CNC PROGRAMMING

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Vertical Machine

RIGHT HAND RULE

Horizontal Machine

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STANDARD LATHE COORDINATE SYSTEM

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STANDARD MILLING MACHINE COORDINATE SYSTEM

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5D / 3D Turning ~ Lathes.CNC APPLICATIONS   Machining 2. Turning Centre Milling ~ Machining Centres Forming 2D Plasma and Laser Cutting Blanking. nibbling and punching 3D Rapid Prototyping 5 4/14/2012 .

SAMPLE CNC MACHINES 4/14/2012 6 .

CNC TURNING 4/14/2012 7 .

CNC MILLING

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CNC LASER CUTTING

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CNC PLASMA CUTTING

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CNC TURNING

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CNC PRESS 4/14/2012 12 .

CNC RAPID PROTOTYPING 4/14/2012 13 .

INDUSTRIES MOST AFFECTED by CNC        Aerospace Machinery Electrical Fabrication Automotive Instrumentation Mold making 14 4/14/2012 .

SAMPLE PRODUCTS OF CNC MANUFACTURING 4/14/2012 15 .

AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY Engine Block 4/14/2012 16 .

AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY(Cont’d) Different Products 4/14/2012 17 .

AEROSPACE INDUSTRY Aircraft Turbine Machined by 5-Axis CNC Milling Machine 4/14/2012 18 .

CNC MOLD MAKING 4/14/2012 19 .

ELECTRONIC INDUSTRY 4/14/2012 20 .

RAPID PROTOTYPING PRODUCTS 4/14/2012 21 .

CNC SYSTEM ELEMENTS 4/14/2012 22 .

CNC SYSTEM ELEMENTS A typical CNC system consists of the following six elements Part program Program input device Machine control unit Drive system Machine tool Feedback system 23       4/14/2012 .

The machine table is controlled in the X and Y axes. while the spindle runs along the Z axis. 24 4/14/2012 .MACHINE TOOL  CNC controls are used to control various types of machine tools. Regardless of which type of machine tool is controlled. it always has a slide table and a spindle to control of position and speed.

FEEDBACK SYSTEM  The feedback system is also referred to as the measuring system. It uses position and speed transducers to continuously monitor the position at which the cutting tool is located at any particular time. 25 4/14/2012 . The MCU uses the difference between reference signals and feedback signals to generate the control signals for correcting position and speed errors.

TURNING CENTER CUTTERS Types of cutters used on CNC turning centers  Carbides (and other hard materials) insert turning and boring tools  Ceramics  High Speed Steel (HSS) drills and taps 4/14/2012 26 .

but 3 edges per side. Can turn and face like the C. W – newest shape. 2 edges per side. 27 . 4 edges per side. weakest insert. 2 edges per side. S – Very strong. T – commonly used for turning because it has 3 edges per side. R – strongest insert but least commonly used.STANDART INSERT SHAPES        4/14/2012 V – used for profiling. 2 edges per side. used for profiling when the angle allows it. C – popular insert because the same holder can be used for turning and facing. D – somewhat stronger. but mostly used for chamfering because it won’t cut a square shoulder.

TYPICAL TURNING. THREADING and PARTING TOOLS 4/14/2012 28 .

29 4/14/2012 .MACHINING CENTER CUTTING TOOLS    Most machining centers use some form of HSS or carbide insert endmill as the basic cutting tool. Insert endmills cut many times faster than HSS. but the HSS endmills leave a better finish when side cutting.

three. or four cutting lips. 4/14/2012 30 .and four-lip drills are used for enlarging holes that have been previously drilled. Modern drills can also have coolant holes for direct delivery of coolant through the end of the drill. The two-lip drill is used for drilling solid stock. The three.The tool most often used to make holes is the fluted drill. Drills are made with two.

MACHINING CENTER CUTTING TOOLS (cont’d)  Facemills flatten large surfaces quickly and with an excellent finish. 4/14/2012 31 . Notice the engine block being finished in one pass with a large cutter.

termed the milling cutter. End mills come in various shapes and sizes. The three basic shapes of standard end mills are flat.The rotating cutter. face mills. When milling. The most common milling cutter is the end mill. ballnose. Other tools that are often used are shell mills. each designed to perform a specific task. has almost an unlimited variety of shapes and sizes for milling regular and irregular forms. 4/14/2012 32 . and roughing mills. and bullnose. care must be taken not to take a cut that is deeper than the milling cutter can handle.

narrow slots must be cut. Slitting and side cutters are used when deep. 33 4/14/2012 .MACHINING CENTER CUTTING TOOLS (cont’d)   Ball endmills (both HSS and insert) are used for a variety of profiling operations such as the mold shown in the picture.

34 4/14/2012 . narrow slots must be cut.MACHINING CENTER CUTTING TOOLS (cont’d)   Ball endmills (both HSS and insert) are used for a variety of profiling operations such as the mold shown in the picture. Slitting and side cutters are used when deep.

Also. spiral point or gun taps are used for through holes and spiral flute for blind holes.MACHINING CENTER CUTTING TOOLS (cont’d)  Drills. Note that a spot drill is used instead of a centerdrill. 4/14/2012 35 . and Reamers Common HSS tools such as drills. taps. Taps. Rarely are hand taps used on a machining center. and reamers are commonly used on CNC machining centers.

TOOL HOLDERS  All cutting tools must be held in a holder that fits in the spindle. The machine pulls on the pull stud to hold the holder in the spindle. 4/14/2012 36 . 40. and the groove in the flange gives the automatic tool changer something to hold onto. but they are gaining acceptance slowly. collet holders. These include end mill holders (shown). Most machines in the USA use a CAT taper which is a modified NST 30. HSK tool holders were designed a number of years ago as an improvement to CAT tapers. etc. face mill adapters. or 50 taper that uses a pull stud and a groove in the flange.

CNC PROGRAMMING 4/14/2012 37 .

CNC PROGRAMMING      Offline programming linked to CAD programs. 38 4/14/2012 . MDI ~ Manual Data Input. Conversational programming by the operator. Word-Address Coding using standard G-codes and M-codes. Manual Control using jog buttons or `electronic handwheel'.

a dwell command which instructs the tool to remain in a given configuration for a given amount of time. Nonmodal commands: Commands that are effective only when issued and whose effects are lost for subsequent commands. like. etc. 4/14/2012 39 .Modal commands: Commands issued in the NC program that will stay in effect until it is changed by some other command. coolant selection. like. feed rate selection.

PREPARATION BEFORE CNC PROGRAMMING 4/14/2012 40 .

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The success of a CNC program is directly related to the preparation that you do before you write the CNC program. 2. 4/14/2012 42 . Choose your tooling and calculate speeds and feedrates. You should do three things before you begin to write a program: 1. Develop an order of operations. Do all the necessary math and complete a coordinate sheet.PREPARING TO PROGRAM Before you write a CNC program. 3. you must first prepare to write it.

Using them as references makes generation of the CNC program easier.The CNC operator can also use coordinate and setup sheets. 4/14/2012 43 .

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stops for part movement This information is conveyed to the machine through a set of instructions arranged in a desired sequence – Program. Flood. 4/14/2012 46 . Machining Parameters: Feed rate and spindle speed 4.RZ 3. Coordinates: X. incremental or absolute positioning 2. RX.INFORMATION NEEDED by a CNC 1. Cycle Functions: Type of action required 7. Tool Control: Tool and tool parameters 6. Mist 5. Miscellaneous Control: Spindle on/off. Coolant Control: On/Off.RY.Y. Preparatory Information: units. direction of rotation.Z.

0 Z0.125 F5        Each may contain only one tool move Each may contain any number of non-tool move G-codes Each may contain only one feedrate Each may contain only one specified tool or spindle speed The block numbers should be sequential Both the program start flag and the program number must be independent of all other commands (on separate lines) The data within a block should follow the sequence shown in the above sample block 47 4/14/2012 .0 Y1.BLOCK FORMAT Sample Block N135 G01 X1.

C.J.A.WORD-ADDRESS CODING Example CNC Program            N5 G90 G20 N10 M06 T3 N15 M03 S1250 N20 G00 X1 Y1 N25 Z0.Z. Each letter is associated with a specific type of action or piece of information needed by the machine.Y.R.K.G. Letters used in Codes N.S.1 N30 G01 Z-0.M 4/14/2012 48 .T.F.I.125 F5 N35 X3 Y2 F10 N40 G00 Z1 N45 X0 Y0 N50 M05 N55 M30 Each instruction to the machine consists of a letter followed by a number.X.B.

G & M Codes Example CNC Program            N5 G90 G20 N10 M06 T3 N15 M03 S1250 N20 G00 X1 Y1 N25 Z0. coolant on/off).e.125 F5 N35 X3 Y2 F10 N40 G00 Z1 N45 X0 Y0 N50 M05 N55 M30 • G-codes: Preparatory Functions involve actual tool moves. spindle on/off. 4/14/2012 49 .1 N30 G01 Z-0. • M-codes: Miscellaneous Functions – involve actions necessary for machining (i.

G-Codes G00 Rapid traverse G01 Linear interpolation with feedrate G02 Circular interpolation (clockwise) G03 Circular interpolation (counter clockwise) G54 G55 G56 G57 G58 G59 G70 G71 Zero offset #1 Zero offset #2 Zero offset #3 Zero offset #4 Zero offset #5 Zero offset #6 Inch format active Metric format active G04 G17 Dwell time in milliseconds Selection of the X. Y plane G18 G19 Selection of the Z. Z plane G80 Canned cycle "off" G81 Drilling to final depth canned cycle G82 Spot facing with dwell time canned cycle G83 Deep hole drilling canned cycle G84 Tapping or Thread cutting with balanced chuck canned cycle G85 Reaming canned cycle G86 Boring canned cycle G90 G91 G94 G95 rev) Absolute programming Incremental programming Feed in mm / min (or inch / min) Feed per revolution (mm / rev or inch / 50 G40 Path compensations "off" G41 Path compensation left of the work piece contour G42 Path compensation right of the work piece contour 4/14/2012 . X plane Selection of the Y.

M codes M00 M01 M02 M03 M04 M05 M06 M19 M20 G35) M21 M30 Unconditional stop Conditional stop End of program Spindle clockwise Spindle counterclockwise Spindle stop Tool change Spindle orientation Start oscillation (configured by End oscillation End of program 4/14/2012 51 .

Modal G-Codes  Most G-codes set the machine in a “mode” which stays in effect until it is changed or cancelled by another G-code. These commands are called “modal”. 4/14/2012 52 .

CW Circular Interpolation. CCW G17 XY Plane G18 XZ Plane G19 YZ Plane G20/G70 Inch units G21/G71 Metric Units G40 Cutter compensation cancel G41 Cutter compensation left G42 Cutter compensation right G43 Tool length compensation (plus)          G43 Tool length compensation (plus) G44 Tool length compensation (minus) G49 Tool length compensation cancel G80 Cancel canned cycles G81 Drilling cycle G82 Counter boring cycle G83 Deep hole drilling cycle G90 Absolute positioning G91 Incremental positioning 4/14/2012 53 .Modal G-Code List              G00 G01 G02 G03 Rapid Transverse Linear Interpolation Circular Interpolation.

reset to start 4/14/2012 54 .M Codes           M00 Program stop M01 Optional program stop M02 Program end M03 Spindle on clockwise M04 Spindle on counterclockwise M05 Spindle stop M06 Tool change M08 Coolant on M09 Coolant off M30 Program stop.

It is generally good practice to increment each block number by 5 or 10 to allow additional blocks to be inserted if future changes are required. 55  4/14/2012 .N Codes  Gives an identifying number for each block of information.

and Z codes are used to specify the coordinate axis.X. 4/14/2012 56 . Number following the code defines the coordinate at the end of the move relative to an incremental or absolute reference point. and Z Codes   X.Y. Y.

I. and K codes are used to specify the coordinate axis when defining the center of a circle. 57  4/14/2012 . and K Codes  I.J. J. Number following the code defines the respective coordinate for the center of the circle.

58   4/14/2012 .S.F. and T Codes  F-code: used to specify the feed rate S-code: used to specify the spindle speed T-code: used to specify the tool identification number associated with the tool to be used in subsequent operations.

Application of Some Codes G01 Linear Interpolation Format: N_ G01 X_ Y_ Z_ F_  Linear Interpolation results in a straight line feed move. the coordinates are associated with the centerline of the tool. 59  4/14/2012 . Unless tool compensation is used.

initial motion is at an angle of 45o to the axes until motion in one of the axes is completed and then the balance of the motion occurs in the other axis. for the motion that occurs in x-y plane with the same maximum speed for the x. This is called point-to-point motion.Application of Some Codes G01 Linear Interpolation  . As an example.and y-axis.  4/14/2012 60 .

Application of Some Codes G01 Linear Interpolation 2 5 B 2 0 C 1 5 1 0 P o s i t i o n i n g N 1 0 G 0 0 m o t i o n f r o m F 0 A t o C A 5 X 3 0 0 0 0 Y 2 0 0 0 0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0 4/14/2012 61 .

4/14/2012 62 . cutting a slot in milling.Application of Some Codes G01 Linear Interpolation G01 is another preparatory function to specify that the tool should be moved to a specified location along a straight line path. etc. It is referred to as linear interpolation. This function is typically used to specify machining of straight features such as turning a cylindrical surface in turning.

Application of Some Codes G01 Linear Interpolation L i n e a r 2 5 N 1 0 G 0 1 i n t e r p o l a t i o n X 3 0 0 0 0 Y 2 0 0 0 0 f r o m A t o C F 2 5 0 0 C 2 0 1 5 1 0 A 5 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0 4/14/2012 63 .

G01 Linear Interpolation X N10 G00 X1 Z1 N15 Z0.1 N20 G01 Z-0.125 F5 N25 X2 Z2 F10 Z 4/14/2012 64 .

the end point of the arc and the location of the center of the arc should be specified. In order to specify the path to the MCU. Within the block in which the G02 code is programmed. the center of the arc is given by specifying its location relative to the start of the arc.G02 Circular Interpolation  G02 is also a preparatory function to specify that the tool should be moved to a specified location along a circular path in a clockwise direction. 65 4/14/2012 .

I.J.G02 Circular Interpolation (CW)   The G02 command requires an endpoint and a radius in order to cut the arc. and K are relative to the start point. N_ G02 X2 Y1 I0 J-1 F10 or N_ G02 X2 Y1 R1 4/14/2012 66 .

G02 Circular Interpolation (CW) C i r c u l a r a b o u t N 1 0 2 5 a i n t e r p o l a t i o n c i r c l e X 2 0 0 0 0 c e n t e r e d Y 1 0 0 0 0 f r o m a t C A t o B G 0 2 I 5 0 0 0 J 1 5 0 0 0 F 2 5 0 0 I = 5 2 0 A C 1 5 J = 1 5 1 0 B C 5 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0 4/14/2012 67 .

The sequence of some machining operations is may be the same for any part and for any machine. drilling a hole involves the following steps: Position the tool above the point where the hole will be drilled Set the correct spindle speed Feed the tool into the workpiece at a controlled feed rate to a predetermined depth Retract the tool at a rapid rate to just above the point where the hole started Canned Cycles 4/14/2012 68 . For example.

Some Commonly Used Canned Cycle Code G81 G82 Function Drilling Spot face. counterbore Down feed Continuous feed Continuous feed At bottom No action Dwell Retracti on Rapid Rapid G83 G84 G85 G86 Deep hole drilling Tapping Peck Continuous feed No action Reverse spindle No action Stop spindle Rapid Feed rate Feed rate Rapid 69 Through boring(in Continuous & out) feed Through boring(in Continuous only) feed 4/14/2012 .

G81 ILLUSTRATION 4/14/2012 70 .

use tool # 2) (Turn the spindle on CW to 1200 rpm) 71   N15 M03 S1200 4/14/2012 . metric) (Stop for tool change.Program Setup  N5 G90 G21 N10 M06 T2 (Absolute units.Three Main parts of a CNC program Part 1.

Three Main parts of a CNC program Part 2.Y2) N40 G00 Z1 (Rapid up to Z1) N45 X0 Y0 (Rapid to X0.125 F100 (Feed down to Z-0.Y0) 72 4/14/2012 .125 (Rapid down to Z0.Chip Removal       N20 G00 X1 Y1 (Rapid to X1.125) N30 G01 Z-0.Y1 from origin point) N25 Z0.125 at 100 mm/min) N35 G01 X2 Y2 (Feed diagonally to X2.

Three Main parts of a CNC program Part 3.System Shutdown  N50 M05 N55 M00 (Turn the spindle off) (Program stop)  4/14/2012 73 .

EXAMPLE OPERATION on CNC MILLING MACHINE 4/14/2012 74 .

125 F5 N40 X3. Tool 1 is a ½ inch dia.125 Y0.125 N50 X0. end mill.125 N35 G01 Z-0.875 N45 Y4.G-CODE PROGRAM  First pass : conventional mill to a depth of 0.125 N30 Z0. % :1002 N5 G90 G20 N10 M06 T1 N15 M03 S1200 N20 G00 X0.125 N55 Y0.125 4/14/2012 75 .125 around edge profile.

125 X0.125 Y0. N35 N40 N45 N50 N55 N60 4/14/2012 Z-0.125 76 .875 Y4. Second pass: conventional mill to a depth of 0.250 X3.125 Z0.25 around edge profile.

5 X1. Third pass: conventional mill to a depth of 0.0 G01 Z-0.75 Y2. N65 N70 N75 N80 N85 N90 N95 G00 X1.125 77 4/14/2012 .25 Y1.125 around pocket profile.0 Z0.25 Y1.125 F5 X1.

N100 Y2.625 N110 Z0.125 across remaining material.125 N105 X2. Fourth pass: climb mill to a depth of 0.125 N115 G00 X-5 Y-5 Z5 N120 M05 N125 M30 4/14/2012 78 .

Ability to scale the program and produce larger or smaller programs. Parabolic and cubic interpolation.Advanced features:     Execution of the part of the program in a rotated or mirrored position. Three dimensional circular interpolation which produces a helical shape. 4/14/2012 79 .

Program Loading:      Through Through Through Through Through keyboard punched tape reader diskette drive RS 232 serial port network interface card 4/14/2012 80 .

Computer Aided Part Programming:  NC program preparation may be tedious and difficult if the part to be machined has a complex geometry. The main difficulty is to find out the cutter locations during the machining. 4/14/2012 81 . Computers may be used to assist the programmers in preparing the NC codes.

It provides the cutter path simulation. It makes the program preparation easier.Advantages of applying computer-aided part programming include the following:      1. It reduces the manual calculations involves in determining the geometric characteristics of the part. It shortens the program preparation time. It provides tool collision checking. 82 4/14/2012 .

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