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Quantization

Definition:

Quantization: a process of representing a large possibly infinite set of values with a much smaller set. Scalar quantization: a mapping of an input value x into a finite number of output values, y:

Q: x y

Scalar Quantization

Many of the fundamental ideas of quantization and compression are easily introduced in the simple context of scalar quantization. An example: any real number x can be rounded off to the nearest integer, say q(x) = round(x) Maps the real line R (a continuous space) into a discrete space.

Quantizer

The design of the quantizer has a significant impact on the amount of compression obtained and loss incurred in a lossy compression scheme. Quantizer: encoder mapping and decode mapping. Encoder mapping

The encoder divides the range of source into a number of intervals Each interval is represented by a distinct codeword For each received codeword, the decoder generates a reconstruct value

Decoder mapping

Components of a Quantizer

1. Encoder mapping: Divides the range of values that the source generates into a number of intervals. Each interval is then mapped to a codeword. It is a many-to-one irreversible mapping. The code word only identifies the interval, not the original value. If the source or sample value comes from a analog source, it is called a A/D converter.

Codes

-3.0

-2.0

-1.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

input

Input Codes 000 Output -3.5

Components of a Quantizer

2. Decoder: Given the code word, the decoder gives a an estimated value that the source might have generated. Usually, it is the midpoint of the interval but a more accurate estimate will depend on the distribution of the values in the interval. In estimating the value, the decoder might generate some errors. (Give Table 8.1 and explain)

t

0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2

4cos(2*Pi*t)

Error 0.3 -0 -0 -0

Step Encoder

q ( x) x

A probability density function f(x) of the random variable x is said to meet the following criterion :

Probability associated with a value of x in its domain X is given by Pr( X<= x ). The corresponding cumulative distribution function CDF or F(x) requires that F(x) is non-decreasing for x[1] <= x[2]. When sampling occurs at discrete intervals then F(x) is said to be monotonically increasing.

F(x) is said to be continuous from the right or that the limit of f(x + e) exists when evaluated as e-> 0 from the right positive abscissa. In the discrete case the point probabilities of particular values of x[i] have a probability that is always greater or equal to 0, p[i] == Pr( X = x[i] ) >= 0. CDF may be expressed as

In the continuous case, the CDF may be expressed as the following relationship:

Quantization operation:

Let M be the number of reconstruction levels where the decision boundaries are and the reconstruction levels are

Quantization Problem

MSQE (mean squared quantization error) If the quantization operation is Q Suppose the input is modeled by a random variable X with pdf fX(x). The MSQE is

Quantization Problem

Rate of the quantizer The average number of bits required to represent a single quantizer output For fixed-length coding, the rate R is:

For variable-length coding, the rate will depend on the probability of occurrence of the outputs

Quantization Problem

Variable-length coding If li is the length of the codeword corresponding to the output yi, and the probability of occurrence of yi is: The rate is given by:

Uniform Quantization

Uniform Quantizer

Image Compression

Original 8bits/pixel

3bits/pixel

Image Compression

2bits/pixel

1bit/pixel

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