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Purchasing and the Supply-Chain
Market Assessment Supplier Selection Proposal Evaluation Contract preparation Contract Management System Development Bid Evaluation

Business Need

Requirement Definition

Procurement Strategy

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Supply Chain for a Florist
Home customers Commercial customers

Florist

Packaging

Local delivery service

Arrangement materials

Consumables & Maintenance

FedEx delivery

Flowers market local/ international

Internet services

Required for facilitating goods Required for explicit services

Required for implicit services Required for supporting facilities

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Purchasing objectives
Buy to requirements so that • Inventory is available when, where and in wanted form (minimum effort to use) • Least cost for quality • Optimise purchasing department/function overheads, accumulated costs, cash flow, warehousing & timely delivery The BUYER is the KEY - responsible for researching, placing and progressing orders.
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Questions
• Why is purchasing for a Channel Tunnel project different from purchasing for Tesco or Gap ? • Why is purchasing for ASDA different from purchasing for Harrods? • What are the purchasing requirements of the Metropolitan Police? • Why is the futures market important for Nestle or Kelloggs? • What are the advantages of centralised vs. decentralised purchasing functions? • The know-how: knowledge-base, competencies, the skills of the buyer for www.dabs.co.uk?

• What is the strategic and operational contribution of purchasing & supply?
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A national Electric Power company
• industry: utility • size: • capacity: • electricity sales: • customers • spend • transmission lines: • Service territory: • Geographic Area: generation & distribution £22 billion revenues 39,000 megawatts approx 200m. megawatt hrs 5.9 million £3 billion 8,000 miles 197,500 sq. miles England & Wales
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What are the purchasing requirements & problems of • • • • • • • • An NHS Trust? Airbus industries? Virgin Trains? Barratts Homes? Unilever Detergents Division? Royal Air Force? www.co.uk ? Pret à Manger? 6 .dabs.

credit rating.What research goes into purchasing? • Supplier investigation: competencies.of buying processes & items we buy • Our quality/service requirements & control methods 7 . capacities. service quality • Our dependency on particular suppliers • Competitor information • Advising suppliers on how to meet our quality requirements • Economic forecasting & the supplier • Purchase targets & their attainment • Financial targets & our profit plan • Value analysis .

service quality • Our dependency on particular suppliers • Competitor information • Advising suppliers on how to meet our quality requirements • Economic forecasting & the supplier • Purchase targets & their attainment • Financial targets & our profit plan • Value analysis .of buying processes & items we buy • Our quality/service requirements & control methods 8 .What research goes into purchasing? • Supplier investigation: competencies. credit rating. capacities.

futures. options. stock-piling • supplies/supplier intelligence. hedging.Procurement Role & SCM Core Processes • identify needs: materials. products or services • strategic buying . selection & negotiation • contract development & POP • replenishment Planning .expediting materials & services • maintaining catalogues • supplier performance measurement • transportation & logistics What % of supply • procurement systems chain processes are • diversity spend management •centralised? • vendor-managed inventory •decentralised • JIT •automated? 9 .

quality & data recording • Catalogues. export import docs. receipt arrangements. – Segmentation of duties. insurance. forecasting & POP 10 . physical verifications – SOP. packaging. contract security.the detail of what we order – Catalogue changes . transport. authorisations. – CAD . invoices. GRNs. the detail. purchase orders. drawings/specifications.Purchasing procedures & methods? • Instructions for contract – The terms.part change & the ripple effect – Deletion or launch of products • POP: – Requests. bill of materials & MRP1 . cancellation & penality issues. payments. Call-offs from orders. credit control.

stock-outs. obsolescence. Pareto 80/20. warehousing costs 11 . theft.Purchasing procedures & methods? • Purchasing by commodity group – Knowledge of the buyer – Price leverages – Data collection & analysis • Exception for action & progress reports for planning • Audit & monitoring procedures: wastage.

3. 12. 6. 9.Key Skills? 1.Procurement . 10. 11. 8. 2. 4. Business awareness and strategic procurement Developing & managing procurement systems Purchasing techniques and methods Supplier evaluation and selection Risk and value management Contract management Legal aspects of procurement (contracts) Purchasing negotiations Quality management Service level agreements Ethical behaviours in procurement Relationship management (client-server) Performance evaluation of suppliers & self Change management 12 . 5. 13. 7.

– Attention to detail – Humour. assessing sources.Buying and negotiation? • Supplier partnerships vs. Buying portals – Negotiate: preparation. completing the buy. WWW & B2B. competitive (least cost) buying • Negotiation skills – researching sources. customer relationships management. – Methods to keep costs down . Avoid dramatics – Analytical approach to problems – Questioning & listening – Verification . win-win & mutual respect. self-control. the negotiation. patience.tendering.contract formulation & testing 13 .

Supply Chain Management Drivers Improve customer service Improve order management corporate Growth Improve asset use Improve demand planning Improve warehouse/distribution activities Accelerate “cash to cash” cycle Supplier/Supply base management Strengthen partnerships Regulatory compliance 14 .

T. logistics & zero working capital Strategic Forecast Pull Point of Use MTO Point of Use Point of Use ContractTO Sales Order Demand Pull Distributor/Customer Distributor/Customer Supplier owned & managed strategic inventory Optimize • Capacity • Daily Through-put • J. for Common Parts A c c o u n t s MTS R e c e i v a b l e Distributor/Customer Flow Manufacturing Min/Max Replenishment Common Inventory JIT Supplier JIT Accounts Payable BANK 15 .I.Planning.

T.I. Continuous flow manufacturing Interprise Visibility WIP Inventory First Promised Deliver Date Correct Configuration Distributor Supplier 16 .Information sharing. dataflows & feedback Rules configuration Real time available to promise Supplier Management Delivery on Demand At Point of Use J.

Integrating SCM Applications Integration of Process and Technology functional areas: Production Optimization Available to Promise Advanced Planning Purchasing ERP Engines .available when/where needed  inventory levels .Oracle .reduce out-ofstock or overstock 17 . scorecard them Export / Import & Freight Management Forecasting and Demand Planning Warehousing & Distribution  spending patterns/supplier  materials handling .SAP Order Management  accounts payable  inventory  procurement  Performance indicators for Optimise SCM  material sources: track/measure supplier performance.

Supply/Procurement Issues Resource Usage Performance objectives Quality Speed Reliabiity make or buy (contract out) market-based purchasing? supply partnerships? Supply network relationships Flexibility Cost Capacity Process technologies Decisions buyers market sellers market 18 Market competitiveness .

now & future.g. control of information & materials flows along the SC to meet customer requirements efficiently. • methods of coordination in the SC • how can the SC be improved 'structurally? • what technology e.Consider • the detail of B2B system interactions • planning. EDI. design. WWW/internet has affected the development of SCM? 19 .

Firm C .Tiered supply relationships • a company can trade with – 1st tier .g.immediate suppliers & – 2nd tier .suppliers of suppliers – end-customers Consider % balance of each • Non-exclusive relationships e.may single source (exclusive supply) or multi-source item X Exaluate relationships • close & intimate? Make or contract in (outsource)? • For what items: strategic. Transactional (arms-length) 20 . trivial? • Many suppliers or a few? • Keiretsu (collaborative) vs.

services & information Supply side 2nd-tier suppliers 1st-tier suppliers Company A Demand side 1st-tier customers 2nd-tier customers Company B Company C X X X X X For Company A Internal supply network Immediate supply network Total supply network 21 Down stream Up stream .Flows of products.

few suppliers suppliers integration Market relationship Partnership supply relationship Traditional market supply Virtual spot trading Resource scope Do nothing Do everything 22 Character of internal operations activity .many Close .Analysis of supply relationships Long term virtual Vertical operation Type of inter.firm contact Transactional .

23 Aggregate Plan  MRP1 Aggregate Plan (product groups) Firm orders MRP2 Forecast random orders Design changes Master production schedule Plan how many + when + where we (MPS) will build each finished product. Bill of materials MRP1 Inventory data Control Reports Stock movements 23 .

storage (warehouse) & outbound distribution.Distribution Channels & Logistics • distribution channels: routes & methods from producer  distributors customer • Logistics management: synonymous with SCM? • narrowly defined: concerned with inbound transportation. 24 .

Shared information • • • • • • • • • e.SC Partnership . delivered amounts real-time alerts planned product & engineering changes 25 .g. production rate (as % of capacity) on-hand inventory inventory in transit advance ship notices forecasts damaged goods actual vs.

right price).Measuring P&S contribution to Corporate performance • „suppliers‟ include contractors for work & services • „performance monitoring‟ = measuring supplier ability to comply with contractual obligations & delight (P&S is a supplier) Balanced Scorecard + "SMART" objectives: • • • • accuracy) What corporateclaims • warranty objectives? • innovative products/services .vendor rating •Specific •Measurable •Achievable •Realistic •Time-bound 26 . systems • supplier development & R&D • call-out & service response times • appraisals of new supply chains. • MTBF (Mean Time to Fail) ample evidence if P & S is delivering key objectives • % of incoming rejects (delivery post contract monitoring . right • Product quality time. • performance against agreed delivery • reputation istimes risk by activities within the SC lead not at Proactive & visible alignment of P&S strategy & operations to fit corporate position the basics contribute to value-add (right goods/services. right place.(against agreed • Audit service quality differentiation & advantage • control SLAs) over costs thru.

prices & cost avoidance + contribution to revenue targets impact on spend: „controlled‟. effective procurement systems + eProcurement no purchasing fraud price benchmarking .comparing similar organisations 27 . growth.fundamental to contract management relationships management evaluating the supply base & supplier profiles e. of suppliers & their rationalisation (single sourcing vs. market share & £ performance transaction processing costs. competitive sourcing) robust. „directly influenced‟. „not yet targeted‟ year on year improvement no.Some yardsticks of performance (P&S Function & Suppliers?) • • • • • • • • • • quality of supplier performance .g.

What is this year’s stock turnover ratio? What does it mean? 28 . aggregate inventory value cost of items sold/week Company report states costs of goods sold for year = £160 m. usual stock turn ratio = 10. + total average inventory (prodn. Average aggregate inventory value • Weeks of Supply = Avg.Measuring Supply-Chain Performance • Stock Turnover = Delivery Quality Time Cost Cost of items sold . materials + WIP) = £35 m.

57 • inventory is not turning over as quickly • Compare with the industry average See also value density • the value of an item per unit.answer Stock Turnover = Cost of goods sold/Average aggregate inventory value = £160/£35 = 4. A significant measure when deciding where items should be stocked – geographically – how they should be shipped 29 .57 • stock turnover has dropped from 10 to 4.Supply-Chain Performance .

speed. view reports etc? 30 . update status. security • 1st & 2nd tier suppliers read/write permission to enter BOMs.Strategic alliances Part Number Doc-00341 Chas-00798 Sen-00332 Con-00544 Pack-00456 Qty Description 1 1 2 1 1 Assembly and use instructions for valve kit Mechanical valve parts Sensor specification control module with interface kit Packaging specification Supplier Salleramics Flor plan Ltd Florplan Ltd Florplan Ltd Salleramics • Joint SCM improvement objectives – share/feedback demand information – MURA. reliability. enter alerts. costs. JIT replenishment. acknowledge requests. enter new suppliers. quality.

stick to the knitting.contractor is more competent. reliable. price/cost effective.cannot hire expert staff we need.selling off fixed to out-source agent Specialist labour market . high quality. Why do it? Drivers • • Core competencies. release of management time • Finance: releases internal assets. No strategic expertise loss Improvement . Out-source costs are less than or equal to DIY costs • • • • Short term revenue gains .Outsourcing? moving a firm’s internal activities (production & service delivery) to outside providers. No expected loss of flexibility or growth potential WHAT ARE THE PROBLEMS? 31 .

Bangladesh. N. Indonesia. Zealand 32 .Logistics & Air Force Operations Brunei Australia Other Detachments: Thailand.

• • • • • • • • • before landing. radio defect symptoms to control control analysis/troubleshoot identify parts for indent trigger pick items at warehouse apply FIFO priority issue movement update collect defect items  Repair shop check repair status tracking global assets & freight 33 .

Pay’t -Inspect -accept & locate -reject  quarantine/claim -wholesale/retail level Procurement Warehousing Store & Issue •Documentation •breakage •System fulfillment. .R for Quote .Funds allocation .PO release Provisioning(MRP) Disposal Usage . •issue & acknowledge •stock take Distribution 34 .Endorse requirement.FMS or commercial .Item Data creation ..PO .

item consolidation? How? reaction to shortage • What % of invoices are paid via auto-pay? • When do we have to pay? • If it is valuable someone will steal it !!!! 35 .Gems of PO Receiving • • • • how goods are received can be a headache receiving problems are credit/payment problems errors & confusions cause delays & more processing Transactions on goods received: – – – – correct Order Ref. quantity. specification & pricing Items shipped match PO & invoiced quantity? split shipments .

g. authorisor of contract/order goods received: checking exact order received & to be paid for payment authorisation: signing off invoices & setting system tolerances Control Methods • procurement procedures. how much each buyer can commit • disciplinary & whistle blowing policies • rotations: buyers not too close to favourite suppliers 36 . ethical code retransparency & declaration of interest). processes & policies (incl. open-to buy. negotiation parties contract award: deciding the supplier. • financial limits e. • risk analysis • random audits of different contracts & procurement projects. short-listing.Segregation of Duties & Fraud No one individual can influence purchasing outcomes to own advantage or has responsibility for more than one of • • • • • specification/requisition process & authorisation supplier selection : tender lists & receipt.

eBusiness .doh.gov.uk/ 37 .g. networked participants (SMEs? Hospitals) to combine spend & bargaining volume.pasa. – potentially lower buying costs & operating efficiencies NHS Purchasing & Supply Agency http://www. B2C? significant channel for purchasing MNCs can get best prices without using open eMarketplace.B2B • • • • • $ value of transactions over the Internet? B2B. growth in Intranet B2B applications installed & operational EDI (point to point) still an important re-volume of B2B transactions • Fax & email is common • online B2B portals (eMarketplaces) offer – Supplier/supplies intelligence (specialist groupings) – opportunities/collaborations e.

Inventory at Different Stocking Points Raw materials Work in process Finished goods Supplier Manufacturing plant Distribution center Retailer 38 .

• Network: a group of organisations in a market-place that interact to buy.What is a Supply Chain? • Chain: of processes. deliver goods and services (client-server processes & activities). sell. • Server aims to delight & add value to each client & so the end customer. Generally B2B transactions (not retail B2C).overstocking . • Failure to receive supplies on time can --> problems – cash flow .obsolescence 39 . transactions & information that takes product or service from suppliers thru. manufacturing & distribution to the end consumer.

000 – 5.Supply Chain Dynamics for Facial Tissue 9.000 – 3.000 – Order Quantity 7.000 – 0– Time 40 Consumers’ daily demand Retailers’ daily orders to manufacturer Package supplier’s weekly orders to cardboard supplier Manufacturer’s weekly orders to package supplier .

Materials Management FG storage Transformation process and WIP storage Purchasing domain of responsibility Egg supplier Sugar supplier Flour supplier Chocolate chips supplier Maintenance services supplier RM storage 41 .

Materials Management FG storage Production domain of responsibility Transformation process and WIP storage RM storage Purchasing domain of responsibility Egg supplier Sugar supplier Flour supplier Chocolate chips supplier Maintenance services supplier 42 .

Materials Management FG storage Production domain of responsibility Transformation process and WIP storage RM storage Purchasing domain of responsibility Egg supplier Sugar supplier Flour supplier Chocolate chips supplier Maintenance services supplier 43 .

Materials Management Supermarket A distribution center Distribution domain of responsibility Supermarket B distribution center FG storage Transportation services supplier Production domain of responsibility Transformation process and WIP storage RM storage Purchasing domain of responsibility Egg supplier Sugar supplier Flour supplier Chocolate chips supplier Maintenance services supplier 44 .

Materials Management Supermarket A distribution center Distribution domain of responsibility FG storage Supermarket B distribution center Transportation services supplier Production domain of responsibility Transformation process and WIP storage RM storage Purchasing domain of responsibility Egg supplier Sugar supplier Flour supplier Chocolate chips supplier Maintenance services supplier 45 .

Inventory Measures Average inventory = £2 million Cost of goods sold = £10 million 52 business weeks per year £2 million Weeks of supply = = 10.4 weeks (£10 million)/(52 weeks) £10 million Inventory turns = = 5 turns/year £2 million 46 .

Inventory Measures 47 .

Supply-Chain Process Measures SUPPLY–CHAIN PROCESS MEASURES Customer Relationship  % of orders taken Order Fulfillment shipped % of orders shipped on  time Time to fulfill order  % of botched services or returned items Cost to produce service or item  Customer satisfaction with order fulfillment process Supplier Relationship deliveries on time Suppliers’ lead times % defects in services & purchased materials Cost of services & purchased materials  % of incomplete orders  % of suppliers’      accurately  Time to complete order placement process  Customer satisfaction with order placement process 48 .

volume flexibility. but do not increase costs Emphasize low prices. maketo-order. customization.Supply-Chain Design DESIGN FEATURES FOR EFFICIENT & RESPONSIVE SUPPLY CHAINS Factor Operation strategy Efficient Supply Chains Make-to-stock or standardized services. consistent quality. standardized services or products Low Low. enable high inventory turns Shorten. ontime delivery Responsive Supply Chains Assemble-to-order. top quality 49 Capacity cushion Inventory investment Lead time Supplier selection . emphasize high volume. emphasize service or product variety High As needed to enable fast delivery time Shorten aggressively Emphasize fast delivery time. or customized services. variety.

Supply Chain Redesign. FT Prentice Hall. FT Prentice-Hall. E-procurement: A Guide to Successful Eprocurement Implementation. 1998  Heywood B. Supply Chain Management. 1997  Handfield & Nichols. 2001  www. FT Prentice Hall.cips. 2002  Ross D. Strategic Purchasing and Supply Chain Management. Kluwer.Reading and WWW sources  Saunders M.org (Chartered Institute of Purchasing and Supply) 50 . Competing Thru.

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