organizations recognize LANs as essential


Began with client/server computing
Now dominant architecture in business environment Intranetworks Frequent transfer of large volumes of data

Centralized server farms User needs to draw huge amounts of data from multiple centralized servers E.g. Color publishing Servers contain tens of gigabytes of image data Downloaded to imaging workstations Power workgroups Small number of cooperating users Draw massive data files across network E.g. Software development group testing new software version or computer-aided design (CAD) running simulations High-speed local backbone Processing demand grows LANs proliferate at site High-speed interconnection is necessary

Applications Requiring High Speed LANs

Classical Ethernet
Bus topology LAN 10 Mbps 2 problems:
A transmission from any station can be received by all stations How to regulate transmission

Solution to First Problem


Data transmitted in blocks called frames:
User data Frame header containing unique address of destination station

Figure 6.1

CSMA/CD
Carrier Sense Multiple Access/ Carrier Detection

1. If the medium is idle, transmit. 2. If the medium is busy, continue to listen until the channel is idle, then transmit immediately. 3. If a collision is detected during transmission, immediately cease transmitting. 4. After a collision, wait a random amount of time, then attempt to transmit again (repeat from step 1).

Figure 6.2

Figure 6.3

Medium Options at 10Mbps


<data rate> <signaling method> <max length> 10Base5
10 Mbps 50-ohm coaxial cable bus Maximum segment length 500 meters

10Base-T
Twisted pair, maximum length 100 meters Star topology (hub or multipoint repeater at central point)

10Mbps Specification (Ethernet)


10BASE5 Transmission medium Signaling technique Topology Coaxial cable (50 ohm) Baseband (Manchester) Bus 10BASE2 Coaxial cable (50 ohm) Baseband (Manchester) Bus 185 30 5 10BASE-T Unshielded twisted pair Baseband (Manchester) Star 100 0.4 to 0.6 10BASE-FP 850-nm optical fiber pair Manchester/on-off Star 500 33 62.5/125 m

Maximum segment 500 length (m) Nodes per segment 100 Cable diameter (mm) 10

100Mbps Fast Ethernet


Use IEEE 802.3 MAC protocol and frame format 100BASE-X use physical medium specifications from FDDI
Two physical links between nodes
Transmission and reception

100BASE-TX uses STP or Cat. 5 UTP


May require new cable

100BASE-FX uses optical fiber 100BASE-T4 can use Cat. 3, voice-grade UTP
Uses four twisted-pair lines between nodes Data transmission uses three pairs in one direction at a time

Star-wire topology
Similar to 10BASE-T

100Mbps Fast Ethernet


100BASE-TX Transmission medium Signaling technique Data rate Maximum segment length Network span 2 pair, STP MLT-3 100 Mbps 100 m 200 m 2 pair, Category 5 UTP MLT-3 100 Mbps 100 m 200 m 100BASE-FX 2 optical fibers 4B5B, NRZI 100 Mbps 100 m 400 m 100BASE-T4 4 pair, Category 3, 4, or 5 UTP 8B6T, NRZ 100 Mbps 100 m 200 m

uses a unidirectional data rate 100 Mbps over single twisted pair or optical fiber link encoding scheme same as FDDI
4B/5B-NRZI

100BASE-X

two physical medium specifications


100BASE-TX
uses two pairs of twisted-pair cable for tx & rx STP and Category 5 UTP allowed MTL-3 signaling scheme is used

100BASE-FX
uses two optical fiber cables for tx & rx convert 4B/5B-NRZI code group into optical signals

100-Mbps over lower-quality Cat 3 UTP


takes advantage of large installed base does not transmit continuous signal between packets useful in battery-powered applications

100BASE-T4

can not get 100 Mbps on single twisted pair


so data stream split into three separate streams four twisted pairs used data transmitted and received using three pairs two pairs configured for bidirectional transmission

use ternary signaling scheme (8B6T)

100BASE-X Data Rate and Encoding


Unidirectional data rate 100 Mbps over single link
Single twisted pair, single optical fiber

Encoding scheme same as FDDI


4B/5B-NRZI Modified for each option

Two physical medium specifications 100BASE-TX


100BASE-X Media

Two pairs of twisted-pair cable One pair for transmission and one for reception STP and Category 5 UTP allowed The MTL-3 signaling scheme is used

100BASE-FX
Two optical fiber cables One for transmission and one for reception Intensity modulation used to convert 4B/5B-NRZI code group stream into optical signals 1 represented by pulse of light 0 by either absence of pulse or very low intensity pulse

100-Mbps over lower-quality Cat 3 UTP


Taking advantage of large installed base Cat 5 optional Does not transmit continuous signal between packets Useful in battery-powered applications

100BASE-T4

Can not get 100 Mbps on single twisted pair


Data stream split into three separate streams
Each with an effective data rate of 33.33 Mbps

Four twisted pairs used Data transmitted and received using three pairs Two pairs configured for bidirectional transmission

NRZ encoding not used


Would require signaling rate of 33 Mbps on each pair Does not provide synchronization Ternary signaling scheme (8B6T)

100BASE-T Options

Full Duplex Operation


Traditional Ethernet half duplex
Either transmit or receive but not both simultaneously

With full-duplex, station can transmit and receive simultaneously 100-Mbps Ethernet in full-duplex mode, theoretical transfer rate 200 Mbps Attached stations must have full-duplex adapter cards Must use switching hub
Each station constitutes separate collision domain In fact, no collisions CSMA/CD algorithm no longer needed 802.3 MAC frame format used Attached stations can continue CSMA/CD

Mixed Configurations
Fast Ethernet supports mixture of existing 10-Mbps LANs and newer 100-Mbps LANs E.g. 100-Mbps backbone LAN to support 10-Mbps hubs
Stations attach to 10-Mbps hubs using 10BASE-T Hubs connected to switching hubs using 100BASE-T
Support 10-Mbps and 100-Mbps

High-capacity workstations and servers attach directly to 10/100 switches Switches connected to 100-Mbps hubs using 100-Mbps links 100-Mbps hubs provide building backbone
Connected to router providing connection to WAN

Gigabit Ethernet Configuration

Gigabit Ethernet Physical


1000Base-SX
Short wavelength, multimode fiber

1000Base-LX
Long wavelength, Multi or single mode fiber

1000Base-CX
Copper jumpers <25m, shielded twisted pair

1000Base-T
4 pairs, cat 5 UTP

Signaling - 8B/10B

Gbit Ethernet Medium Options (log scale)

10Gbps Ethernet - Uses


High-speed, local backbone interconnection between largecapacity switches Server farm Campus wide connectivity Enables Internet service providers (ISPs) and network service providers (NSPs) to create very high-speed links at very low cost Allows construction of (MANs) and WANs
Connect geographically dispersed LANs between campuses or points of presence (PoPs)

Ethernet competes with ATM and other WAN technologies 10-Gbps Ethernet provides substantial value over ATM

10Gbps Ethernet - Advantages


No expensive, bandwidth-consuming conversion between Ethernet packets and ATM cells Network is Ethernet, end to end IP and Ethernet together offers QoS and traffic policing approach ATM Advanced traffic engineering technologies available to users and providers Variety of standard optical interfaces (wavelengths and link distances) specified for 10 Gb Ethernet Optimizing operation and cost for LAN, MAN, or WAN

10Gbps Ethernet - Advantages


Maximum link distances cover 300 m to 40 km Full-duplex mode only 10GBASE-S (short):
850 nm on multimode fiber Up to 300 m

10GBASE-L (long)
1310 nm on single-mode fiber Up to 10 km

10GBASE-E (extended)
1550 nm on single-mode fiber Up to 40 km

10GBASE-LX4:
1310 nm on single-mode or multimode fiber Up to 10 km Wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) bit stream across four light waves

Figure 6.11

Fibre Channel - Background


I/O channel
Direct point to point or multipoint comms link Hardware based High Speed Very short distance User data moved from source buffer to destination buffer Interconnected access points Software based protocol Flow control, error detection &recovery End systems connections

Network connection

Fibre Channel
2 methods of communication with processor:
I/O channel Network communications

Fibre channel combines both


Simplicity and speed of channel communications Flexibility and interconnectivity of network communications

Data type qualifiers for routing payload Link-level constructs for individual I/O operations Protocol specific specifications to support e.g. SCSI

Fibre Channel I/O channel Oriented Facilities

Fibre Channel Network-Oriented Facilities


Full multiplexing between multiple destinations Peer-to-peer connectivity between any pair of ports Internetworking with other connection technologies

Fibre Channel Requirements


Full duplex links with 2 fibres/link 100 Mbps 800 Mbps Distances up to 10 km Small connectors high-capacity Greater connectivity than existing multidrop channels Broad availability Support for multiple cost/performance levels Support for multiple existing interface command sets

Fibre Channel Elements


End systems - Nodes Switched elements - the network or fabric Communication across point to point links

Fibre Channel Network

Fibre Channel Protocol Architecture


FC-0 Physical Media FC-1 Transmission Protocol FC-2 Framing Protocol FC-3 Common Services FC-4 Mapping

FC-0 Physical Media

Fibre Channel Protocol Architecture (1)

Optical fiber for long distance coaxial cable for high speed short distance STP for lower speed short distance

FC-1 Transmission Protocol


8B/10B signal encoding

FC-2 Framing Protocol


Topologies Framing formats Flow and error control Sequences and exchanges (logical grouping of frames)

Fibre Channel Protocol Architecture (2)


FC-3 Common Services
Including multicasting

FC-4 Mapping
Mapping of channel and network services onto fibre channel
e.g. IEEE 802, ATM, IP, SCSI

Fibre Channel Physical Media


Provides range of options for physical medium, the data rate on medium, and topology of network Shielded twisted pair, video coaxial cable, and optical fiber Data rates 100 Mbps to 3.2 Gbps Point-to-point from 33 m to 10 km

Topologies
Point-to-point topology
Only two ports Directly connected, with no intervening switches No routing

Arbitrated loop topology


Simple, low-cost topology Up to 126 nodes in loop Operates roughly equivalent to token ring

Topologies, transmission media, and data rates may be combined

Fibre Channel Fabric


General topology called fabric or switched topology Arbitrary topology includes at least one switch to interconnect number of end systems May also consist of switched network Some of these switches supporting end nodes Routing transparent to nodes Each port has unique address When data transmitted into fabric, edge switch to which node attached uses destination port address to determine location Either deliver frame to node attached to same switch or transfers frame to adjacent switch to begin routing to remote destination

Fabric Advantages
Scalability of capacity
As additional ports added, aggregate capacity of network increases Minimizes congestion and contention Increases throughput

Protocol independent Distance insensitive Switch and transmission link technologies may change without affecting overall configuration Burden on nodes minimized
Fibre Channel node responsible for managing point-topoint connection between itself and fabric Fabric responsible for routing and error detection

Five Applications of Fibre Channel

WLANs Wireless LANs


Rely upon wireless transmission media Infrared, spread spectrum, narrowband microwave Follow IEEE 802.11 standard
Services include managing associations, delivering data, and security

WLAN Advantages
Mobility enable users to access data while they are on the move Ease and speed of deployment older building difficult to wire, cable installation costs, etc. Flexibility no need to re-cable or reconfigure network when someone changes offices Cost

WLAN applications
LAN extension - extension of an existing wired LAN
for large open areas; historical buildings; small offices, etc.

Cross-Building Interconnect
Connect two buildings without wires

Nomadic access Ad hoc networking

Multi-Cell Wireless LAN Configuration

Infrastructure Wireless LAN

Applications Ad Hoc Networking


Peer-to-peer network Set up temporarily to meet some immediate need E.g. group of employees, each with laptop or palmtop, in business or classroom meeting Network for duration of meeting

Same as any LAN

Wireless LAN Requirements

High capacity, short distances, full connectivity, broadcast capability

Throughput: efficient use wireless medium Number of nodes:up to hundreds of nodes across multiple cells Connection to backbone LAN: Use control modules to connect to both types of LANs Service area: 100 to 300 m Low power consumption:Need long battery life on mobile stations
Mustn't require nodes to monitor access points or frequent handshakes

Transmission robustness and security:Interference prone and easily eavesdropped Collocated network operation:Two or more wireless LANs

WLAN Technology
Infrared (IR) LANs: Individual cell of IR LAN limited to single room high speed
IR light does not penetrate opaque walls High security for a small area, and no interference from other IR LANs in other rooms Cant use outdoors need to

Spread spectrum LANs: Mostly operate in ISM (industrial, scientific, and medical) bands
No Federal Communications Commission (FCC) licensing is required in USA

Narrowband microwave: Microwave frequencies but do not use spread spectrum just wide enough to transmit
Some require FCC licensing, which guarantees no channel interference

IEEE 802.11 Architecture

802.11 Nomenclature and Design


Access Points perform the wireless to wired bridging function between networks Wireless medium means of moving frames from station to station Station computing devices with wireless network interfaces Distribution System backbone network used to relay frames between access points

On wireless LAN, any station within radio range of other devices can transmit Any station within radio range can receive Wireless Ethernet Authentication: Used to establish identity of stations to each other Wired LANs assume access to physical connection conveys authority to connect to LAN Not valid assumption for wireless LANs Connectivity achieved by having properly tuned antenna Authentication service used to establish station identity 802.11 supports several authentication schemes Does not mandate any particular scheme Range from relatively insecure handshaking to public-key encryption schemes 802.11 requires mutually acceptable, successful authentication before association

Access and Privacy Services Authentication

Medium Access Control


MAC layer covers three functional areas
Reliable data delivery Access control Security
Beyond our scope

Reliable Data Delivery


802.11 physical and MAC layers subject to unreliability Noise, interference, and other propagation effects result in loss of frames Even with error-correction codes, frames may not successfully be received Can be dealt with at a higher layer, such as TCP However, retransmission timers at higher layers typically order of seconds More efficient to deal with errors at the MAC level 802.11 includes frame exchange protocol Station receiving frame returns acknowledgment (ACK) frame Exchange treated as atomic unit Not interrupted by any other station If noACK within short period of time, retransmit

Distributed Coordination Function


DCF sublayer uses CSMA If station has frame to transmit, it listens to medium If medium idle, station may transmit Otherwise must wait until current transmission complete No collision detection Not practical on wireless network Dynamic range of signals very large Transmitting station cannot distinguish incoming weak signals from noise and effects of own transmission DCF includes delays Amounts to priority scheme

IEEE 802.11 Medium Access Control Logic

802.11 Physical Layer


Issued in four stages First part in 1997
IEEE 802.11 Includes MAC layer and three physical layer specifications Two in 2.4-GHz band and one infrared All operating at 1 and 2 Mbps

Two additional parts in 1999


IEEE 802.11a
5-GHz band up to 54 Mbps

IEEE 802.11b
2.4-GHz band at 5.5 and 11 Mbps

Most recent in 2002


IEEE 802.g extends IEEE 802.11b to higher data rates

Original 802.11 Physical Layer Three physical media Direct-sequence spread spectrum
2.4 GHz ISM band at 1 Mbps and 2 Mbps OR

DSSS

FHSS
2.4 GHz ISM band at 1 Mbps and 2 Mbps OR

Infrared
At 1 and 2 Mbps

802.11a
5-GHz band Uses orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)
Not spread spectrum

Also called multi-carrier modulation Multiple carrier signals at different frequencies Some bits on each channel
Similar to FDM but all subchannels dedicated to single source

Data rates 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 54 Mbps

802.11b
Extension of 802.11 DS-SS scheme 5.5 and 11 Mbps

802.11g
Higher-speed extension to 802.11b Combines physical layer encoding techniques used in 802.11a and 802.11b to provide service at a variety of data rates

Chapter 17 Review Questions


Discuss the advantages of wireless LANS Discuss how a WLAN can be employed to connect LANs from separate buildings Describe the purpose of peer-to-peer (ad hoc) networking. Provide examples. Describe the WLAN requirements Describe an infrared LAN. What are its strengths and weaknesses? Discuss WLAN MAC in regard to reliable data delivery and access control. Compare and contrast IEEE 80211a, b, and g