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Newtons

second law of motion states that the rate of change of momentum of an object with time is directly proportional to the net force acting on it.
F = ma F = m(v-u) t F = mv-mu t

a = v-u t

The Second Law is concerned with

relating acceleration to mass and net


force. Newton's second law of motion explains how an object will change velocity if it is pushed or pulled upon.

Firstly, this law states that if you do place a force on an object, it will accelerate, i.e., change its velocity, and it will change its velocity in the direction of the force. Secondly, this acceleration is directly proportional to the force. For example, if you are pushing on an object, causing it to

accelerate, and then you push, say, three times harder, the
acceleration will be three times greater. Thirdly, this acceleration is inversely proportional to the mass of the object. For example, if you are pushing equally on two objects, and one of the objects has five times more mass than the other, it will accelerate at one fifth the acceleration of the other.

Acceleration is directly proportional to the applied net force.

FOR EXAMPLE : There are two objects with same masses. But the force applied on the objects are different. This can be shown in a diagram below:
MASS MASS a a

SMALL FORCE APPLIED

BIGGER FORCE APPLIED

Both of the objects accelerate. The velocity in each case gets greater and greater. That is, the speed increases. However, the two accelerations are not all the same. Every one speeds up, but

they speed up differently.


The acceleration at the bottom is the largest acceleration. The velocity changes by the largest amount per second here. Note that the largest force is applied to this mass. So the largest force has the largest acceleration.

The acceleration at the top is the smallest acceleration. Here the


velocity changes by the smallest amount per second. Also, here we have the smallest force. So the smallest applied force creates the smallest acceleration.

Acceleration is inversely proportional to mass.

FOR EXAMPLE: There are two objects with different masses are applied with the same force. This can be shown in the diagram below:
FORCE

MASS 1

BIGGER ACCELERATION

MASS 2

FORCE

SMALL ACCELERATION

All of the objects accelerate. The velocity in each case gets greater and greater. That is, the speed increases. However, the three accelerations are not all the same. All the objects are speeding up;

it's the way they are speeding up that is different.

The acceleration at the top is the largest acceleration. The velocity changes by the greatest amount per second here. Note that here we have the smallest mass. So the smallest mass has the largest acceleration.

The acceleration at the bottom is the smallest acceleration. Here


the velocity changes by the least amount per second. Also, here we have the biggest mass. So the biggest mass has the smallest acceleration.

Newton's Second Law of Motion is often summarized with the equation:

This equation is interpreted as:

The applied net force on an object is equal to the mass of the


object multiplied by the acceleration of the object.
We can simplify that from the equation F = ma; Force when mass Acceleration when force Acceleration when mass

To verify Newtons Second Law. To determine the relationship between force, mass and acceleration.

Newtons Second Law:

F = ma

According to Newtons Second Law, F = ma, where F is the net force acting on the object of mass m, and a is the resulting acceleration of the object.
T

Force diagram

The motion shown can be stated as T = m1a m2g T = m2a and

Since m2g m1a = m2a, then a = (m2/ (m1 + m2))g

From the equation s = ut + at

Noted that u = 0

s = 0 + at
the acceleration will be a = (2s/t)

Parameter

Unit

Run 1

Run 2

Run 3

Run 4

Run 5

Run 6

Distance, d
Mass of cart, m1 Mass of hanger, m2 Mass of cart, mx

Mass of cart, my
Time trial 1, t1 Time trial 2, t2 Time trial 3, t3

m kg kg kg kg s s s

0.8 0.255 0.005 0.25 0 0.0801 0.0214 0.0173

0.8 0.255 0.005 0.2 0.05 0.0188 0.0189 0.0188

0.8 0.255 0.005 0.15 0.1 0.0172 0.0172 0.0192

0.8 0.255 0.005 0.1 0.15 0.0142 0.0142 0.0148

0.8 0.255 0.005 0.05 0.2 0.0122 0.0118 0.0118

0.8 0.255 0.005 0 0.25 0.0111 0.0109 0.011

Time trial for each run

Analysis of trial time to obtain acceleration


Parameter Total mass on cart MT1 Total mass on hanger MT2 Total mass, MT = MT1 + MT2 Force, F = MT2g Average time, Tavg = (t1 + t2 + t3) / 3 Square if average time Tavg Acceleration, a = 2d/Tavg Unit kg kg kg kgm/s s s m/s Run 1 0.505 0.005 0.51 0.05 0.0396 Run 2 0.455 0.055 0.51 0.54 0.0188 Run 3 0.405 0.105 0.51 1.03 0.0172 Run 4 0.355 0.155 0.51 1.52 0.0144 Run 5 0.305 0.205 0.51 2.011 0.0119 Run 6 0.255 0.255 0.51 2.502 0.011

0.00157 0.00035 0.0003 0.00021 0.00014 0.00012 0.001 0.0046 0.0053 0.0076 0.00011 0.00013

Based on our results, we can simplify that when the Taverage increases, thus the acceleration will decrease.
a = 2d / Taverage

This happens because a is inversely proportional to the average time.


We can simplify that the relationship between the force, mass and acceleration can be derived from the equation F = ma; Force when mass Acceleration when force Acceleration when mass

G R A P H

As the graph shown, we can conclude that acceleration, a is directly proportional to the force. As the weight of hanger increases proportionally to the mass car which is decreasing, it will affect the acceleration. The acceleration will increase when we increase the weight of hanger and decrease the mass of cart. The acceleration can be determined by the time taken; and it shows that a will increase if only the time taken decrease.

Hence,

our results verify the Newtons Second Law where F = ma. Based on both equation and graph, F is directly proportional to acceleration. Thus, this experiment do verify the theory of Newtons Second Law. The experiment is successful.