Praktične tehnike rutiranja Predavanja

Prof. Mirjana Radivojević

Praktične tehnike rutiranja, prof. Mirjana Radivojević, RAF, Beograd



Praktične tehnike rutiranja, prof. Mirjana Radivojević, RAF, Beograd


prof. Mirjana Radivojević.DNS • Application specified in the TCP/IP suite • Means to translate human-readable names into IP addresses Praktične tehnike rutiranja. Beograd 3 . RAF.

RAF.DNS configuration:Setting Up a Router to Use DNS Lookups         Your router can be configured to use DNS lookups if you wish to use the ping or traceroute commands with a host name rather than an IP address. Use these commands to do so: ip domain lookup Enables DNS-based host name-to-address translation. Praktične tehnike rutiranja. Do not include the initial period that separates an unqualified name from the domain name. This command is enabled by default. Mirjana Radivojević. Beograd 4 . prof. ip domain name Defines a default domain name that the Cisco IOS software uses to complete unqualified host names (names without a dotted-decimal domain name). ip name-server Specifies the address of one or more name servers.

If there is a domain list. each to be tried in turn. prof. Note: If there is no domain list. RAF.DNS configuration:Setting Up a Router to Use DNS Lookups       ip domain list Defines a list of domains. Beograd 5 . the domain name that you specified with the ip domain-name global configuration command is used. This feature makes it easier to identify a router because the router is displayed by name rather than by its router ID or neighbor ID.  Praktične tehnike rutiranja. ip ospf name-lookup Configures Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) to look up DNS names for use in all OSPF show EXEC command displays. the default domain name is not used. Mirjana Radivojević.

168.1.100 !--.168.1. ! ! interface Ethernet0 ip address 192.255.Domain lookup is enabled by default. !--.DNS example # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # outer# show running-config Building configuration . prof.2 service timestamps debug datetime msec service timestamps log uptime no service password-encryption ! hostname Router ! ! ip subnet-zero ip name-server 192.0 ! Praktične tehnike rutiranja. Current configuration : 470 bytes ! version 12..255..Configures the IP address of the name server. Beograd 6 . Mirjana Radivojević. RAF.1 255.

RAF. prof. Beograd 7 .Implementing Advanced Cisco IOS Features: Configuring DHCP Praktične tehnike rutiranja. Mirjana Radivojević.

RAF. prof. Mirjana Radivojević. Beograd 8 .DHCP in an Enterprise Network Praktične tehnike rutiranja.

DHCP Praktične tehnike rutiranja. RAF. prof. Mirjana Radivojević. Beograd 9 .

the server usually reserves the address until the client has had a chance to formally request the address.DHCP A DHCP client may receive offers from multiple DHCP servers and can accept any one of the offers. Beograd 10 . Praktične tehnike rutiranja. the offer from the DHCP server is not a guarantee that the IP address will be allocated to the client. Additionally. The client returns a formal request for the offered IP address to the DHCP server in a DHCPREQUEST broadcast message. prof. however. The DHCP server confirms that the IP address has been allocated to the client by returning a DHCPACK unicast message to the client. the client usually accepts the first offer it receives. RAF. however. Mirjana Radivojević. The formal request for the offered IP address (the DHCPREQUEST message) that is sent by the client is broadcast so that all other DHCP servers that received the DHCPDISCOVER broadcast message from the client can reclaim the IP addresses that they offered to the client.

Beograd 11 .DHCP  If the configuration parameters sent to the client in the DHCPOFFER unicast message by the DHCP server are invalid (a misconfiguration error exists). which means the offered configuration parameters have not been assigned. prof. Mirjana Radivojević. the client returns a DHCPDECLINE broadcast message to the DHCP server. Praktične tehnike rutiranja.  The DHCP server will send to the client a DHCPNAK denial broadcast message. if an error has occurred during the negotiation of the parameters or the client has been slow in responding to the DHCPOFFER message (the DHCP server assigned the parameters to another client) of the DHCP server. RAF.

Beograd 12 . prof. Mirjana Radivojević.Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Praktične tehnike rutiranja. RAF.

Mirjana Radivojević.Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol  DHCP server offers configuration parametars:  IP address  MAC address  Default gateway  Lease  IP telephony DHCP option-option 150  ( TFTP configuration of IP telephones) Praktične tehnike rutiranja. Beograd 13 . RAF. prof.        . ensuring the TFTP Server option (option 150) is set to the IP address of XYZR1 Creating a DHCP Pool on XYZR1 XYZR1(config)# ip dhcp pool QOSLAB XYZR1(dhcp-config)# network 192.168.0 XYZR1(dhcp-config)# option 150 ip 192.0 255. because this is required for the phones to download their firmware image from XYZR1 when they boot up.255.Configuring DHCP Server Support      Configure a DHCP exclusion range that prevents XYZR1 from providing DHCP addresses within the reserved range of 192.5 XYZR1(dhcp-config)# default-router subnet.1.l68. creating a DHCP address pool for the Creating a DHCP Exclusion Range on XYZR1 XYZR1# configure terminal XYZR1(config)# ip dhcp excluded-address Configure the DHCP server on XYZR1.5 XYZR1(dhcp-config)# end Configure the TFTP Server option (option 150) with the IP address of XYZR1.1.

Mirjana Radivojević. RAF. prof.Configuring a DHCP Server Router(config)#ip dhcp pool [pool name] • Enables a DHCP pool for use by hosts Router(config-dhcp)#import all • Imports DNS and WINS information from IPCP Router(config-dhcp)#network [network address][subnet mask] • Specifies the network and subnet mask of the pool Router(config-dhcp)#default-router [host address] • Specifies the default router for the pool to use Praktične tehnike rutiranja. Beograd 15 .

2.102 172.0.1. prof.103 ip dhcp excluded-address 172.103 default-router 172.253/router-dhcp write-delay 120 ip dhcp excluded-address 172.0/16 domain-name global.16.1.DHCP Server Configuration Example ipdhcp database ftp://user:passwords@ RAF.100 172.16.102 netbios-name-server 172.100 Praktične tehnike rutiranja. Mirjana Radivojević. Beograd 16 dns-server 172.103 ip dhcp pool 0 network 172.

RAF. prof. Beograd 17 .Importing and Autoconfiguration Praktične tehnike rutiranja. Mirjana Radivojević.

DHCP Client Router (config-if)# ip address dhcp Enables a Cisco IOS device to obtain an IP address dynamically from a DHCP server Praktične tehnike rutiranja. Mirjana Radivojević. RAF. prof. Beograd 18 .

Mirjana Radivojević. RAF. Helper address provides selective connectivity. by default.Helper Addressing Overview    Routers do not forward broadcasts. prof. Relay agents receive DHCP messages and generate a new DHCP message to send out on another interface Praktične tehnike rutiranja. Beograd 19 .

Why Use a Helper Address?  Sometimes clients do not know the server address.  Helpers change broadcast to unicast to reach server.  If configured relay agent add the relay agent information optin (option 82) in the packet and forwards it to the DHCP server .

Mirjana Radivojević. Beograd 21 .IP Helper Address Commands Router(config-if)# ip helper-address address • Enables forwarding and specifies destination address for main UDP broadcast packets • Changes destination address from broadcast to unicast or directed broadcast address Router(config)# ip forward-protocol { udp [ port ] }  Specifies which protocols will be forwarded Praktične tehnike rutiranja. RAF. prof.

Beograd 22 . Mirjana Radivojević.Multiple Servers: Remote Networks Praktične tehnike rutiranja. RAF. prof.

Mirjana Radivojević. Beograd 23 . RAF.Relay Agent Option Support Praktične tehnike rutiranja. prof.

prof.DHCP Verification Commands router# show ip dhcp database • Displays recent activity on the DHCP database router# show ip dhcp server statistics • Shows count information about statistics and messages sent and received router# show ip route dhcp • Displays routes added to the routing table by DHCP router# debug ip dhcp server {events | packets | linkage} • Enables debugging on the DHCP server Praktične tehnike rutiranja. RAF. Mirjana Radivojević. Beograd 24 .

prof.  DHCP client can be configured. Praktične tehnike rutiranja. Mirjana Radivojević.  DHCP server can be configured.Summary  DHCP functions may be configured with Cisco IOS software. RAF. Beograd 25 .  DHCP relay services are supported.  The IP helper address activates the DHCP relay agent in the Cisco IOS device.  DHCP options can be configured.

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