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Mandeep Bhatia (74) Nishita Jain (91) Puja Sarraf (111) Mayank Arora (79) Kanika Makhija (67)

Rahul Seth (114) Nikhil Chaudhary (92)


What is a questionnaire?
A set of questions on a topic or group of topics designed to be answered by a respondent to generate the data necessary for accomplishing a research project's objectives

The Questionnaires Pivotal Role in the Research Process

Survey Objectives Questionnaire

Respondent Information

Data Analysis



Managerial Action

The basic functions of questionnaire

It translates research objectives to be questions. It standardizes the questions and the response categories: every respondents can give the information that we want. It keeps communicating with respondents in a professional way. It is the permanent records of survey. It is helpful for the process of data analysis. It helps in extracting reliable information provided by respondents.

Consider The Following

The following questionnaire. question appeared in a mail

Do you consider the many marketing research texts adequate for most of your business majors at the undergraduate level ? _____ Yes ____ No If no; briefly, why not?
What do you think? Easy or difficult to answer?

Golden Rules
1. 2. 3. 4. Understand the goals of the project. Keep the survey simple. Field/Pilot-test the survey. Consider the demographic characteristics of the respondents. 5. Visual appeal.

Golden Rule #1 Understand the Project Goals

A comprehensive understanding of the project goals paves the way for successful surveying. Without that understanding, it is impossible to appropriately design and to maximize the power of the survey.

Golden Rule #2 Keep It Simple

Avoid the temptation to add a couple of questions just in case you did not cover all the bases. Only ask questions that fit the scheme of your project. In this case, oftentimes, less is more. The design focus should be quality not quantity.

Golden Rule #3 Field/Pilot Test

Pre-testing the survey enhances clarity, removes word meaning obscurity, establishes approximate time to completion, proper sequencing, question transitioning, and helps assure that questions are not too difficult.

Golden Rule #4 Respondent Demographic Characteristics

It is important to know what and how demographic characteristics may impact the interpretation and meaning of certain questions. Variations truly exist from one setting to the next.


Golden Rule #5 Visual Appeal

Appearance means everything. If the survey appears complex and difficult to follow with the eyes, respondents will be less likely to do a good job. It should appear to be short, organized, and easy to answer.


Questionnaire Design
Questionnaire design is a systematic process in which the researcher contemplates various question formats, considers a number of factors characterizing the survey at hand, ultimately words the various questions very carefully, and organizes the questionnaires layout

Step 1: Define the aims of the study

Write out the problem and primary and secondary aims using one sentence per aim. Formulate a plan for the statistical analysis of each aim. Make sure to define the target population in your aim(s).


Step 2: Define the variables to be collected

Write a detailed list of the information to be collected and the concepts to be measured in the study. Are you trying to identify: Attitudes Needs Behavior Demographics Some combination of these concepts Translate these concepts into variables that can be measured.

Step 3: Review the literature

Review current literature to identify related surveys and data collection instruments that have measured concepts similar to those related to your studys aims. Saves development time and allows for comparison with other studies if used appropriately. Proceed with caution if using only a subset of an existing questionnaire as this may change the meaning of the scores.

Step 4: Compose a draft:

Determine the mode of survey administration: face-to-face interviews telephone interviews self-completed questionnaires computer-assisted approaches Write more questions than will be included in the final draft. Format the draft as if it were the final version with appropriate white space to get an accurate estimate as to its length (longer questionnaires reduce the response rate).

Place the most important items in the first half of the questionnaire to increase response on the important measures even in partially completed surveys. Make sure questions flow naturally from one to another.


Step 5: Revise
Shorten the set of questions for the study. If a question does not address one of your aims, discard it. Refine the questions included and their wording by testing them with a variety of respondents.
Ensure the flow is natural. Verify that terms and concepts are familiar and easy to understand for your target audience. Keep recall to a minimum and focus on the recent past.

Step 6: Assemble the final questionnaire:

At the top, clearly state: The purpose of the study How the data will be used Instructions on how to fill out the questionnaire Your policy on confidentiality Group questions concerning major subject areas together and introduce them by heading or short descriptive statements. Order and format questions to ensure unbiased and balanced results

Questionnaire layout
Keep questionnaire short if possible, but not too short that you sacrifice needed information Do not over crowd questionnaire Provide decent margin space Use multiple- grid layout for questions with similar responses Use good quality print paper. Use booklet form if possible Carefully craft the questionnaire title: 1. Captures respondents interest. 2. Shows importance of the study.

3. Shows interesting nature of the study.


Response Formats
Survey developers use several different types of response formats. Listed below are several of the most common response formats: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Multiple choice Open ended Rank order Rating Scale To what extent Closed ended True/False

Alternative question formats are shown below

Open ended Question type Closed ended

Multiple choice

Simple dichotomy

Determinant choice


Open Questions
Advantages: Freedom and spontaneity of the answers Opportunity to probe Useful for testing hypothesis about ideas Disadvantages: Time-consuming Coding: very costly and slow to process Demand more effort from the respondents

Closed Questions
Advantages: No extended writing Easy to process Useful for testing specific hypothesis Disadvantages: Loss of spontaneous response Bias in answer categories May irritate respondents as he is not able to express himself

Costs and Profitability

Understanding Questionnaire Costs:

Termination during an interview subject matter

redundant or difficult
questionnaire length changing the subject