style specifies the names and order of headings, formatting, and organization of citations and references, and the arrangement of tables, figures, footnotes, and appendices, as well as other manuscript and documentation features.  APA style uses Harvard referencing, also known as the author-date system of citations and parenthetical referencing


format is the official style used by the American Psychological Association and is commonly used in psychology, education, and other social sciences.


note should give the least amount of information needed to identify the source – and give it within the paper itself. Readers who want to know more about can consult the list of works cited for further information.

 When

citing references in the text of your paper, use the author's name followed by the date of publication.  Consider this:  You were to cite Sigmund Freud book The Interpretation of Dreams.  Format: (Freud, 1900)  Note:  The extended information on the source should then appear in your reference section.

 All

sources cited should appear both intext and on the reference page. Any reference that appears in the text of your report or article must be cited on the references page, and any item appearing on your reference page must also be included somewhere in the body of your text.  Titles of books, journals, magazines, and newspapers should appear in italics.


Work by Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses. Example:  Research by Wegener and Petty (1994) supports...  (Wegener & Petty, 1994)

 List

all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source.
(Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993) Note: In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses.  (Kernis et al., 1993)  Latin phrase "et alia"

In et al., et should not be followed by a period.


the first author's name followed by et al. in the signal phrase or in parentheses.
 Harris

et al. (2001) argued...  (Harris et al., 2001)

 If

the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles and chapters are in quotation marks.  A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers ("Using APA," 2001).

 In

the rare case the "Anonymous" is used for the author, treat it as the author's name (Anonymous, 2001). In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author.

 If

the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source.
 Example:

According to the American Psychological Association (2000),...

 If

the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations.  First citation: (Mothers Against Drunk Driving [MADD], 2000)  Second citation: (MADD, 2000)


your parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them the same way they appear in the reference list, separated by a semi-colon. Sample: (Berndt, 2002; Harlow, 1983)


prevent confusion, use first initials with the last names. (E. Johnson, 2001; L. Johnson, 1998)

 If

you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the intext citation. Sample:  Research by Berndt (1981a) illustrated that...

Insert parenthetical notes in the passage.


The world’s most advanced bicycle was invented in 1977 by Swiss Inventor Ugo Zwingli. [You discovered this information on page 33 of Vilma Mayer’s book, 101 Offbeat Ideas, published by the Phantom Company of Chicago in 1994.]

2. When he first encountered Zwingli’s invention, cyclist Freddie Mercxx exclaimed: “This will either revolutionize road racing or set it back a hundred years!” [Mercxx wrote this on page 44 of his column, “New Products,” which appeared on pages 44 and 45 of the November 1978 Cyclist’s



Zwingli had discovered a revolutionary way to reinforce tissue paper. The result was a frame so lightweight that it would actually gain speed while coasting uphill. [This too was taken from Mayer’s book, page 36.] (Refer to Item #1)

4. Learners are involved in role plays and practice simulations, and through these develop an ability to carry out creativeand imaginative learning projects outside of the language classroom. [David Nunan wrote this in his book Second Language Teaching and Learning, published by the Cengage Learning Asia in 2009]


CITATION: A research paper should be something new, a fresh synthesis of information and ideas from many sources.

[You got this information from Ana Borja, Rey Tan, Daniel Scott, Jane Locke, Thomas Dane’s book’s Writing a Research Paper published in 2005 by Rex Bookstore]

 For

interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicators name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication. Do not include personal communication in the reference list.  (E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).  A. P. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication, November 3, 2002).

 If

you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses.  Johnson argued that...(as cited in Smith, 2003, p. 102).
 Note:When

citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above.

 If

no author or date is given, use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation "n.d." (for "no date"). Sample: Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring ("Tutoring and APA," n.d.).

Internet and Electronic References

Irving, D. Hitler’s war. (1977). New York: Viking. Retrieved January 19, 2003, from http://www.fpp.co.uk/books/Hit ler

Clinton, B. (2002, September 10). The path to peace. Salon.com. Retrieved January 20, 2003, from http://www.salon.com/news/ feature/2002/09/10/clinton
Fineman, H., & Lipper, T. (2003, January 27). Spinning race. Newsweek. Retrieved January 19, 2009, from http://www.msnbc.com/news/89291.asp/

The Coral Reef Alliance. (n.d.). Coral friendly guidelines. Retrived January 21, 2009, from http://www.coralreefalliance.org/parks /guidelines.html
Hemming, S. (n.d.). [Home page]. Retrieved January 21, 2009, from http://www. Sallyhemming.com

Insert parenthetical notes in the passage.


A frequent mistake made by beginning scholars is to give notes only for quotations. Remember that you need to acknowledge your debts to your sources, whether you quote their exact words or only borrow their ideas.

[ You got this information from interviewing Judy Ann Santos on January 8, 2009]

2. It is widely accepted that about one third of Europe’s population died from the Black Death. [ This information is originally from Tuchman in his book Black Death published in 1994 as cited in Harold Kingfisher’s Book’s The History of Europe, page 90, published in 2004]

3. (unknown author and unknown date) In writing a research paper, you are creating something new, even if almost all the ideas and information in it are from your sources. At the very least, your contribution is to synthesize this information and present it in a fresh way. [You got this from an article entitled Writing a Research Paper]

4. The principal purpose of a conclusion is not to say something new but to draw the ends of the paper together and to leave to the reader with a satisfying sense of closure.
[This is a personal interview with Dr. Mary Ann Lopez on January 12, 2009]

5. (unknown author and unknown date) Herbal folk remedies have been imported to the West with mixed results. An East African tea seems to be effective against cholera, while moxibustion, a Chinese remedy for diarrhea is still largely untested.

Thank you!

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/APA_style
 http://psychology.about.com/od/apastyle/a

/apageneral.htm  http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resourc e/560/03/  http://www.umassd.edu/specialprograms/in fo_lit/cite.html

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