the number and variety of red and white blood cells -the presence of bacteria or other organisms -the presence of substances.WHY IS IT DONE? • To check for a disease or infection of the urinary tract • To check the treatments of conditions such as diabetes. such as glucose. UTI and kideny and liver diseases • Part of a regular physical examination • Measures . kidney stones. which shows how acidic or basic the urine is -the concentration of the urine . that usually shouldn't be found in the urine -the pH.

and epithelial cells from kidney . bladder and urethra •Presence and amounts of RBCs. WBCs. crystals.URINE MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION •Done when physical and chemical findings show abnormality •Verify results produced from the urine analyzers •Performed on urine sediment •In healthy people. the urine contains small number of cells and other formed elements from the entire urinary tract. ureter. casts and yeasts .

determines cloudiness of urine Presence of bacteria. blood or crystals can make urine appear cloudy . mucus.pale to dark yellow Intensity of the color indicates concentration of urine Reddish brown due to the presence of blood or food like blackberries • Clarity Opacity or tubidity.URINE FULL EXAMINATIONS A regular urinalysis includes the following tests: • Color Normal color. sperm.

E. UTI Acidic.5-8 Alkaline. uncontrolled diabetes.Cont… • Odor Normal: slightly “nutty” Some diseases causes a change in the order. dehydration. E. starvation or over consumption of alcohol .coli bacteria infection can cause a foul odor and in diabetes or starvatin. there’s a sweet or fruity odor • Specific gravity •pH Normal: 4.vomitting.g.Emphysema. kidney disease. also consumption of certain food. severe diarrhoea. aspirin overdose.

Cont… • Protein •Glucose •Ketones •Bilirubin •Urobilinogen •Nitrites •Leukocyte esterase (WBC esterase) .

Proteins • A protein urine test measures the amount of proteins. Albuminuria • Urine protein may be tested using a random sample of urine and a dipstick test. protein is not found in urine when a routine dipstick test is performed. • Normally. even when the kidney is functioning properly. • If the kidney is diseased. such as albumin. This is because the kidney is supposed to keep large molecules. protein will appear in the urine even if blood levels are normal. Even if small amounts of protein do get through. • Urine albumin. • Some proteins will appear in the urine if the levels of protein in blood become high. Proteinuria. they are normally reabsorbed by the body and used as a source of energy. found in a urine sample. • Regular screening test. in the blood and only filter out smaller impurities. . such as protein. or it may require a 24-hour urine sample. Why It's Done • When kidney disease is suspected.

cont’ •Normal Values 0 to 8 mg/dL.Proteins…. For a 24-hour urine collection. the normal value is less than 150 mg per 24 hours •What Abnormal Results Mean? Amyloidosis Bladder tumor Congestive heart failure Dehydration Diabetic Nephropathy Glomerulonephritis Heavy metal poisoning Malignant hypertension Multiple myeloma Nephrotic syndrome Damage to the kidneys from certain drugs (nephrotoxic drugs) Polycystic kidney disease Urinary tract infection .

not very accurate as urine is stored in bladder for hours before it is taken for testing . The presence of glucose in the urine is called glycosuria or glucosuria.Glucose •The glucose urine test measures the amount of sugar (glucose) in a urine sample. •Commonly used to screen for diabetes •Normal Values: nil •What does abnormal values/ increased values mean: -Diabetes Mellitus.glucose release from the kidneys into the urine (renal glycosuria) -Pregnancy (normal) Note:. brain injury . liver damage. Adrenal gland problem.

In pyruria.pyelonephritis...culture must be done to rule out infection. urethratitis.Pus Cells • Medical term : Pyuria • • Probably the most common occurrence of pyuria can be attributed to the existence of a urinary tract infection. . uretitis. . cystitis.. pus cells/ HPF (high power field) Males: 5-8 Females: upto 10 • Identified after centrifuge and sedimentation • Normal Values: nil • Other indications: .

X-ray of the kidneys (intravenous pyelogram [IVP]).What affects the test?  Menstrual period. Medicines. more tests may be done. Not getting urine sample to lab in 1 hour. . or cystoscopy. Note:-If an abnormal result is found during a urine test. such as a urine culture. such as tetracycline. erythromycin. or high doses of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) taken with an antibiotic. such as diuretics. Having an X-ray test with contrast material in the past 3 days. trimethoprim (Trimpex).