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SH AH JA HAN ( 1592 – 1666

Brief History :

• Shahbuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan
was the
ruler of the Mughal Empire in the
Subcontinent from 1628 until 1658.

• He was the fifth Mughal ruler after
Humayun, Akbar, and Jahangir

• After revolting against his father
Jahangir, as
the chief
• The latterevents
had revolted against
of his reign Akbar,
were the destruction of the kingdom of
Ahmadnagar (1636), the loss of Kandahar to the Persians (1653), and
second warto the throne
against on his
the Deccan father's
princes (1655)
death in 1627
SHA H J AH AN ( 1592 – 1666 )
Brief History :

• In 1658 he felt ill, and was confined by his son Aurangzeb in the
citadel of Agra until his death in 1666
• The period of his reign was the golden age of Indian architecture.
• Shah Jahan erected many splendid monuments, the most famous of
which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, built as a tomb for his wife Mumtaz
• The Pearl Mosque at Agra and the palace and great mosque at Delhi
also commemorate him
• The celebrated "Peacock Throne," said to have been worth millions
of dollars by modern estimates, also dates from his reign
• He was the founder of the modern city of Delhi, the native name of
which is Shahjahanabad.
SHA H J AH AN ( 1592 – 1666 )
General Developments :

• Golden era of Mughal domination was achieved.
• It was the age of marble in the building art.
• Architecture received a new impressiveness during this regime
• All buildings were of a more polished type
• All sand stone buildings were transformed into marble pavilions
• Marble gave scope for delicate ornamentations & fine moldings
• Enrichment was attained by means of inlaid patterns in coloured
• Noticeable alterations in the character of the arch
• The arches and curves were foliated.
• The dome also assumed another form – the bulbous Persian type
• The system of double doming was also derived
• Introduction of pillars with tapering baluster shafts with vaulted
bracket capitals and foliated bases
SHA H J AH AN ( 1592 – 1666 )

• Shah Jahan resolved to shift his capital from Agra to Delhi
• He began to layout the city of Shahjahanabad in 1638
• The site was on the right bank of river jamuna
• The project consisted of a palace fortress in a more comprehensive
• It was formed on the concept of a city within a city
• The whole scheme was executed according to the requirement of
one authority
• The scheme was carried out in a systematic & uniform manner
• The most important portions were designed and executed under the
personal direction of Shah Jahan himself
• The Delhi fort in plan is an oblong shape with 3100 ft in length and
1650 ft wide
• It is aligned from north to south
• The fort enclosed is enclosed within a high and strongly fortified wall
• There are 2 main gateways, one on the west and the other on the
south side
SH AH JA HAN ( 1592 – 1666 )


• The western entry was called
‘Lahore Gate’ and was used as
a ceremonial entry
• The southern entrance was a
more private one
• From these gateways two
thoroughfares pass into the
fort interior
• These two thoroughfares
intersecting at right angles
towards the centre of the entire
• The Lahore Gate on the west
is in the form of a broad gate
vaulted arcade - most
SHA H J AH AN ( 1592 – 1666 )

• The two thoroughfares directly link with a large rectangular area and
itself contained within the surrounding walls.
• This gives the effect of an enclosure within an enclosure
• The inner area measures 1600’ by 1150’
• It aligned along the eastern rampart overlooking the river Jamuna
• This accommodates the royal and private apartments
• Outside this on west within the rectangular spaces are the service
quarters, barracks etc.
• The palace enclosed nearly symmetrical in its arrangements
resolves into four parts

1. A large central quadrangle with Diwani i amm
2 & 3. Two square spaces open on each side for ornamental
gardens and courtyards
4. The range of marble palaces
SH AH JA HAN ( 1592 – 1666 )


• Every feature in this plan is
formal and regular and most of
it laid out in a square
• There is no oblique or curve in
the entire scheme

The range of marble palaces
The Hammam Mahal
The Rang Mahal or the hall of
Diwani i khas
Diwani i amm
SH AH JA HAN ( 1592 – 1666 )