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s d

Developments in Martensitic and Bainitic Steels: Role of Shape Deformation

RECONSTRUCTIVE
Diffusion of all atoms during nucleation and growth. Sluggis h below about 850 K.

DISPLACIVE
Invariant-plane strain shape deformation with large shear component. No iron or substitutional solute diffusion. Thin plate shape.

ALLOTRIOMORPHIC FERRITE IDIOMORPHIC FERRITE

.. WIDMANSTATTEN FERRITE
Carbon diffusion during paraequilibrium nuc leation & growth.

MASSIVE FERRITE
No c hange in bulk composition.

BAINITE & ACICULAR FERRITE


Carbon diffusion during paraequilibrium nuc leation. No diffusion during growth.

PEARLITE
Cooperative growth of ferrite & cementite.

MARTENSITE
Diffusionless nucleation & growth.

Watson and McDougall

Swallow & Bhadeshia, 1996

Lower bainite, transformed with and without stress


Chang et al., 1996

500

bainite

Residual Stress / MPa

400 300 200 100 0 -100

austenite

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

Temperature / C

500

martensite

Residual Stress / MPa

400 300 200 100 0 -100

bainite austenite

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

Temperature / C
Jones & Alberry, 1977

Ohta et al., 2000-2003

Ohta et al., 2000-2003

Lower bainite, transformed with and without stress


Chang et al., 1996

Ohta et al., 2000-2003

Ohta et al., 2000-2003

s c r
1

Singh & Bhadeshia, 1998

What is the minimum temperature at which bainite can be obtained?

The nucleation of bainite must involve the partitioning of carbon. The mechanism of nucleation is otherwise identical to that of martensite.

Carbon supersaturated plate

Carbon diffusion into austenite

Carbon diffusion into austenite and carbide precipitation in ferrite

Carbide precipitation from austenite

UPPER BAINITE (High Temperature)

LOWER BAINITE (Low Temperature)

Bainite-start temperature

Fe-2Si-3Mn-C wt%
800

Temperature / K

600 400 MS

BS

200 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4

Carbon / wt%

Fe-2Si-3Mn-C wt%
1.E+08 1 month Time / s
1 year

1.E+04

1.E+00 0 0.5 Carbon / wt% 1 1.5

Low transformation temperature


Bainitic hardenability Reasonable transformation time

Elimination of cementite
Austenite grain size control Avoidance of temper embrittlement

wt%
C 0.98 Si 1.46 Mn 1.89 Mo 0.26 Cr 1.26 V 0.09 P < 0.002

700
600

Temperature/ oC

500 400 300 200 100 0 1.E+00 1.E+02 1.E+04 1.E+06 1.E+08
MS = 120oC
o BS ~ 350 C

Time / s

100 80 60 40 20 0 200 250

Percentage of phase

retained X-ray diffraction results

austenite

bainitic ferrite

Temperature/oC

300

325

50 nm

a
a

a
20 nm

Faster Transformation
C 0.98 Si 1.46 Mn 1.89 Mo 0.26 Cr 1.26 V 0.09 P < 0.002

Cobalt (1.5 wt%) and aluminium (1 wt%) increase the stability of ferrite relative to austenite
Refine austenite grain size

Steel

Beginning End 4d 2d 16h 9d 5d 3d

% Bainite 69 79 78

HV 618 690 690

200oC

Original Co Co+ Al

Original

5h 4h 1h

3/4d 11h 8h

63 77 76

550 640 640

250oC

Co Co + Al

300oC

Original Co Co + Al

2.5h 1h 0.5h

1/2d 5h 4h

55 66 66

420 490 490

Scifer, 5.5 GPa with ductility!

Kobe Steel

10000

Tensile Strength / MPa

8000

6000

4000

"Scifer"
2000

Whisker
0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Fibre or Whisker Diameter / m

1 Denier: weight in grams, of 9 km of fibre

50-10 Denier

Scifer is 9 Denier

Ueji et al., 2002

Ueji et al., 2002

Can completely eliminate tensile residual stresses in welded joints.

Extremely fine, strong and tough steel in bulk form.


s d

Tempered 400C 30 min

Tempered 400C 30 min 500 MPa stress

Stewart et al., 1994

Martensite, low and high stress

Mateo et al., 2003