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GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

Week 3

Introduction to Human Factors

Antony Glambedakis

GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

Week 3

Learning Outcomes

Define human factors (HF). Identify differences in terminology within HF. Trace the history of HF Understand the basic philosophy of HF. Discuss some central concepts underlying HF. Understand an the multidisciplinary nature of HF. Explore a conceptual framework for HF

GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

Week 3

Defining Human Factors


that branch of science and technology that includes what is known and theorized about human behavioural and biological characteristics that can be validly applied to the specification, design, evaluation, operation, and maintenance of products and systems to enhance safe, effective, and satisfying use by individuals, groups, and organisations

(Christensen, et al, 1988)

GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

Week 3

Defining Human Factors


Put simply

Designing for human use


or

Fitting the task to the human


Also known as ERGONOMICS.

GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

Week 3

Defining Human Factors

Human Factors can be defined as a discipline which applies systematic methods and knowledge of the human being to assess and optimise the interaction between individuals, technology and organisation. The goal is to produce a work situation which is healthy, safe and efficient. Human Factors methods can optimise a workplace resulting in a number of beneficial effects:
- reduced risk for human error - increased job satisfaction - reduced absence from work - improved worker health conditions

http://www.scandpower.com/en/Services/Human_Factors/

GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

Week 3

What are Human Factors

environmental, organisational and job factors, and human and individual characteristics, which influence behaviour at work in a way which can affect health and safety (U.K. Health and Safety Executive, 1999)

GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

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Other Terminology

Ergonomics
(Greek: ergon, nomos) Literally means laws of work The traditional term used in Europe Synonymous with human factors, a US-derived term Also called Human Engineering and Human Factors Engineering

Cognitive Ergonomics or Engineering Psychology


Branch of ergonomics or psychology Emphasises the study of cognitive or mental aspects of work

Human-Machine Interaction or HumanComputer Interaction


Applied study of how people interact with machines or computers

GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

Week 3

Philosophy of Human Factors

Artefacts and systems are there to serve humans, and must be designed with the user in mind. Individual differences matter in design systems and artefacts should accommodate for them. Design can affect human behaviour and well-being. Good design should not be noticeable. We become very aware of bad design. Empiricism and evaluation are essential. An objective scientific approach is necessary - hypothesis testing, validity, generalisable results, etc. Systems approach - people, machines, environment, etc., are part of the system. (Sanders & McCormick, 1992)

GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

Week 3

Some Key Concepts


Human Capabilities Human Limitations

Human Needs and Values

GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

Week 3

Multidisciplinary Nature of HF
Psychology
Cognitive Social Occupational Organisational Cultural

Anatomy & Physiology


Biological Sciences Medicine Anthropometry

HF
Design
Industrial design Product semantics

Engineering
Aeronautical Eng. Mechanical Eng. Safety Eng. Operations Research

GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

Week 3

Change the Operator

Change the Environment

GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

Week 3

Elements of Human Factors

https://www2.hf.faa.gov/workbenchtools/

GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

Week 3

A Conceptual Framework

International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) use a model developed by Edwards (1972) and Hawkins (1984) known as the SHELL framework to denote the kinds of interactive resources:

Software - the rules, procedures, customs, etc., which determine how things are done. Hardware - the controls, displays, equipment and functional systems. Environment - the natural, social and economic climate in which the operator works. Liveware - the people within the system.

GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

Week 3

A Conceptual Framework

GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

Week 3

A Conceptual Framework

GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

Week 3

A Conceptual Framework

GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

Week 3

A Conceptual Framework

GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

Week 3

A Conceptual Framework

GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

Week 3

GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

Week 3

Human Factors in Application

Listen to ABC Audio 28 November 1979, Flight 901 Impacted Mt Erebus 257 individuals fatally injured Scenic flight to Antarctica Radar guided descent to 2000ft Investigation finding Pilots flew a perfect operational aircraft into a mountain (12,450ft)

GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

Week 3

NZ Office of Air Accident Investigation

Captains decision to continue the flight at low level towards an area of poor surface and horizontal definition when the crew were uncertain of their position

GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

Week 3

Royal Commission Mr Mahon


Subsequent

Royal Commission investigation commenced July 1980 Captain and first officer provided with a route briefing 19 days prior to flight FMS reprogrammed in the early hours of the morning with different coordinates (McMurdo waypoint changed-longitude)

GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

Week 3

Flight 901s Flight Path

GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

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Royal Commission Findings


Aircraft cleared to 2000ft VMC-Pilot descended to 1500ft with overcast clouds (6000ft limited not observed for 2 years) No topographical charts provided Whiteout (sun directly behind a/c, cloud at 2500ft)

GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

Week 3

Immediate Cause of Incident

Captain flew aircraft into mountain

GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

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Reason Model
Defences Unsafe Acts
errors violations

Organisational Conditions

Workplace Factors

GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

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Reason Model

Many different versions, many different uses


Ongoing development of model None are right or wrong

Represents some of dynamics of accident development Focuses on human factors, but underemphasises role of technical failures Can be very difficult classifying a particular issue into one of the boxes (eg training)

GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

Week 3

Organisational Conditions

Safety Management Processes:


Hazard identification, risk assessment Change management Training needs analysis Human resource management Safety statistics analysis
Priorities and goals Management commitment Organisational structure Communication style

Organisational characteristics

GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

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Organisational Factors
Workplace norm-pressure to provide value for money flight Incompetent administrative practices (communication breakdown)

GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

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Workplace Factors

Inadequate training
No Antarctic experience Whiteout

Lack of resources (topographical charts)

GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

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Unsafe Acts
Observable behaviours that increase the risk of an accident to a level above that which is acceptable or necessary to complete an operational task View as events that should not be reproduced under similar conditions rather than consider them failures of individual concerned

GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

Week 3

Varieties of Unsafe Acts


Basic Error Types Slips Unintended Actions Lapses Unsafe Acts Mistakes Intended Actions Violations
Rule-based Knowledge-based Attention failures Intrusions Omissions Misordering etc Memory failures Losing place Omitting items etc

Routine Optimising Exceptional

GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

Week 3

Human Factors Specialist

Education
Degree in Social Sciences, including Aviation with Major in Psychology/Human Factors Degree in Psychology Postgraduate studies with specialty in the area of Human Performance Registered Psychologist (generally)

Career
Aviation Safety Area of Safety Science (OHS) Human Factors Lecturer Human Factors Specialist Human Factors/Ergonomics - Boeing, Airbus NASA, FAA, CASA, ATSB,NTSB

GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

Week 3

Required Reading

Read:
Hawkins, F.H. (1987). Human Factors in Flight. Chapter 1.

GENS5001 Introduction to Human Factors

Week 3

Web resources

http://www.ergonomics.org.au/ - Ergonomics Society, Aus http://www.ergonomics.org.uk/ - Ergonomics Society, UK http://hfes.org/ - Human Factors and Ergonomics ~Society, USA http://www.ergonomics.org.au/ - Ergonomics Society of Australia http://www.iea.cc/ - International Ergonomics Association http://www.hf.faa.gov/ - Federal Aviation Administration http://aeromedical.org/ - Aerospace Medicine Home Page http://www.baddesigns.com - Bad Designs