WHAT ARE VISUALS? Visuals – are materials that have an effect on the sense of sight. These are communication devices that serve as concrete referents to the spoken or written word.
Hearing10 % Sight 83 % Smell 4% Taste 1%

Touch 2%

USES OF VISUALS 1.Visuals can help the learners to remember 2.theVisuals ideas. help motivate original can students to learn by attracting and maintaining their 3. Often complicated information and attention. those ideas that are difficult to remember can be 4. Visuals can help the learners simplified using appropriate visuals understand certain concepts better.

DECODING - includes reading visuals accurately, understanding and relating the elements of a visual, being able to translate from visual to verbal and vice versa, and appreciating the aesthetics of visual. ENCODING - ability to write or encode visuals as a tool for communication. it includes using the tools of visual media to communicate effectively with others and express one’s self through visuals.


humans to discriminate and interpret the visible action, objects, and/or symbols, natural or constructed, “an that they encounterpromoting understanding, organizing force in in the environment” retention, and recall of so many academic concepts with which students must contend”

“the ability to ‘read,’ interpret, and understand information presented in pictorial or graphic images” “a group of competencies that allows

“the active reconstruction of past visual experience with incoming visual messages to obtain meaning with the emphasis on the action by the learner to create recognition” “is a learned ability to interpret visual messages accurately and to create such messages”

Four Basic Goals of Visual Design • Ensure legibility of words and pictures in your visual • Reduce the effort needed in interpreting message • Increase active engagement of viewer with message • Focus attention on the most important parts of message

Considerations in Designing Visuals 1.

Elements • Lettering style (font type) – There are two types of font, serif and san-serif. For instructional purposes, a san-serif lettering styles such as Arial, or simple serif style like Times New Roman is recommended. It is also acceptable to use the serif style in the main text, and serif and san-serif for headings. Avoid using fancy font styles which are difficult to read.


• Technology
fonts • Technology • Technology • Technology • Technology

San-serif Fonts with serifs Script fonts Crazy fonts Old English Fonts

Number of lettering styles - Keep this to no more than two in any static display (chart, bulletin board) or a series of related visuals (set of transparencies or computer presentation slides), and make sure that the two font types harmonize with each other. If variations of a

Use of capitals - Short headlines or titles of no more than six words may be written in all capitals (upper case). However, for anything longer than that, best legibility is achieved by using lower case lettering for all words, adding capitals only where normally required.

• Lettering color - Contrast lettering

with the background. This makes the words easy to see and read. This contrasting technique is also useful when you want to emphasize certain information in your visual. that allows good visibility even by the student seated right at the back of the classroom.

• Lettering size - Choose a lettering size

• Spacing between letters - If you are

using a computer to generate the text, it will automatically space the letters in every word. However, if you need to space the letters yourself, you should space them optically rather than mechanically.

Example TEACH TEACH Mechanical Spacing Optical Spacing

• Spacing between lines – If lines of text

are too close together, they tend to be blur out at a distance, while lines too far apart will seem disjoint. If the paragraph of text is computergenerated, a one-a-half line spacing may be the best choice. type

• Number of lines – This depends on the


• Alignment of elements – Use this to

show clear visual relationships between the main elements in the visual. Align related elements along the same horizontal or vertical lines.

• Shape – The visual and verbal elements

• Balance - A sense of balance is

achieved when the `weight' of the elements in a visual is equally distributed on each side of its vertical or horizontal axis.

• Style - Choose a design style which
matches your audience. But as far as possible, choose an uncluttered primarycolor design style rather than one filled

• Color scheme - Select colors that

produce harmony rather than annoyance. You may choose to use complementary colors (colors that lie directly opposite on the color wheel, e.g., red-green, blue-orange, yellowviolet), but make sure that they are not of the same intensity or else dissonance instead of harmony may result. Analogous colors e.g. blue and green usually form pleasing harmonious combinations.

• Color appeal - Consider the `emotional'

impact of colors in your choice. Blue ,green and violet are considered `cool' colors, while red and orange are termed `warm' colors. Specifically, red means danger or action, orange – warmth or energy, blue - aloofness or clarity,


Once you have established the underlying pattern of your visual you will need to arrange the elements within the pattern. You can use the principle of proximity by placing related elements close together, and unrelated items far

• Directional such as arrows, are devices

for directing the viewer's attention to a particular part of the visual, or to `read' the visual in a particular sequence. Other examples for directing attention are bolding of text, use of bullets, change of size, use of a contrasting


• Visual Effects

Text and graphic animations Transitional effects

• Color guidelines
Backgroun d White Light gray Blue Light blue Light yellow Graphs & Text Dark blue Blue, green, black Light yellow, white Dark blue, dark green Violet, brown Highlights Red, orange Red Yellow, red Red, orange Red

Use of Color

Basic Guidelines Do’s for Computer-based presentation

• Do use landscape • Do use san-serif types of fonts • Do leave extra space between

paragraph • Do use left justification • Do use graphics to focus on an important area

• Do consider the use of graphics,

animations and video clips when it is difficult to describe something verbally. screen.

• Do have plenty of empty space on a • Do eliminate distracting backgrounds. • Do have consistency in the design.

Don'ts for computer-based presentation

• Don't use `portrait' (tall) orientation. • Don't put too much information on one
screen display. • Don't use too much or too little highlighting. • Don't use decorative clip art to confuse the message • Don’t use poor quality originals scanning pictures

• Don't use all capital letters. • Don't split words at the end of a line
or hyphenate them. • Don't break a sentence across screens. orientation. audio without a good purpose.

• Don't use graphics, animations or • Don't use special visual effects (such
as flying letters, words or objects)

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