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Digital visual Interface

Submitted byvinay srivastava 0812231119 EC-64


Digital Visual Interface is a video interface standard designed to maximize the visual quality of digital display devices such as flat panel LCD computer displays and digital projectors. It is developed by an industry consortium, the Digital Display Working Group (DDWG). It is designed for carrying uncompressed digital video data to a display.

Lossless transmission of digital signal for digital interface. Transmission of video (i.e. RGB component) in single wire. Digital and analog support in single connector.


Features of DVI
DVI provides high speed digital connection. DVI provides a digital interface between a personal computing device and display device. DVI enables content to remain in lossless digital domain from creation to consumption. DVI is display technology independence. DVI features plug and play through hot plug detection. Digital and Analog support in single connector.

Principle of DVI
DVI uses Transition Minimized Differential Signaling (T.M.D.S.). T.M.D.S link is used to send graphics data to receiver. DVI specification allows for two T.M.D.S. links enabling large pixel formats. One or two T.M.D.S. links are available depending on the pixel format and timings desired.

Both links share same clock allowing the bandwidth available to be evenly distributed between the two links.

System will choose to enable one or two T.M.D.S. links as the capabilities of monitor are determined.

DVI connection

Block diagram of DVI system

10 11


Graphics controller

Pixel data


Pixel data

Display controller




13 14

EDID (Extended Display Identification Data)

EDID is a data structure provided by sink device to describe display capabilities and characteristics. EDID is defined by VESA (Video Electronics Standards Association).

EDID includes

Vendor/Product ID EDID structure version Basic Display parameters (e.g. max image size, gamma, feature support) Color characteristics Detailed timing descriptors Short Video Descriptors Audio Block Data Vendor specific data block Capability of Info Frames

DDC (Digital Data Channel)

DDC provides digital connection between display and graphics adapter that allows display to communicate its specifications through EDID to the adapter. DDC is created by VESA. DDC Channel is based on I^2C bus. I^2C is a serial bus that allows multiple bus masters although DDC2b allows only one master- graphics adapter.

Plug and Play specification

On initial system boot DVA complaint device is assumed by graphics controller. BIOS POST and OS query monitor using DDC protocol to determine what pixel formats & interface is connected. DVI uses EDID data structure for identification of monitor type and capabilities. Combination of pixel formats supported by monitor, graphics subsystem & user input will determine what pixel format to display. On initial system boot, after detection of monitor, only primary T.M.D.S. link is activated. Secondary link can become activated after graphics controller driver has determined capability for the same.

Hot Plugging Detection

HPD mechanism exists to allow the system to determine if monitor is attached if DVI complaint monitor was not present during boot process. After Hot Plug-In event system will query monitor using I^2C interface & enable T.M.D.S. link if required.

Monitor attachment: Graphics subsystem must generate a system level event to allow OS to read monitors EDID structure. If Graphics subsystem and monitor support compatible pixel formats OS should enable monitor and T.M.D.S. Link. Monitor removal: Graphics subsystem must generate system level event to notify OS. After that Graphics subsystem must disable T.M.D.S. Transmitter.

T.M.D.S. Overview

DVI uses Transition minimized differential signaling. T.M.D.S. link is used to send graphics data to the monitor. The transition minimized is achieved by implementing an advanced encoding algorithm that converts 8 bit of data to 10-bit transition minimized, DC balanced character. One or two T.M.D.S. links are available depending on the pixel format and timings desired. The two T.M.D.S. links share the same clock allowing the bandwidth to be evenly divided between the two links. As the capabilities of the monitor are determined, the system will choose to enable one or two T.M.D.S. links.

T.M.D.S. Channel Mapping

Encoding Algorithm

Decoding Algorithm

T.M.D.S circuit

T.M.D.S link test point

Effect of T.M.D.S


DVI connectors
DVI-D (digital only)
DVI-A (analog only) DVI-I (digital & analog)


Advantages of DVI Lossless Transmission as no conversion is required. Provides support for much higher data rates. Requires only one cable to transfer RGB signal. Display technology independence. Limitations of DVI Maximum length of cable can be used is 5 meters. Audio signal cannot be sent with video signal. DVI connector is bulky. Electro-Magnetic Interference will occur due to clock signal.

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