Pumps and Pumping Systems

Energy Balance for a Typical Pumping
System
ELECTRICITY
100%
12% LOSS
2% LOSS
24% LOSS
9% LOSS
11% LOSS
MOTOR
COUPLING
PUMPS
VALVES
PIPES
WORK DONE ON WATER
(Source: ASHRAE HVAC Systems and Equipment Handbook 2004)
Base plate-mounted centrifugal pump installation
Centrifugal pump
(Source: Wang, S. K., 2001. Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration)
A double-suction, horizontal split-case, single-stage centrifugal pump
Pump motor Centrifugal pump body
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
• DEFINITION: DEVICE THAT USES AN EXTERNAL POWER
SOURCE TO APPLY FORCE TO A FLUID IN ORDER TO
MOVE IT FROM ONE PLACE TO ANOTHER

• USED TO DECREASE THE MECHANICAL ENERGY OF
FLUID.

• THE ENERGY DECREASES MAY BE USED TO DECREASE
THE VELOCITY. THE PRESSURE OR THE ELEVATION OF
THE FLUID.

CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
• PUMPS FIND APPLICATION IN VARIOUS TYPES OF
INDUSTRIES SUCH AS
-CHEMICAL
-PETROCHEMICAL
-REFINERIES
-FERTILISERS
-PAPER
-SUGAR ETC
• THE PUBLIC WORKS, THERMAL POWER STATIONS, SEWAGE
TREATMENT PLANTS AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ALSO FIND
MAJOR APPLICATION FOR PUMPS.

*ADVANTAGES OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS

- SIMPLICITY

- LOW FIRST COST

- UNIFORM FLOW ( NON - PULSATING)

- SMALL FLOOR SPACE

- LOW OPERATION & MAINTENANCE EXPENSE

- QUICK OPERATION AND

- ADOPTABILITY TO USE WITH MOTOR OR
TURBINE DRIVE.


CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
INDUSTRY /SECTOR ANNUAL SAVING POTENTIAL

(in Rs. Million)* (in MW)

CHEMICAL &
PETROCHEMICAL PLANT 700 29.30
PULP AND PAPER PLANT 675 28.30
STEEL PLANT 400 16.70
FERTILIZER PLANT 300 12.60
THERMAL POWER PLANT 270 11.30
TEXTILE PLANT 100 4.20
CEMENT PLANT 45 1.90
COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS &
HOTELS 60 2.50
PUBLIC WATER WORKS 1500 62.80
OTHERS 200 8.40


TOTAL 4250 178.00
BREAK-UP OF ENERGY SAVINGS POTENTIAL
IN PUMPS
* BASED ON AVERAGE ELECTRICITY PRICE OF Rs 3.00 PER
UNIT AND OPERATING PERIOD OF 8000 HOURS PER YEAR
H
E
A
D

CAPACITY
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP CHARACTERISTICS
H
E
A
D

CAPACITY
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP CHARACTERISTICS
E
F
F
I
C
I
E
N
C
Y

CAPACITY
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP CHARACTERISTICS
B
H
P

CAPACITY
H
E
A
D

CAPACITY
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP CHARACTERISTICS
OPERATING POINT
ENERGY CONSERVATION IN PUMPS AT
DESIGN STAGE
• SELECT PUMPS IN THEIR RANGE OF GREATEST EFFICIENCY,
WHICH IS USUALLY IN THE RANGE OF 50-70% OF THEIR
MAXIMUM CAPACITY.
• DO NOT ALLOW AN EXTRA PRESSURE LOSS IN THE PIPING
AS A ‗SAFETY FACTOR‘
• PROVISION FOR AIR VENTING FROM THE SYSTEM IN DESIGN,
INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE.
• DO NOT OVERSIZE THE PUMP.
• ENSURE ALL THE JOINTS ARE LEAK PROOF TO AVOID AIR
IMPRESS DURING PUMPING OPERATION.
• ENSURE THAT (NPSH)A >(NPSH)R
• KEEP SECTION LIFT OF 4.5 TO 5M.
SPECIFIC SPEED
SPECIFIC SPEED IS A CORRELATION OF PUMP CAPACITY,
HEAD AND SPEED AT OPTIMUM EFFICIENCY.

DEFINITION
THE SPECIFIC SPEED OF AN IMPELLER, IS THE REVOLUTION
PER MINUTE AT WHICH A GEOMENTRICALLY SIMILAR
IMPELLER WOULD RUN, IF IT WERE SUCH A SIZE AS TO
DISCHARGE 1M3/S, AGAINST 1M HEAD.

THIS IS A NUMBER EXPRESSED AS .

NS = ( N*√Q)/H3/4
Ns = SPECIFIC SPEED
N = ROTATIVE SPEED IN rpm
Q = CAPACITY,m3/s
H = TOTAL HEAD, m
( Head per stage for a multistage pump)
• PUMP SUCTION PRESSURE
* SYSTEM PRESSURE
* STATIC PRESSURE
* LIVE PRESSURE DROP
• PUMP DISCHARGE PRESSURE
* SYSTEM PRESSURE
* STATIC PRESSURE
* LINE PRESSURE DROP
* PRESSURE DROP ACROSS INSTRUMENTS
* PRESSURE DROP ACROSS EQUIPMENTS
• DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE
= DISCHARGE PRESSURE - SUCTION PRESSURE
PUMP PROCESS DESIGN
H
E
A
D

CAPACITY
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP CHARACTERISTICS
STATIC
HEAD
FRACTION
HEAD
H
E
A
D

CAPACITY
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP CHARACTERISTICS
STATIC HEAD
EFFICIENCY
SYSTEM CHAR.
PUMP - OVER DESIGN
* MORE USUALLY ENCOUNTERED DUE TO
DESIGNERS OVER PROVISION OF SAFETY
MEASUREMENT

* RESULTS HIGH EQUIPMENTS COST

* THE SYSTEM COULD SUFFER DUE TO THE
FOLLOWING

- THROTTLING MAY OCCUR, LEADING TO
WEAR ON VALVES NOT DESIGNED FOR
CONTROL AND INCREASED NOISE LEVELS

- CAVITATION
- OVER LOADED MOTOR

- REDUCED PUMP LIFE ( ESPECIALLY IF THE
FLOW RATES ARE MUCH ABOVE THE
OPTIMUM)

- PUMP INLET CONDITIONS WILL SUFFER

- HIGH ENERGY COST

PUMP - UNDER DESIGN
* PUMPS OPERATING AWAY FROM THEIR
DESIGNED DUTY POINTS, AT HIGHER HEADS
AND DECREASED FLOW , RESULTING IN THE
PLANT BEING UNABLE TO MEET ITS DESIGN
PERFORMANCE


* INCREASE IN NOISE LEVELS


* REDUCED PUMP LIFE
DESING CONSIDERATIONS
* OVER DESIGN LEADS TO CONSIDERABLE LOSS OF
EFFICIENCY & ENERGY IN PUMPS

* MINIMISE OVER DESIGN

* AN IDEAL SAFTY MARGIN FOR A PUMP WILL
BE 10 % EACH ON CAPACITY & HEAD

* THE IDEAL MARGIN FOR MPSH WHOUD BE
0.5 - 1.0 M ON THE NPSH REQUIRED

* THE NORMAL ALLOWABLE MARGINS IN
POWER ARE 5 - 15 % BETWEEN THE MAXIMUM
POWER IN OPERATING A PUMP & THE MOTOR
RATING

VARIOUS TYPE PUMP EFFICIENCY
* AUXIAL PUMP 80 %

* MIXED FLOW PUMP 70 %

* SINGLE STAGE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 60 %

* MULTISTAGE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 40 %

* TURBINE PUMP 50 %

* SUBMERCIBLE PUMP 35 %

* RECIPROCATING PUMP 30 %

* JET PUMP 15 %
CASE STUDY 1
1.5 Kg/cm
2
7.2m
0.4m
Globe valve
0.15Kg/cm
2
0.8Kg/cm
2
0.35Kg/cm
2
21.2m
7. 5Kg/cm
2
Liquid pumped = hydrocarbon fluid
Flow rate =115m
3
/hr
Specific gravity at PT =1.20
Viscosity = 0.64
Vapour pressure =1.5Kg/Cm
2

Geometric pipe length
Suction =10m
Discharge =100m

Fluid velocity
Suction =1m/s
Discharge =2m/s
Equilibrium length in m
Pipe fitting suction Discharge
Gate valve 1.6 1.2
Strainer 12 9
Elbow 6.1 4.6
Tee 4.8 3
NRV 27.5 19.8
Entrance - 8
Exit 12 8
Reducer 1.6 1.2
Find out the following
A) suction & Discharge line sizes
B) Suction & Discharge pressure
C) Motor Hp required
D) (NPSH)a
Pump should be located at the storage
area so that the line pressure drop is
smaller. Positive head developed is more.


RECOMMENDED VELOCITIES FOR SIZING PUMP
SUCTION & DISCHARGE PIPE LINES
DESCRPTION SUCTION DISCHARGE
(m/s) (m/s)

VISCOUS LIQUIDS 0.50 0.80

LIGHT OILS 0.80 1.00

WATER 1.50 1.5 - 2.00

PIPE DIAMETER
P
U
M
P
I
N
G

C
O
S
T


C
A
P
I
T
A
L

C
O
S
T

ECONOMIC PIPE DIAMETER
Solution:
Suction side:
Fluid flow rate = 115m3/hr
Q = Av
Q = π/4Ds
2
*v
115/3600 = π/4Ds
2
*1
Ds = 0.2016m
∆pf = 4fLv
2
/2gD
Geometric length of the suction side
Equivalent length=10m
L = (1.6*2)+4.8+(12*1)+(1.6*1)+3(6.1)+12
= 39.9+12=51.9.
L = Geometric length + equivalent pipe length for fitting.
L = 10+51.9=61.9 m

NRe = [(D*ρ*v)/µ]
= [(0.2016*1*1200)/0.6*10
-3
]
= 403200
Since Turbulent flow
F = 0.0035+0.264(403200)
-0.42
F = 4.67*10
-3
F = [(4*4.67*10
-3
*61.9*12)/2*9.81*0.2016]
= 0.2922m
= 0.2922*10
-4
*1200
= 0.0351Kg/Cm
2
Static head = (7.2-0.4)*1200*10
-4
= 0.816Kg/Cm
2


Suction pressure Kg/Cm
2

System pressure 1.5
Static head 0.816
Line pressure drop -0.0351
Suction pressure 2.2809Kg/Cm
2


Discharge side:
Q = AdVd
115/3600 = π/4Dd
2
*2
Dd = 0.1426m

Equivalent length calculation.
Gate value 6*1.2 7.2
Elbow 3*4.6 13.8
Tee 4*3 12.0
Entrance 2*8 16.0
Exit 1*8 8
NRV 1*19.8 19.8
76.8 m
L = 100+76.8
= 176.8m
NRe = DVP/µ
= (0.1426*2*1200)/0.6*10-3
= 570400
F = 0.0035+0.264(570400)
-0.42
= 4.51*10
-3

∆pf =[(4*f*L*v2)/2gD]

∆pf = 4*4.51*10-3*176.8*2
2
/2*9.81*0.1426
= .56m
= 4.56*10-4*1200
= 0.547Kg/Cm2

Static head = (21.2-0.4)*10
-4
*1200
= 2.496Kg/Cm
2

Discharge pressure Kg/Cm
2

System pressure 7.5
Pressure drop across cv 0.8
Pressure drop across orifice 0.15
Pressure drop across He 0.35
Static head 2.496
Line Pressure drop 0.547

Discharge pressure = 11.843Kg/Cm
2


Differential pressure = Discharge pressure –suction pressure
= 11.843-2.2809
= 9.5621Kg/Cm2
= 95.621mWC
(NPSH)a
Suction pressure –Vapour pressure
= 2.2809-1.5
= 0.7809 Kg/Cm
2
=7.809 mWC
Safety margin = 0.600/7.209 mWC
=7.209/1.2 = 6.0075MLC

Horse power required
HHP = (115/3600)*[(1200*95.621)/75]
= 48.87
BHP = HHP/Pumpŋ = 48.87/0.6 = 81.45
Motor HP = BHP/Motorŋ = 81.45/0.9 = 90
CASE STUDY 2
CALCULATE NPSH AVAILABLE FOR THE PUMP SHOWN IN FIG.
LIQUID PUMPED CONDENSATE AT 85
0
C AT 50m3/hr.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY AT 85
0
C =0.9
VISCOSITY AT 85
0
C =0.32cp
VAPOUR AT 85
0
C =0.48kg/cm2


EQUIVALENT PIPE LENGTH
FOOT VALVE =12m
ELBOW =3.2m
GATE VALVE =1.4m
STRAINER =0.2m
REDUCER =0.9m
0.5m
1m
0.5m
100ǿ
pipe
4” x 3”reducer
SOLUTION:
Static head =10
-4
x900x1.5=0.135kg/cm
2
System pressure =10.33mwc=1.033kg/cm
2
Line pressure drop
∆pf =[(4*f*L*v2)/2gD]
L =(12*1)+(3.2*1)+(1.4*1)+(0.2*1)+(0.9*1)=17.7
L = 3+17.7=20.7
π/4*D
2
*v = Q
π/4*0.1
2
*v = 50/3600
V= 50/3600*4/π*1/0.01
V=1.77m/sec
NRe = [(D*ρ*v)/µ]=[(0.1*900*1.77)/0.32*10
-3
]=497812.5
F = 0.0035+0.264(497812.5)
-0.42
F =4.57*10
-3
∆p
f
=[(4*4.57*10
-3
*20.7*1.77
2
)/(2*9.81*0.1)]=0.604m

Kg/Cm
2
System pressure 1.033
Static head -0.135
Line pressure drop (10-4*900*0.604) -0.054
=0.884Kg/Cm
2
(NPSH) available
0.884
-0.480 (Vapour pressure)
=0.364 Kg/Cm
2
=3.64 mwc
Safety margin =0.60mwc
=3.04mwc

(NPSH)a =3.04mwc
=3.04/0.9
=3.378MLC
SAFETY MARGINS CONSIDERED IN
DETERMINING THE MOTOR SIZES
UPTO 7.5 Kw = 20 %
FROM 7.5 Kw TO 40 Kw = 15 %
ABOVE 40 Kw = 10 %


* ABOVE FACTORS ARE APPLICABLE ONLY TO
THOSE CASES, WHERE THE PERFORMANCE
PARAMETERS CAN BE PREDICTED ACCURA -
TELY AT DESIGN STAGE



* IMPROVED OPERATING EFFICIENCY

* REDUCTION IN OPERATION & MAINTANANCE
COSTS

* IMPROVED PROFITS

• ECON MEASURES AT THE DEGIGN STAGE RESULTS IN
BOILER FEED PUMP WILL HAVE A CAPACITY
OF 1.2 TO 1.25 TIMES THE BOILER CAPACITY
COOLING TOWEER PUMPS IN A POWER PLANT
WILL HAVE A CAPACITY OF 60 TIMES THE
BOILER CAPACITY
PUMP CAPACITY
PUMP EFFICIENCY =
USEFUL OUTPUT POWER, kW

INPUT POWER, kW
* 100
HHP
BHP
* 100
=

INPUT POWER, W =1 .73 VI COS ø

V - SUPPLY VOLTAGE , 440 V

I - CURRENT CONSUMED BY THE PUMP, AMPS

COSø - POWER FACTOR, NORMALLY > 0.8

W - POWER CONSUMED IN WATTS


OUTPUT POWER, BHP =

Q - FLOW RATE , m
3
/s

P - DIFFERENTIAL HEAD, kg/m
2
Q * P

102
PREDICTION OF PUMP EFFICIENCY
FLOW RATE MEASURED, Q = 45 m
3
/h

HEAD ,P = 30 kg/ cm
2

= 30* 10
4
kg /m
2

USEFUL OUTPUT POWER, kW

= (FLOW RATE, m
3
/ s) * (DIFFERENTIAL HEAD kg /m
2
) * 1/102

= 45 / 3600 * ( 30* 10
4
) * 1/102

= 36.76 kW

VOLTAGE MEASSURED = 400 V

CURRENT MEASSURED = 85A

POWER FACTOR = 0.85

INPUT POWER, kW = 1 .73 VI COSø / 1000

= 1 .73 * 400*85*0.85 / 1000

= 50 kW

36.76
EFFICIENCY = * 100

50

= 73.52 %

PREDICTION OF PUMP EFFICIENCY
CASE STUDY 3
EFFICIENCY OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
ŋ
Pump
= (Output / Input)x100
ŋ
Pump
= [Q*H*g*ρ] / [3600 x ŋ
motor
x 1000 x P]

P = Input power in KW = [(√ 3
*
V
*
I
*
COSǿ) / 1000]
Q = Flow rate in m
3
/ h
G = Acceleration due to gravity, 9.807m/s

H = Head in m
ρ = Fluid density, Kg / m
3
ŋPump = Pump efficiency
ŋMotor = Motor efficiency
V = Supply voltage, V
I = Current drawn by the motor, A
Cosǿ = Power factor



PUMP PERFORMANCE WITH IMPELLER
DIAMETER & OR SPEED CHANGE


Q1,H1,BHP1,D1 & N1 - INITIAL CAPACITY,

HEAD, BRAKE HORSE POWER, DIAMETER

& SPEED


Q2,H2,BHP2,D2 & N2 - NEW CAPACITY,

HEAD, BRAKE HORSE POWER, DIAMETER

& SPEED





DIAMATER CHANGE ONLY


Q2 = Q1( D2 /D1)

H2 = H1(D2/D1)
2

BHP2 = BHP1(D2/D1)
3


CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS-CAPACITY
CONTROL
• PARALLEL OPERATION
• CONTROL VALUE WITH BY PASS
REGULATION
• SPEED REGULATION
• THROTTLING AT CONSTANT SPEED
ENERGY CONSERVATION OPTIONS IN
PUMPING SYSTEM
• IMPELLER TRIMMING
• DOWN SIZING THE IMPELLER
• IMPELLER REPAIR AND REPLACEMENT
• REPLACEMENT WITH SMALLER PUMPS
• SPEED VARIATION
• COMBINED THROTTLING & SPEED CONTROL
• DECENTRALIZATION OF PUMPING SYSTEM
• AVOID UNNECESSARY PUMPING
• PROVIDE OVERHEAD TANK FOR GRAVITY FLOW
FOR THE GIVEN PIPE SIZE
• Normal Flow Rate = Q
1
• Normal Pressure Drop = ∆P
1
• Max. Flow Rate = Q
2
• Max. Pressure Drop = ∆P
2

What is the relation between ∆P
1
& ∆P
2
?
∆P
2
= X
2
∆P
1
Where X = (Q
2
/ Q
1
)
For example :
Q
1
= 65 m
3
/ h , ∆P
1
= 0.45 kg / cm
2
Q
2
= 80 m
3
/ h , ∆P
2
= ?

∆P
2
= (Q
2
/ Q
1
)
2
*
∆P
1

=(80/65)
2
*
0.45
= 0.68 kg / cm
2
PUMP PERFORMANCE WITH IMPELLER
DIAMETER & OR SPEED CHANGE




SPEED CHANGE ONLY

Q2 = Q1(N2/N1)


H2 = H1(N2/N2)
2


BHP2 = BHP1(N2/N1)
3





DIAMETER AND SPEED CHANGE

Q2 = Q1(D2/D1 * N2/N1)


H2 = H1(D2/D1 * N2/N2)
2


BHP2 = BHP1(D2/D1 * N2/N1)
3




* THE SUCTION LINE SHOULD NEVER BE
SMALLER THAN PUMP INLET & SHOULD BE
LARGER IF FEASIBLE

* WHEN TWO OR MORE PUMPS ARE CONNECTED
TO A COMMAN HEADER, A SUCTION LINE
SHOULD BE SELECTED LARGER ENOUGH SO
THAT THE FLUID DOESNOT TRAVEL FASTER
THAN 0.8 m/s THROUGH THE SUCTIONLINE AT
THE COMBINED CAPACITY.

* SLOPE UNIFORMLY TO PUMP FROM FLUID
SUPPLY TO AVOID AIR PACKETS

* BYPASS DESIGN SHOULD TAKE FLUID BACK
TO FLUID SOURCE & NOT INTO SUCTION LINE

* SUCTION LINE SHOULD BE FIRMLY ANCHORED
OR BURIED TO AVOID PUTTING A STRAIN ON
THE PUMP & TO HELP PREVENT SYSTEM
VIBRATIONS FROM ACTING DIRECTLY ON
THE PUMP

DESIGN OF PIPINGS
DESIGN OF PIPINGS

FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE DESIGN OF
SUCTION PIPING :




* PUMP SHOULD BE AS CLOSE TO THE FLUID
SUPPLY AS POSSIBLE

* USE FULL OPENING VALVES & AVOID
CONSTRICTING VALVES

* THE IDEAL PIPE ARRANGEMENT IS SHORT
AND DIRECT, USING NO ELLS. SHOULD ELLS
BE REQUIRED USE 45
O
LONG, RADIUS INSTEAD
OF 90
0
ELLS

* IF A REDUCER IS REQUIRED IN SUCTION LINE
BETWEEN MAIN LINE & PUMP, USE AN
ECCENTRIC REDUCER RATHER THAN
CONCENTRIC WITH STRAIGHT PORTION IN
TOP
CAVITATION:
• IT IS A PHENOMENON WHICH HAS BEEN KNOWN FOR ITS
DESTRUCTIVE POWERS & GENERALLY ARISES BECAUSE OF
THE BOILING OF A LIQUID DUE TO LOW PRESSURE RATHER
THAN HIGH PRESSURE.
• CAVITATION CAN CREATE SEVERE EROSION ON PUMP
IMPELLERS WHICH IN TURN SETS UP VIBRATION AND NOISE,
RUNNING WITH A RESULT AND LOSS IN PUMPING
EFFICIENCY.
• VARIOUS FACTORS, EITHER COLLECTIVE OR INDIVIDUALLY
CONTRIBUTE TO THIS PHINOMENON IN THE PUMPING FIELD.
• ABNORMALLY HIGH SUCTION LIFTS OR IN CORRECT PIPE
LAYOUTS ARE TWO PROMINENT FAULTS.
• GENERALLY SPEAKING, CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS ARE LIMITED
TO SUCTION LIFT OF A APPROXIMATES 4.5M HIGHER VALUE
CAN BE ACHIEVED UNDER CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCE .

THEORETICAL SUCTION LIFT 10.35M FOR WATER AT 40C
SUCTION LIFT IS REDUCED BY
• ATTITUDE
• FRICTIONAL LOSSES IN THE SUCTION BY INCLUDING
VELOCITY HEAD AND ENTERY LOSSES.
• THE EFFECT AND VAPOUR PRESSURE OF THE FLUID AT P.T.
• REQUIRED NPSH.




THE EFFICIENCYOF PUMP CAN BE IMPROVED BY THE ADOPTION OF THE FOLLOWING MEASURES


* RIGHT SELECTION OF PUMP FOR A PARTICULAR
APPLICATION

* SELECTION AND INSTALLATION OF CORRECT SIZE PUMPS

* ENERGY EFFICIENT OPERATING PRACTICES

* UNITIZATION OF PUMPS

* INSTALLATION OF VARIABLE SPEED DRIVERS

* SEREGATION OF HIGH-HEAD AND LOW-HEAD USERS

* UTILIZATION OF GRAVITY HEAD
CONCLUSON
* INSTALLATION OF HIGH EFFICIENCY PUMPS

* RELOCATION OF PROCESS CODENSERS

* ADOPTION OF THE PROPER DESIGN PARAMETERS
FOR PUMPS AND PIPING

* PROPER INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL FOR EFFICIENT
OPERATION, MONITORING AND CONTROL




THE ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN PUMPING SYSTEMS IS BEST
ACHIEVED BY ADOPTION OF ENERGY CONSERVATION AND
RATED DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS AT THE IMPLEMENTATION
/ PROJECT STAGE.
CONCLUSON
VALVES
Types of Valves
• Two basic groups:
– Stop valves - used to shut off or partially shut
off the flow of fluid ( ex: globe, gate, plug,
needle, butterfly)
– Check Valves - used to permit flow in only
one direction (ex: ball-check, swing-check, lift-
check)
• Special types:
– Relief valves
– Pressure-reducing valves
– Remote-operated valves
Globe Valve
• Most common valve
in a propulsion plant
• Body may be straight,
angle, or cross type
• Valve inlet and outlet
openings are
designed to suit
varying requirements
of flow
• Valve may be
operated in the
partially open position
(throttled)
• Commonly used in
steam, air, oil and
water lines
Gate
Valve
• Used for a straight line of flow where minimum
restriction is desired
• Not suitable for throttling
• May be rising stem or nonrising stem
Ball Valve
• Most ball valves are
quick acting - only require
90
o
turn to completely
open or shut valve
• Some ball valves may
have gearing for ease of
use (also increases
operating time)
• Used in seawater,
sanitary, trim and drain,
air, hydraulic, and oil
transfer systems
Butterfly Valve
• Lightweight, relatively small, and quick acting
• May be used for throttling
• Used in freshwater, saltwater, lube oil, JP-5,
F-76, and chill water systems
Check Valve
• Allows fluid to
flow in a system
in only one
direction
• May be swing, lift,
or ball type
• Check valves
may be built into
globe valves or
ball valves
Relief Valve
• Installed in piping systems to
protect them from excessive
pressure
• The relieving pressure is set
by the force exerted on the
disk by the spring
• Relief valves may have a
lever which allows manual
opening of the valve for test
purposes
Valve Operating Devices
• Manual
– Handwheel or lever is directly connected to the stem and
is operated by hand
• Hydraulic
– Hydraulic pressure is applied to one side of a piston
which is connected to the stem of the valve
• Motor
– A hydraulic, electric, or air driven motor is used to turn the
stem of the valve
• Solenoid
– Uses an electromagnet to open or close a valve against
spring pressure
IMPROVING PUMP’S
PERFORMANCE & REDUCING
ENERGY CONSUMPTION

Questions
+How do pumps perform?
+How can I select an efficient pump?
+What causes a pump to become inefficient?
+How can I determine my pump’s
performance?
+How can I improve my pump’s performance?
+Will improving my pump’s performance
reduce my energy bill?
Basic Concepts
ODefinition
+Energy = kilowatt-hours
o One kilowatt is 1.34 horsepower
o Hours = operating time
+Energy cost is based on kwhr consumed and
unit energy cost ($/kwhr)
OReducing energy costs
+Reduce Input Horsepower
+Reduce Operating Hours
+Reduce Unit Energy Cost
Improving Pumping Plant Efficiency
+Adjust pump impeller
+Repair worn pump
+Replace mismatched pump
+Convert to an energy-efficient
electric motor
Shaft Frame Impeller Discharge Inlet
Stuffing
Box
Balance
Line
Volute Wearing
Rings
Centrifugal or Booster Pump
Deep Well Turbine
Deep Well Turbine
Submersible
Pump
Improving Pumping Plant
Performance
Impeller Adjustment
Effect of Impeller Adjustment



Capacity
(gpm)
Total
Head
(feet)
Overall
Efficiency
(%)
Input
Horsepower

Pump 1 Before 605 148 54 42
After 910 152 71 49

Pump 2 Before 708 181 59 55
After 789 206 63 65

Pump 3 Before 432 302 54 61
After 539 323 65 67

Pump 4 Before 616 488 57 133
After 796 489 68 144

Same Operating
Time
Same Volume
of Water
Pump 1 +16.7% -22.8%
Pump 2 +18.2% +5.0%
Pump 3 +9.8% -12.3%
Pump 4 +8.3% -16.8%

Effect of Impeller
Adjustment on Energy Use
Repair Worn Pump
Effect of Pump Repair
OBefore
· Pumping lift = 95 feet
· Capacity = 1552 gpm
· IHP = 83
· Efficiency = 45%
OAfter
· Pumping lift = 118
feet
· Capacity = 2008 gpm
· IHP = 89
· Efficiency = 67%
Summary of the Effect of Repairing Pumps
O63 pump tests comparing pump performance before-
and-after repair
OAverage percent increase in pump capacity – 41%
OAverage percent increase in total head – 0.5%
(pumping lift only)
OAverage percent increase in pumping plant
efficiency – 33%
OIHP increased for 58% of the pumping plants.
Average percent increase in input horsepower – 17%
Adjusting/Repairing Pumps
OAdjustment/repair will increase
pump capacity and total head
OAdjustment/repair will increase
input horsepower
OReduction in operating time is
needed to realize any energy
savings
OMore acres irrigated per set
OLess time per set
OEnergy costs will increase if
operating time is not reduced
Replace Mismatched Pump
A mismatched pump is one that is
operating properly, but is not operating
near its point of maximum efficiency
Capacity (gpm)
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y


(
%
)

0
0
Improperly
Matched
Pump
Matched Pump

Mismatched Pump

Pumping Plant Test Data
Pumping Lift (feet) 113
Discharge Pressure (psi) 50
Total Head (feet) 228
Capacity (gpm) 940
Input Horsepower 112
Overall Efficiency (%) 48

Test 1
(Normal)
Test 2 Test 3
Capacity (gpm) 940 870 1060
Pressure (psi) 50 79 15
Pumping Lift (feet) 113 112 112
Total Head (feet) 228 295 147
IHP 112 112 104
Overall Efficiency (%) 48 57 38

Multiple Pump Tests
Replacing this pump with one operating at an
overall efficiency of 60% would:
³ Reduce the input horsepower by 19%
³ Reduce the annual energy consumption
by 34,000 Kwhr
³ Reduce the annual energy costs by
$3,400 (annual operating time of 2000
hours and an energy cost of $0.10/kwhr)
Replacing a Mismatched Pump
OPumping plant efficiency will
increase
OInput horsepower demand
will decrease
OEnergy savings will occur
because of the reduced
horsepower demand
How do I determine the
condition of my pump?
Answer: Conduct a pumping plant test
and evaluate the results using the
manufacturer’s pump performance data
Pumping
Lift
Pump
Capacity
Discharge
Pressure
FLOW METER
8 PIPE DIAMETERS DIAMETERS
2 PIPE
FLOW
Input
Horsepower
Is a pump worn or mismatched?
OMultiple pump tests
OCompare pump test data
with manufacturer’s pump
performance curves
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100
PUMP CAPACITY (gpm)
0
50
100
150
200
TOTAL HEAD (feet)
REPAIRED PUMP
Pumping Lift = 102 ft
Capacity = 537 gpm
Input Horsepower = 28
Overall Efficiency = 50%
Kwhr/af = 211
WORN PUMP
Pumping Lift = 45 ft
Capacity = 624 gpm
Input Horsepower = 19
Overall Efficiency = 39%
Kwhr/af = 123
Large
Difference
Small
Difference
2000 2400 2800 3200 3600
PUMP CAPACITY (gpm)
0
20
40
60
80
100
TOTAL HEAD (feet)
1983 (64%)
1984(54%)
1985 (62%)
2000 2400 2800 3200 3600
PUMP CAPACITY (gpm)
0
20
40
60
80
100
TOTAL HEAD (feet)
1983 (64%)
1984 (66%)
1985 (55%)
Recommended Corrective Action
©Eo greater than 60% - no corrective action
©55% to 60% - consider adjusting impeller
©50% to 55% - consider adjusting impeller;
consider repairing or replacing pump if
adjustment has no effect
®Less than 50% - consider repairing or
replacing pump
Energy-efficient Electric Motors


Horsepower Standard Energy
Efficient
10 86.5 91.7
20 86.5 93.0
50 90.2 94.5
75 90.2 95.0
100 91.7 95.8
125 91.7 96.2




Efficiencies of Standard
and Energy-efficient
Electric Motors
Variable Frequency Drives
What is a Variable Frequency
Drive?
OElectronic device that changes the
frequency of the power to an electric
motor
OReducing the power frequency reduces
the motor rpm
OReducing the motor rpm, and thus the
pump rpm, decreases the pump
horsepower demand
o A small reduction in pump rpm results in a
large reduction in the horsepower demand
When are Variable Frequency
Drives Appropriate?
OOne pump is used to irrigate differently-
sized fields. Pump capacity must be
reduced for the smaller fields
ONumber of laterals changes during the
field irrigation (odd shaped fields)
OFluctuating ground water levels
OFluctuating canal or ditch water levels





Unthrottled Throttled VFD
Acres 80 50 50
Pressure (psi) 80 64 60
Capacity (gpm) 1,100 600 700
Input Horsepower 128 90 55
RPM 1770 1770 1345
Overall Efficiency (%) 40 24 44

Centrifugal pump used to irrigate
Both 80-and 50-acre fields
Note: Pumping plants should be
operated at the reduced frequency
for at least 1,000 hours per year
to be economical
Convert To Diesel Engines
Options for Converting From Electric Motors to
Engines
¡Direct drive (gear head)
¯Engine shaft to pump shaft
efficiency = 98%

¡Diesel-generator
¯Engine shaft to pump shaft
efficiency less than about 80%
Considerations
OBrake Horsepower = Shaft Horsepower
OEngines and motors are rated based on
brake horsepower ( 100 HP electric motor
provides the same horsepower as a 100 HP
engine
OInput horsepower of an engine is greater
than that of an electric motor for the same
brake horsepower

Engine Horsepower
OMaximum horsepower
OContinuous horsepower
· About ¾’s of the maximum horsepower
· Derated for altitude, temperature,
accessories, etc.
110
128
144
157
167
173
1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200
ENGINE RPM
0
50
100
150
200
B
R
A
K
E

H
O
R
S
E
P
O
W
E
R
0.39
0.38
0.37 0.37
0.37
0.38
1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200
ENGINE RPM
0.30
0.32
0.34
0.36
0.38
0.40
F
U
E
L

C
O
N
S
U
M
P
T
I
O
N

(
l
b
/
b
h
p
-
h
r
)

33.2
34.2
35.1 35.1
34.7
33.9
1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200
ENGINE RPM
30
32
34
36
38
40
E
N
G
I
N
E

E
F
F
I
C
I
E
N
C
Y

(
%
)
1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200
RPM
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
H
O
R
S
E
P
O
W
E
R
PUMP HP CONTINUOUS ENGINE HP


Fuel Use Versus RPM
RPM Pump Flow
Rate (gpm)
Gallons of Diesel
per Hour
Gallons of Water
per Gallon of
Diesel
1500 1228 9 8187
1600 1731 11 9617
1700 2161 15 8644
1800 2486 19 8019





Electric Motors vs Diesel Engines:
Which is the Best?
· Unit energy cost
· Capital costs, maintenance costs, etc
· Hours of operation
· Horsepower
· Cost of pollution control devices for
engines





Electric
Motor
Diesel Engine
Capital Cost $5,500 $11,500 $16,500 $16,500
Unit Energy Cost $0.14/kwhr $0.95/gal $0.95/gal $1.25/gal
Total Cost ($/af) 60.5 37.8 39.9 48.5

Comparison of electric motor and
diesel engine
O100 HP
O1,100 gpm
O2,000 hours per year
Optimizing Pump
Systems for Energy
Efficiency
What Is A Pump System?
• A Pump System comprises of all piping,
fittings and valves before and after a pump
as well as the motor and motor driver.
• There can be multiple pumps, motors and
drives, and they can be arranged to
operate in parallel or in series.
• Pump Systems can have static head
(pressure), or be circulating systems
(friction only systems)
133
First, Let's Get A Big Picture
Perspective
Of Energy Flow in Pumping
Systems
Electric utility
feeder
Transformer
Motor breaker/
starter
Motor
Adjustable
speed drive
(electrical)
Coupling Pump
Fluid
system
Ultimate
goal
At each interface, there are
inefficiencies. The goal should
be to maximize the overall cost
effectiveness of the pumping, or
how much flow is delivered per
unit of input energy.
Specific Energy E
s



= Motor efficiency

= Pump efficiency

m
q
E
s
=
f
HS

µ g
m
q
H
S
= Fluid density
= Gravitational
constant
= Static head
= Hydraulic System
factor
µ
f
HS

H
S
g
=
Pel x Time
Pumped Volume
p
q
p
q
136
Understand The Ultimate Goal
Electric utility
feeder
Transformer
Motor breaker/
starter
Motor
Adjustable
speed drive
(electrical)
Coupling Pump
Fluid
system
Ultimate
goal
Maximize the overall effectiveness.
137
It Is Essential To Understand The
Ultimate Goal Of The Fluid System To
Optimize It
• Understand why the system exists
• Have clearly defined criteria for what is
really needed
• Understand what's negotiable and what's
not
Requirements
For Designing A System
• Duration Curve (Flow)
• System Curve (Pressure vs. Flow)
• Pump & Component selection

0
1000
2000
3000
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000
Time [hours]
I
n
f
l
o
w

[
G
P
M
]

Annualized Flow Duration Curve
140
Understand The Fluid System
Electric utility
feeder
Transformer
Motor breaker/
starter
Motor
Adjustable
speed drive
(electrical)
Coupling Pump
Fluid
system
Ultimate
goal
Maximize the overall effectiveness.
141
System Curves Are Made Up Of Two
Fundamental
Components - The Static Head And The
Frictional Head
120
80
40
0
H
e
a
d
,

f
t

5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0
Flow rate, gpm
Static/
Fixed
Friction
Total
Hydraulic System
Factor
• The Hydraulic System factor is
defined as ―The ratio of a hydraulic
system‘s static head to total head‖.


Head
Flow
Total
head
Loss Head
Static Head
SYSTEM CURVE
HS
f
HS
f
f
HS

H
S

H
S
+
H
F

=
143
What Are Some Sources Of
Friction In Pumping Systems?
Pipe walls
Valves
Elbows
Tees
Reducers/expanders
Expansion joints
Tank inlets/outlets
(In other words, almost everything that the pumped
fluid passes through, as well as the fluid itself)
Operational Costs Are Influenced
By The Selection Of Components
And Their Size
Annual Frictional Cost Per 100 ft Of Pipe
Assumptions: 80% combined pump and motor efficiency,
electricity cost = 10 ¢/kWh
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
A
n
n
u
a
l

c
o
s
t

(
$
)
5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0
flow rate (gpm)
12"
14"
16"
Frictional Losses Can Be
Translated Into Operating Costs
12-inch line, 100 ft length, 10¢/kWh, full open valves,
80% combined pump & motor efficiency
Assumptions:
1000
800
600
400
200
0
A
n
n
u
a
l

C
o
s
t

(
$
)
2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0
flow rate (gpm)
Check valve
Butterfly valve
Sch. 40 pipe (new)
147
Understanding The Pump
Electric utility
feeder
Transformer
Motor breaker/
starter
Motor
Adjustable
speed drive
(electrical)
Coupling Pump
Fluid
system
Ultimate
goal
Maximize the overall effectiveness
148
Nameplate Data Applies To
One Particular Operating
Point
200
150
100
50
0
H
e
a
d
,

f
t

5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0
Flow rate, gpm
Rated:
3190 gpm, 97 ft
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
h
e
a
d

(
f
t
)
5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0
flow rate (gpm)
How Do We Know Where We'll Be
Operating On The Pump Curve?
Pump and system
curve intersection
(operating point)
System head curve
Pump head curve
Nameplate
Efficiency And Brake Horsepower Are
Commonly Plotted vs. Pump Flow
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
h
e
a
d

(
f
t
)
,

p
o
w
e
r

(
b
h
p
)
,

e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

(
%
)
5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0
flow rate (gpm)
System
Pump head
brake hp
efficiency
Operating
point
BEP
Using A Larger Pipe Changes The
Frictional Part Of The System Curve
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
h
e
a
d

(
f
t
)
5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0
flow rate (gpm)
System head,
12" pipe
System head,
16" pipe
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP PERFORMANCE
WITH VSD REGULATION
FLYGT C 3531
30-60 HZ (295-590 RPM)
Specific Energy in Three Different
Single Pump Systems
Throttling
VSD Regulation
Speed / Flow
No static head
85% static head
50% static head
Speed / Flow Speed / Flow
On-Off Regulation
154
Now Let's Look At The
Electrical End Of The Shaft
Electric utility
feeder
Transformer
Motor breaker/
starter
Motor
Adjustable
speed drive
(electrical)
Coupling Pump
Fluid
system
Maximize the overall effectiveness
Ultimate
goal
Motor Efficiency Curves
Are Dependent Upon Size And
Type
100
90
80
70
60
50
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
(
%
)
1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0
Power (fraction of rated)
Rated horsepower
3 5
7.5 10
25 50
100 125
200
fit 7.5 fit 100
156
Understanding Drive
Performance
Electric utility
feeder
Transformer
Motor breaker/
starter
Motor
Adjustable
speed drive
(electrical)
Coupling Pump
Fluid
system
Ultimate
goal
Maximize the overall effectiveness
The Efficiency Of Inverters
Is Affected By Operating Speed
100

90

80

70

60

e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
(
%
)

125

100

75

50

speed (% of rated)

Typical inverter efficiencies
as a function of motor speed
Evaluate System Design
• Is the system effectiveness
acceptable?
• If the system has static head,
Compare with frictionless
performance!
Re-Evaluate System Choices
Relative To Needs
• Number of pumps
• Pump sizes
• VFD operation?
• Pipe diameters
• Component selection
When the System is
Commissioned the Theoretical
Calculations Should be
Compared to Actual Operational
Data to Ensure that it is
Operating as Intended
Summary
• Most avoidable losses are in the pump and
fluid system, not in the electrical front end
• However, the electrical front end can help
reduce the fluid system losses
• Be careful with local optimization
• Determine the specific energy and compare
with the ideal
MEASUREMENTS
Pressure measurement
• Together with temperature and flow,
pressure is the most important parameters in
industrial process control
• The unit of pressure is the Pascal (Pa) with
1Pa being 1N/m
2

• At the surface of the earth, the atmospheric
pressure is generally about 100KPa. This is
sometimes referred to as a pressure of 1bar.
1.Manometers
– U-tube manometer
– The cistern manometer
– The inclined tube manometer
2.Diaphragms
– Reluctance diaphragm gauge
– Capacitance diaphragm gauge


•Bourdon tubes
3、 Force-balance
Dead-weight tester
Spring
4、Electrical pressure gauge
•Strain gauge
•Piezoelectric
•piezoresistance
P
2
P
1
1 2 P P gh µ ÷ =
The basic manometer consists
of a U-tube containing a liquid.A
pressure difference between
the gases above the liquid in
the two limbs produces a
difference h in vertical heights
of the liquid in the two limbs.
If one of the limbs is open to
the atmosphere then the
pressure difference is the
gauge pressure.
Manometers
Water, alcohol and mercury are commonly
used manometric liquids. U-tube
manometers are simple and cheap and can
be used for pressure differences in the
range 20 Pa to 140KPa. The accuracy is
typically about 1%. ±
•Temperature affect---------liquid expansion

0 0
0
0 0 0
---real temperature
(1 ) exp
1
m V V
V V r r coefficient of cubical ansion of the liquid
V
V
u u
u
u
u
µ µ u
u
µ µ
µ
¸u
= =
= + ÷
= =
+
Thus the pressure when measured by a
U-tube manometer at a temperature u,
when the manometer liquid density at
0°C is known, is given by:
0
1
h g
P gh
u
µ
µ
¸u
= =
+
Cistern manometer
An industrial form of the U-tube manometer is
cistern manometer. It has one of the limbs
with a much greater cross-sectional area than
the other.A difference in pressure between
the two limbs causes a difference in liquid
level with liquid flowing from one limb to the
other.
1 2
1 2
2 2
1 2
1 1
( )
( ) ( 1)
P P gH h d g
Ah A d
A d A
P P d g d g
A A
c d g
µ µ
µ µ
µ
÷ = = +
=
÷ = + = +
= ×
H h
d
P1
P
2
A
2
A
1
This form of manometer thus only
require the level of liquid in one
limb to be measured from a fixed
point.
The inclined tube manometer
The inclined tube manometer is a U-tube
manometer with one limb having a larger
cross-section than the other and the narrower
limb being inclined at some angle u to the
hori zontal . It i s general l y used for the
measurement of small pressure differences
and gi ves gr eat er accur acy t han t he
c o n v e n t i o n a l U- t u b e ma n o me t e r .
u
H
d
h
2 2
1 2 ( 1) ( 1) sin
1 1
A A
P P d g gx
A A
µ µ u ÷ = + = +
x
P
1
P
2
Since A2 is much greater than A1, the
equation approximates to:
1 2 sin P P gx µ u ÷ =
Initial zero level
with no pressure
difference
With diaphragm pressure gauges, a difference
in pressure between two sides of a diaphragm
results in it blowing out to one side or the other.
If the fluid for which the pressure is required is
admitted to one side of the diaphragm and the
other side is open to the atmosphere, the
diaphragm gauge gives the gauge pressure. If
fluids at different pressures are admitted to the
two sides of the diaphragm, the gauge gives
the pressure difference.
Diaphragms
1.Bourdon tubes
The bourdon tube may be in the form of a
“C”, a flat spiral, a helical spiral. In all forms,
an increase in the pressure in the tube
causes the tube to straighten out to an
extent which depends on the pressure.
This displacement may be monitored in a
variety of ways, for example, to directly
move a pointer across a scale, to move a
slider of a potentiometer, to move the core
of an LVDT.
2 Reluctance diaphragm gauge

The displacement of the
central part of the
diaphragm increases the
reluctance of the coil on one
side of the diaphragm and
decreases it on the other.
With the two coils connected
in opposite arms of an a.c.
bridge, the out of balance
voltage is related to the
pressure difference causing
the diaphragm displacement
2
0 0
2
N s
L
µ
o
=
Capacitance pressure transducers were originally
developed for use in low vacuum research. This
capacitance change results from the movement of a
diaphragm element. The diaphragm is usually metal
or metal-coated quartz and is exposed to the process
pressure on one side and to the reference pressure
on the other. Depending on the type of pressure, the
capacitive transducer can be either an absolute,
gauge, or differential pressure transducer.
0
2
A
C
d
d
C
d
c
=
=

The capacitor can also form part of the tuning
circuit of a frequency modulated oscillator and so
give an electrical output related to the pressure
difference across the diaphragm.


Dead-Weight Tester
Schematic
Calibration of the
pressure gauges in the
region of 20Pa to
2000kPa is generally
by means of the Dead-
weight tester. Pressure
is produced by winding
in a piston. The
pressure is determined
by adding weights to
the platform so that it
remains at a constant
height.
Mg
P
A
=
force balance gauge

Potentiometric Pressure Transducer

Measurement of low
pressures (vacuum)
Vacuum tends to be used for pressures less
than the atmospheric pressure, namely
1.013×10
5
Pa. A unit that is often used for
such pressure is the torr, this being the
pressure equivalent to that given by a column
of mercury of height 1 mm.
1mmHg=133.322Pa=1 torr
The lower the absolute pressure is, the higher
the degree of vacuum is.
Pressure measurement
• Pressure driven equipment (IC engines, turbines, etc.)
• Pneumatic or Hydraulic mechanical elements
• Biomedical applications (Blood Pressure, Barometric
Chambers)
• Losses in pipes and ducts – energy efficiency
• Atmospheric conditions (weather forecast, altitude)
• Indirect measurement of flow rate or velocity
• Scuba diving
• Many, many more ...

Pressure
Pressure in a fluid acts equally in all directions
Pressure in a static liquid increases linearly with depth
Ap=
increase in
depth (m)
pressure
increase
µg A h
The pressure at a given depth in a continuous, static body of
liquid is constant.
p
1

p
2

p
3
p
1
= p
2
= p
3
Measuring pressure (1)
Manometers
h
p
1

p
2
=p
a

liquid
density µ
x
y
z
p
1
= p
x

p
x
= p
y

p
z
= p
2
= p
a

(negligible pressure
change in a gas)
(since they are at
the same height)
p
y
- p
z
= µgh
p
1
- p
a
= µgh
So a manometer measures gauge pressure.
Measuring Pressure (2)
Barometers
A barometer is used to measure
the pressure of the atmosphere.
The simplest type of barometer
consists of a column of fluid.
p
1
= 0 vacuum
h
p
2
= p
a
p
2
- p
1
= µgh
p
a
= µgh
examples
water: h = p
a
/µg =10
5
/(10
3
*9.8) ~10m
mercury: h = p
a
/µg =10
5
/(13.4*10
3
*9.8)
~800mm
PRESSURE
MEASUREMENT
• Absolut, Differential
• Barometer
• Manometer

Absolute pressure
Presiune
referinta
P
abs
= 0
T R P
abs
· · µ =
h g P
A h g A 0 A P
hg abs
hg abs
· · µ =
· · · µ = · ÷ ·
Barometer

P=0
P
atm
h
h
A
P
atm
A
0
Well-type manometer
Differential
pressure
1 2
P P P ÷ = A
P
1
P
2
Types of pressures
Static And Dynamic Pressure
Dynamic pressure = Stagnation pressure (A) - Static pressure (B)
Static And Dynamic Pressure
Dynamic pressure = Stagnation pressure (A) - Static pressure (B)
Types of pressure transducers:
• Liquid Column manometers
• Elastic tubes, diaphragms, membranes
(equipped with displacement or strain
sensors)
• Semiconductor elements (with implanted
stress elements)
• Piezoelectic elements (directly convert
crystal lattice stress into voltage)
h g P P
A h g A P A P
1 2
1 2
· · µ = ÷
· · · µ = · ÷ ·
Liquid Column Manometers
P
2
h h
A
P
2
A
P
1
P
1
A
“U tube” manometer
h g P P
A h g A P A P
1 2
1 2
· · µ = ÷
· · · µ = · ÷ ·
Liquid Column Manometers
P
2
h h
A
P
2
A
P
1
P
1
A
r 1 2
r
r
1 2
1 2
h ) sin( g P P
) sin( h h
h
h
) sin(
h g P P
A h g A P A P
· ¸ · · µ = ÷
¸ =
= ¸
· · µ = ÷
· · · µ = · ÷ ·
Inclined
Manometer
P
2
h
h
r
A
P
2
A
P
1
P
1
A
¸
Pressure
transducers
atm 2
P P P ÷ = A
P
2
P
atm
Pressure transducers
• Elastic elements
• Changing pressure
change the shape of
the elastic element
• Shape changing is
detected by a resistive
or position transducer
Tip C Spirala Tub
rasucit
Elicoidal
Tuburi
Bourdon
Capsula
Diafragme
P Absoluta
P
Diferentiala
Plata
Ondulata
evacuat
Diferential sau absolut
Tub
Pressure transducers
• Elastic elements
• Changing pressure
change the shape of
the elastic element
• Shape changing is
detected by a
resistive or position
transducer
Pressure Sensor range
Elastic Type Manometers
More Elastic types...
Two dummy gages
mounted elsewhere
Why do we not put 4 active gages?
Dial-type Manometer
Dial-type Manometer as a mini measurement system
Diaphragm type manometers
To be able to detect pressure, we need to detect the
diaphragm deflection
Strain gauges used with Diaphragm
Strain gage based pressure cell
• When a strain gage, is used to
measure the deflection of an elastic
diphragme or Bourdon tube it becomes
a comonent in apressure transducer
• Strain-gage transducers are used for
narrow-span pressure and for
differential pressure measurements.
• Essentially, the strain gage is used to
measure the displacement of an
elastic diaphragm due to a difference
in pressure across the diaphragme
• If the low pressure side is a sealed
vacuum reference, the transmitter will
act as an absolute pressure
transmitter.
• Strain gage transducers are
availablefor pressure ranges as low as
1300 MPa
Capacitance based pressure
cell
• Capacitance pressure
transducerswere originally developed
for use in low vacuum research. This
capacitance change results from the
movement of a diaphragm element
• (The diaphragm is usually metal or
metal-coated quartz and is exposed to
the process pressure on one side and
to the reference pressure on the other.
Depending on the type
• Differential pressure transducers in a
variety of ranges and outputs of
pressure, the capacitive transducer
can be either an absolute, gauge, or
differential pressure transducer.
• Capacitance pressure transducers
have a wide rangeability, from high
vacuums in the micron range to 70
MPa.
• The potentiometric pressure
sensor provides a simple method
for obtaining an electronic output
from a mechanical pressure
gauge.
• The device consists of a precision
potentiometer, whose wiper arm is
mechanically linked to a Bourdon
or bellows element.
• This type of transducer can be
used for low differential pressure
applications as well as to detect
absolute and gauge pressures.


The resonant wire pressure
transducer
• The resonant-wire pressure transducer
• was introduced in the late 1970s.
• a wire is gripped by a static member at one
end, and by the sensing diaphragm at the
other. An oscillator circuit causes the wire to
oscillate at its resonant frequency.
• A change in process pressure changes the
wire tension, which in turn changes the
resonant frequency of the wire. A digital
counter circuit detects the shift. Because this
change in frequency can be detected quite
precisely,
• This type of transducer can be used for low
differential pressure applications as well as
to detect absolute and gauge pressures.
• Resonant wire transducers can detect
absolute pressures from 10 mm Hg,
differential pressures and gauge pressures
up to 42 MPa. Typical accuracy is 0.1% of
calibrated span, with six-month drift of 0.1%
Piezoelectric sensors
• Piezoresistive pressure sensors are sensitive to
changes in temperature and must be temperature
compensated.
• Piezoresistive pressure sensors can be used from
about 21 KPa
• to 100 MPa.
• Resonant piezoelectric pressure sensors measure
the variation in
• resonant frequency of quartz crystals under an
applied force. The
• sensor can consist of a suspended beam that
oscillates while isolated from all other forces. The
beam is maintained in oscillation at its resonant
frequency. Changes in the applied force result in
resonant frequency changes. The relationship
between the applied pressure P and the oscillation
frequency is:
• P = A(1-TO/T) - B(1-TO/T2)
• where TO is the period of oscillation when the
applied pressure is zero, T is the period of
oscillation when the applied pressure is P, and A
and B are calibration constants for the transducer.
• These transducers can be used for absolute
pressure measurements with spans from 0-100
kPa to 0-6 MPa or for differential pressure
measurements with spans from 0-40 kPa to 0-275
kPa .
Magnetic pressure transducers
• These included the use of inductance, reluctance, and eddy currents.
Inductance is that property of an electric circuit that expresses the amount
of electromotive force (emf) induced by a given rate of change of current
flow in the circuit.
• Reluctance is resistance to magnetic flow, the opposition offered by
magnetic substance to magnetic flux.
• In these sensors, a change in pressure produces a movement, which in turn
changes the inductance or reluctance of an electric circuit.


Optical pressure transducers
• Optical pressure transducers detect the
effects of minute motions due to changes
in process pressure and generate a
corresponding electronic output signal.
• A light emitting diode (LED) is used as the
light source, and a vane blocks some of
the light as it is moved by the diaphragm.
As the process pressure moves the vane
between the source diode and the
measuring diode, the amount of infrared
light received changes.
• Optical pressure transducers do not
require much maintenance.
• They have excellent stability and are
designed for long-duration
measurements.
• They are available with ranges from 35
kPa to 413 MPa and with 0.1% full scale
accuracy.
Sensor/Cavity System Response
(Helmholz Resonator)
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Pressure signal at the source
Pressure signal at the sensor face
( )
2
/ 2
C a
f
V L a
t
t
=
+
(
(
(
¸ ¸
where C is the sound velocity, L and a are the
length and area of the connecting tube and V
is the cavity volume.
In this second order system air acts as mass,
the pressure acts as a spring and the
connecting tube as a damping element.
The fundamental natural
frequency of the tube/cavity
system may be expressed as
Bourdon tube over pressure
protection
• Most pressure instruments are
provided with overpressure
protection of 50% to 200% of
range These protectors satisfy the
majority of applications. Where
higher overpressures are
expected and their nature is
temporary (pressure spikes of
short duration—seconds or less),
snubbers can be installed.
• If excessive overpressure is
expected to be of longer duration,
one can protect the sensor by
installing a pressure relief valve.
However, this will result in a loss
of measurement when the relief
valve is open.
Mechanical High pressure
sensors
• In the case of the button repeater ( figA), the diaphragm can detect extruder pressures up to 10,000 psig and can
operate at temperatures up to 4300°C because of its selfcooling design. It operates on direct force balance
between the process pressure (P1) acting on the sensing diaphragm and the pressure of the output air signal (P2)
acting on the balancing diaphragm. The pressure of the output air signal follows the process pressure in inverse
ratio to the areas of the two diaphragms. If the diaphragm area ratio is 200:1, a 1,000-psig increase in process
pressure will raise the air output signal by 5 psig.
• Another mechanical high pressure sensor uses a helical Bourdon element (Figure B). This device may include as
many as twenty coils and can measure pressures well in excess of 10,000 psig. The standard element material is
heavy-duty stainless steel, and the measurement error is around 1% of span. Helical Bourdon tube sensors
provide high overrange protection and are suitable for fluctuating pressure service, but must be protected from
plugging. An improvement on the design shown in Figure B detects tip motion optically, without requiring any
mechanical linkage.
Vacuum mesurement

• Vacuum gauges in use today fall into three
main categories:
• mechanical,
• thermal,
• ionization.

Vacuum mesurement
Semiconductor-type Sensors
Static Calibration
2
cyl
mg
p
R t
A =
Pressure transducers
Pressure transducers
Pressure transducers
Pressure transducers
Pressure transducers
Pressure transducers
Converter a.c. / c.c.
Amplifier
Output voltage
Arm
Inductive
motor
Pivot
Diaphragm
P
1

P
2

Pressure cell
Reluctance detector
Pressure
servo-transducer
Differential
amplifier
Charge amplifier
Compensation crystal Y
2

Crystal Y
1

Diaphragm
P
1

Piezoelectric pressure
transducer
Power
Relay
C
1
C
2

A
Pressure admission
B
Preso-sensitive switch
Fluid Flow Measurements
• Pitot Tube
• Venturi Meter
• Orifice Meter
• Rotameter
• Others
– Coriolis (Vortex shedding)
– Turbine

Pitot Tube
V
1

1
2
1 atm
h
1

h
2

2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1
2 2
s
c c c c
P P g g
v h W v h F
g g g g µ µ
+ + + = + + +
Pitot Static Tube
h
V
1

µ
1

Venturi Meter
V
1

P
1

1
2
V
2
, P
2

D
i
= pipe inner diameter, control surface 1
D
t
= venturi throat diameter, control surface 2
t
i
D
D
| =
Ratio of throat diameter to pipe ID
2
4
2
1
V
c
C P
v g
µ
|
A
=
÷
C
V
= coefficient of discharge (accounts for friction losses)
Usually C
V
= 0.98, see Figure 5.9, p 155 for C
V
as a function of Re.
If a manometer is used to measure AP, then
( )
2
4
2
1
V
m f
C
v gh µ µ
|
= ÷
÷
Orifice Meter
h
V
1

P
1

Vena contracta
D
i
is the pipe ID and D
o
is the orifice diameter
| = D
o
/D
i

Orifice Design Equation
2
2
4
0.61 2
i c f
m
D g P
|
t µ
=
A
With 0.2<|<0.8
Q, volumetric flow = V
o
A
0
and the mass flow m = µ
f
Q
Rotameter
W
V
If calibrated for one fluid, then
1/ 2
1
2 1
2
Q Q
µ
µ
| |
=
|
\ .
Others
1. Vortex-shedding flow meter – flow past a blunt
object causes vortexes
2. Turbine meters – paddle wheel speed measures
flow rate
3. Thermal gas mass flow meter – a slip stream is
heated by a constant heat input and temperature
rise is related to the gas mass flow
4. Magnetic flow meters – a magnetic field is
generated across a conducting fluid with the
induced voltage proportional to the flow velocity
5. Coriolis mass flow meter – fluid enters two U-tube
side channels where coriolis forces cause a twist in
the tubes. Twist angle is proportional to mass flow
rate.
Unsteady Flow
1
2
h
z
1

z
2

Toricelli‟s Equation
D
1
, v
1

D
2
, v
2

2
2 v gh =
Velocity of surface 1
1
dh
v
dt
= ÷
From the equation of continuity
2
1
2 1
2
D
v v
D
| |
=
|
\ .
Flow Measurement, Q
• Tracer method BS5857
• Ultrasonic flow measurement
• Tank filling method
• Installation of an on-line flowmeter
Tracer Method
The Tracer method is particularly suitable for cooling water flow measurement because
of their sensitivity and accuracy.

This method is based on injecting a tracer into the cooling water for a few minutes at an
accurately measured constant rate. A series of samples is extracted from the system at a point
where the tracer has become completely mixed with the cooling water. The mass flow rate is
calculated from:

q
cw
= q
1 x
C
1
/C
2

where q
cw
= cooling water mass flow rate, kg/s
q
1
= mass flow rate of injected tracer, kg/s
C
1
= concentration of injected tracer, kg/kg
C2 = concentration of tracer at downstream position during the „plateau‟ period
of constant concentration, kg/kg

The tracer normally used is sodium chloride.
Ultrasonic Flow meter
Operating under Doppler effect principle these meters are non-invasive, meaning
measurements can be taken without disturbing the system. Scales and rust in the pipes are
likely to impact the accuracy.
Ensure measurements are taken in a sufficiently long length of pipe free from flow
disturbance due to bends, tees and other fittings.
The pipe section where measurement is to be taken should be hammered gently to enable
scales and rusts to fall out.
For better accuracy, a section of the pipe can be replaced with new pipe for flow
measurements.
Tank filing method
In open flow systems such as water getting pumped to an overhead tank or a sump, the flow
can be measured by noting the difference in tank levels for a specified period during which
the outlet flow from the tank is stopped. The internal tank dimensions should be preferable
taken from the design drawings, in the absence of which direct measurements may be
resorted to.
Installation of an on-line
flowmeter
If the application to be measured is going to be critical and periodic then the best option
would be to install an on-line flowmeter which can rid of the major problems encountered
with other types.
Pumps – Bernoulli‘s Theorem
• Pressure head: measure of fluid‘s mech. PE
• Velocity head: measure of fluid‘s mech. KE
• Friction head: measure of energy lost that heats fluid

Z
1
+ P
1
/µ + V
1
2
/2g = Z
2
+ P
2
/µ + V
2
2
/2g + [(U
2
– U
1
) – W – Q]

q + w
shaft
= (h
2
– h
1
) + (v
2
2
– v
1
2
)/2 + g(z
2
–z
1
)

Z/z: fluid height; P: fluid pressure; µ: fluid density
V/v: fluid velocity U: internal energy W/w: work
Q/q: heat transferred h: enthalpy g: grav. acceleration

• BOTTOM LINE: Total energy within the control volume is
constant under SS conditions.
Flow of Fluids in Pipes
ASSUMPTIONS:

• Steady state flow (flow speed is
constant in time at any given
point along pipe).
• No internal energy change (no
transformation of mechanical
energy to thermal energy, no
viscous drag).
• Irrotational flow (no vorticity, no
whirlpools, eddies, etc.)
ANALYSIS:

• Conservation of Mass.
• Work Energy Theorem.
GOALS: Understand how the fluid pressure and flow speed change from
point to point along the pipe.
1
2
1
2
1
2
Principle of Continuity
1
2
v
1
Consider the amount (mass m
1
) of fluid passing into the region between
points 1 and 2 in the pipe during a time At:
( ) | |
1 1 1 1
A t v m A µ =
A
1
µ
1
length
volume
This is the mass of the fluid
that passed point 1.
Principle of Continuity
1
2
Conservation of mass (along with steady state flow) says that whatever
flowed into the region between 1 and 2 MUST have flowed out:
( ) | | ( ) | |
2 2 2 1 1 1
2 2 2 1 1 1
2 1
A v A v
A t v A t v
m m
µ = µ
A µ = A µ
=
The product µ v A is called ―mass flow rate‖ with units kg/s.
v
1
v
2
Principle of Continuity
1
2
v
1
ASSUMPTION: The fluid density remains constant (liquid).
2 2 1 1
2 2 1 1
A v A v
A v A v
=
= µ µ
The product v A is called ―(volume) flow rate‖ with units m
3
/s.
v
2
For the flow of liquids, pipe cross-sectional area A (and A alone) governs
flow speed. In particular, flow speed increases through a constriction.
Check Question on Principle of Continuity
Water flowing at 0.4 m/s through a pipe of circular cross section 2.0 cm in
diameter meets a constriction of diameter 1.0 cm.

a) What is the flow speed within the constricted portion of the pipe in m/s?
b) What is the volume flow rate of the water in the pipe?
The Bernoulli Equation
1
2
y
y
1
y
2
( ) | |
( ) | |
1 1 1
2 2 2
gy A t v
gy A t v PE
A ÷
A = A
µ
µ
Principle of Continuity says:
( ) ( ) V A t v A t v A = A = A
2 2 1 1
y g gy gy
V
PE
A = ÷ =
A
A
µ µ µ
1 2
The change in gravitational PE per
unit volume swept out.
v
1
v
2
The Bernoulli Equation
1
2
y
y
1
y
2
v
1
v
2
( ) | |
( ) | |
2
1 1 1
2
2 2 2
2
1
2
1
v A t v
v A t v KE
A ÷
A = A
µ
µ
Principle of Continuity says:
( ) ( ) V A t v A t v A = A = A
2 2 1 1
( ) | |
2 2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
v v v
V
KE
A = ÷ =
A
A
µ µ µ
The change in gravitational KE
per unit volume swept out.
The Bernoulli Equation
1
2
y
y
1
y
2
v
1
v
2
( )
( ) t v A p
t v A p W
A ÷
A =
2 2 2
1 1 1
Principle of Continuity says:
( ) ( ) V t v A t v A A = A = A
2 2 1 1
p p p
V
W
A ÷ = ÷ =
A
2 1
The work done on system by adjacent fluid
per unit volume swept out.
p
1
A
1
p
2
A
2
The Bernoulli Equation
V
PE
V
KE
V
W
A
A
+
A
A
=
A
The Work Energy Theorem relates the net work to the change in total
mechanical energy:
( ) | | 0
2
1
2
= A + A + A y g v p µ µ
2
2
2 2 1
2
1 1
2
1
2
1
gy v p gy v p µ µ µ µ + + = + +
Thereby giving us Bernoulli‘s equation in its two common forms:
BASIC VACUUM
PRACTICE
Why is a Vacuum Needed?

To move a particle in a (straight) line over a large distance
(Page 5 manual)
Why is a Vacuum Needed?
Contamination
(usually water)
Clean surface
Atmosphere (High)Vacuum
To provide a clean surface
HOW DO WE CREATE A
VACUUM?
VACUUM PUMPING METHODS
Sliding Vane
Rotary Pump
Molecular
Drag Pump
Turbomolecular
Pump
Fluid Entrainment
Pump
VACUUM PUMPS
(METHODS)
Reciprocating
Displacement Pump
Gas Transfer
Vacuum Pump
Drag
Pump
Entrapment
Vacuum Pump
Positive Displacement
Vacuum Pump
Kinetic
Vacuum Pump
Rotary
Pump
Diaphragm
Pump
Piston
Pump
Liquid Ring
Pump
Rotary
Piston Pump
Rotary
Plunger Pump
Roots
Pump
Multiple Vane
Rotary Pump
Dry
Pump
Adsorption
Pump
Cryopump
Getter
Pump
Getter Ion
Pump
Sputter Ion
Pump
Evaporation
Ion Pump
Bulk Getter
Pump
Cold Trap
Ion Transfer
Pump
Gaseous
Ring Pump
Turbine
Pump
Axial Flow
Pump
Radial Flow
Pump
Ejector
Pump
Liquid Jet
Pump
Gas Jet
Pump
Vapor Jet
Pump
Diffusion
Pump
Diffusion
Ejector Pump
Self Purifying
Diffusion Pump
Fractionating
Diffusion Pump
Condenser
Sublimation
Pump
BAROMETER
WATER MERCURY
760
mm
Mercury: 13.58 times
heavier than water:
Column is 13.58 x shorter :
10321 mm/13.58=760 mm
(= 760 Torr)
10.321
mm
29,9
in
(Page 12 manual)
PRESSURE OF 1 STANDARD
ATMOSPHERE:
760 TORR, 1013 mbar

AT SEA LEVEL, 0
O
C AND 45
O
LATITUDE
Pressure Equivalents
Atmospheric Pressure (Standard) =
0
14.7
29.9
760
760
760,000
101,325
1.013
1013
gauge pressure (psig)
pounds per square inch (psia)
inches of mercury
millimeter of mercury
torr
millitorr or microns
pascal
bar
millibar
THE ATMOSPHERE IS A MIXTURE OF GASES
PARTIAL PRESSURES OF GASES CORRESPOND TO THEIR RELATIVE VOLUMES
GAS SYMBOL
PERCENT BY
VOLUME
PARTIAL PRESSURE
TORR PASCAL
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Argon
Carbon Dioxide
Neon
Helium
Krypton
Hydrogen
Xenon
Water

N
2

O
2

A
CO
2

Ne
He
Kr
H
2
X
H
2
O
78
21
0.93
0.03
0.0018
0.0005
0.0001
0.00005
0.0000087
Variable
593
158
7.1
0.25
1.4 x 10
-2

4.0 x 10
-3
8.7 x 10
-4
4.0 x 10
-4
6.6 x 10
-5
5 to 50
79,000
21,000
940
33
1.8
5.3 x 10
-1
1.1 x 10
-1
5.1 x 10
-2
8.7 x 10
-3
665 to 6650
(Page 13 manual)
VAPOR PRESSURE OF WATER AT
VARIOUS TEMPERATURES
T (
O
C)
100
25
0
-40
-78.5
-196
P (mbar)
1013
32
6.4
0.13
6.6 x 10
-4

10
-24
(BOILING)

(FREEZING)

(DRY ICE)
(LIQUID NITROGEN)
(Page 14 manual)
(Page 15 manual)
Vapor Pressure of some Solids
(Page 15 manual)
PRESSURE RANGES
RANGE

ROUGH (LOW) VACUUM

HIGH VACUUM

ULTRA HIGH VACUUM
PRESSURE

759 TO 1 x 10
-3
(mbar)

1 x 10
-3
TO 1 x 10
-8
(mbar)

LESS THAN 1 x 10
-8
(mbar)
(Page 17 manual)
GAS FLOW
CONDUCTANCE
(Page 24 manual)
Viscous and Molecular Flow
Viscous Flow
(momentum transfer
between molecules)
Molecular Flow
(molecules move
independently)
FLOW REGIMES
Viscous Flow:
Distance between molecules is small; collisions between
molecules dominate; flow through momentum transfer;
generally P greater than 0.1 mbar

Transition Flow:
Region between viscous and molecular flow

Molecular Flow:
Distance between molecules is large; collisions between
molecules and wall dominate; flow through random motion;
generally P smaller than 10 mbar
-3
(Page 25 manual)
MEAN FREE PATH
MOLECULAR DENSITY AND MEAN FREE PATH
1013 mbar (atm) 1 x 10
-3
mbar 1 x 10
-9
mbar
#
mol/cm
3
MFP
3 x 10
19
(30 million trillion)
4 x 10
13
(40 trillion)
4 x 10
7
(40 million)
2.5 x 10
-6
in
6.4 x 10
-5
mm
2 inches
5.1 cm
31 miles
50 km
FLOW REGIMES
Mean Free Path
Characteristic Dimension
Viscous Flow: is less than 0.01
Mean Free Path
Characteristic Dimension
Molecular Flow: is greater than 1
Mean Free Path
Characteristic Dimension
Transition Flow:
is between 0.01 and 1
Conductance in Viscous
Flow
Under viscous flow conditions doubling the
pipe diameter increases the conductance
sixteen times.
The conductance is INVERSELY related to
the pipe length
(Page 28 manual)
Conductance in Molecular
Flow
Under molecular flow conditions doubling
the pipe diameter increases the conductance
eight times.
The conductance is INVERSELY related to
the pipe length.
SYSTEM
PUMP
C
1
C
2
Series Conductance
R
T
= R
1
+ R
2
1 = 1 + 1
C
1
C
2
C
T
1 = C
1
+ C
2
C
1
x C
2
C
T
C
T
= C
1
x C
2
C
1
+ C
2
(Page 29 manual)
GAS LOAD
Outgassing
Leaks
Virtual
Real
Backstreaming
Diffusion
Permeation
GAS LOAD (Q) IS EXPRESSED IN:
mbar liters per second
Pumpdown Curve
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
m
b
a
r
)

Time (sec)
10
-11
10
1
10
3
10
5
10
7
10
9
10
11
10
13
10
15
10
17
10
+1
10
-1
10
-3
10
-5
10
-7
10
-9
Volume
Surface Desorption
Diffusion
Permeation
Roughing Pumps
2
(Page 39 manual)
VACUUM PUMPING METHODS
Sliding Vane
Rotary Pump
Molecular
Drag Pump
Turbomolecular
Pump
Fluid Entrainment
Pump
VACUUM PUMPS
(METHODS)
Reciprocating
Displacement Pump
Gas Transfer
Vacuum Pump
Drag
Pump
Entrapment
Vacuum Pump
Positive Displacement
Vacuum Pump
Kinetic
Vacuum Pump
Rotary
Pump
Diaphragm
Pump
Piston
Pump
Liquid Ring
Pump
Rotary
Piston Pump
Rotary
Plunger Pump
Roots
Pump
Multiple Vane
Rotary Pump
Dry
Pump
Adsorption
Pump
Cryopump
Getter
Pump
Getter Ion
Pump
Sputter Ion
Pump
Evaporation
Ion Pump
Bulk Getter
Pump
Cold Trap
Ion Transfer
Pump
Gaseous
Ring Pump
Turbine
Pump
Axial Flow
Pump
Radial Flow
Pump
Ejector
Pump
Liquid Jet
Pump
Gas Jet
Pump
Vapor Jet
Pump
Diffusion
Pump
Diffusion
Ejector Pump
Self Purifying
Diffusion Pump
Fractionating
Diffusion Pump
Condenser
Sublimation
Pump
PUMP OPERATING RANGES
10
-12
10
-10
10
-8
10
-6
10
-4
10
-2
1 10
+2
P (mbar)
Rough Vacuum High Vacuum
Ultra High
Vacuum
Venturi Pump
Rotary Vane Mechanical Pump
Rotary Piston Mechanical Pump
Sorption Pump
Dry Mechanical Pump
Blower/Booster Pump
High Vac. Pumps
Ultra-High Vac. Pumps
VACUUM SYSTEM USE
1
2
4
6
5
9
8
8
7
1
2
3
3a
4
5
6
7
8
9
Chamber
High Vac. Pump
Roughing Pump
Foreline Pump
Hi-Vac. Valve
Roughing Valve
Foreline Valve
Vent Valve
Roughing Gauge
High Vac. Gauge
7
3
3a
(Page 44 manual)
Rotary Vane, Oil-Sealed
Mechanical Pump
(Page 45 manual)
Pump Mechanism
How the Pump Works
(Page 46 manual)
OIL BACKSTREAMING
2
PRESSURE LEVELS: LESS THAN 0.2 mbar
The Molecular Sieve/Zeolite
Trap
(Page 48 manual)
Dry Vacuum Pumps
Blower/Booster Pump
(Page 61 manual)
One Stage Roots Blower
Pump Assembly
VACUUM SYSTEM USE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Chamber
Foreline
Roughing Valve
Roughing Gauge
Roughing Pump
Foreline
Foreline Valve
Foreline Gauge
High Vacuum Valve
Booster/Blower
Vent Valve
High Vacuum Gauge
1
9
3
12
4
11
5
2
6
7
8
10
(Page 62 manual)
Sorption Pump Components
(Page 54 manual)
Vapor Pressure
(Page 56 manual)
Cryo-condensation
Cryo-sorption
(Page 55 manual)
HIGH VACUUM PUMPS
3
(Page 63 manual)
VACUUM PUMPING METHODS
Sliding Vane
Rotary Pump
Molecular
Drag Pump
Turbomolecular
Pump
Fluid Entrainment
Pump
VACUUM PUMPS
(METHODS)
Reciprocating
Displacement Pump
Gas Transfer
Vacuum Pump
Drag
Pump
Entrapment
Vacuum Pump
Positive Displacement
Vacuum Pump
Kinetic
Vacuum Pump
Rotary
Pump
Diaphragm
Pump
Piston
Pump
Liquid Ring
Pump
Rotary
Piston Pump
Rotary
Plunger Pump
Roots
Pump
Multiple Vane
Rotary Pump
Dry
Pump
Adsorption
Pump
Cryopump
Getter
Pump
Getter Ion
Pump
Sputter Ion
Pump
Evaporation
Ion Pump
Bulk Getter
Pump
Cold Trap
Ion Transfer
Pump
Gaseous
Ring Pump
Turbine
Pump
Axial Flow
Pump
Radial Flow
Pump
Ejector
Pump
Liquid Jet
Pump
Gas Jet
Pump
Vapor Jet
Pump
Diffusion
Pump
Diffusion
Ejector Pump
Self Purifying
Diffusion Pump
Fractionating
Diffusion Pump
Condenser
Sublimation
Pump
PUMP OPERATING RANGES
10
-12
10
-10
10
-8
10
-6
10
-4
10
-2
1 10
+2
P (Torr)
Rough Vacuum High Vacuum
Ultra High
Vacuum
Roughing Pumps
Turbo Pump
Diffusion Pump
Cryo Pump
Ion Pump
Tit. Subl. Pump
Liquid Nitrogen Trap
VACUUM SYSTEM USE
1
4
6
5
9
8
8
1
2
3
3a
4
5
6
7
8
9
Chamber
High Vac. Pump
Roughing Pump
Fore Pump
Hi-Vac. Valve
Roughing Valve
Foreline Valve
Vent Valve
Roughing Gauge
High Vac. Gauge
7
3
3a
2
8
2
Oil Diffusion Pump
Pump Construction
(Page 66 manual)
How the Pump Works
How the Pump Works
First stage vapors are
separated from others
Pumping Speed
10
-10
10
--3
10
--1
P
u
m
p
i
n
g

S
p
e
e
d

(
A
i
r
)

1 2 3 4
Inlet Pressure (Torr)
Critical Point
1. Compression Ratio Limit
2. Constant Speed
3. Constant Q (Overload)
4. Mechanical Pump Effect
Maximum Tolerable Foreline
Pressure
(Page 73 manual)
LN
2
reservoir with baffles
(Page 78 manual)
How the LN2 Trap Works
Gas
Approximate Vapor
Pressure (mbar)
Water (H
2
O)
Argon (A)
Carbon Dioxide (CO
2
)
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Helium (He)
Hydrogen (H
2
)
Oxygen (O
2
)
Neon (Ne)
Nitrogen (N
2
)
Solvents
10
-22

500
10
-7

>760
>760
>760
350
>760
760
<10
-10
(Page 79 manual)
Turbomolecular Pump
ROTOR BODY
HIGH PUMPING SPEED
HIGH COMPRESSION
EXHAUST
HIGH FREQ. MOTOR
INLET FLANGE
STATOR BLADES
BEARING
BEARING
(Page 81 manual)
Rotor - stator assembly
(Page 82 manual)
Pump Operation
Molecule
V
Moving Wall with Speed V
Principle of the Turbomolecular Pump
(Page 83 manual)
Roughing through the turbo
1
2
3
4
5
6


Chamber
Turbo Pump
Roughing Pump
Vent Valve
Roughing Gauge
High Vac. Gauge
1
6
7
4
3
2
5
2
(Page 91 manual)
Pumping by Cryocondensation
Cryosorption in charcoal
(Page 98 manual)
Charcoal placement
Gauges
5
(Page 123 manual)
Gauge Operating Ranges
10
-12
10
-10
10
-8
10
-6
10
-4
10
-2
1 10
+2
P (mbar)
Rough Vacuum High Vacuum
Ultra High
Vacuum
Bourdon Gauge
Thermocouple Gauge
Cold Cathode Gauge
Capacitance Manometer
Hot Fil. Ion Gauge
Residual Gas Analyzer
Pirani Gauge
Spinning Rotor Gauge
McLeod Gauge
Bourdon Gauge
How the gauge works
Heat Transfer Gauges
Thermocouple gauge
and
Pirani Gauge
Thermocouple Gauge
How the gauge works
Ionization gauges
Ionization current is the
measure of vacuum
Residual Gas Analyzer
QUADRUPOLE
HEAD
CONTROL UNIT
How the RGA works
MASS NUMBER (A.M.U.)
R
E
L
A
T
I
V
E

I
N
T
E
N
S
I
T
Y

NORMAL (UNBAKED)
SYSTEM
H
2
H
2
O
N
2
,, CO
CO
2
(A)
RGA SPECTRUM
MASS NUMBER (A.M.U.)
R
E
L
A
T
I
V
E

I
N
T
E
N
S
I
T
Y

SYSTEM WITH
AIR LEAK
H
2
H
2
O
N
2
CO
2
(B)
O
2
RGA SPECTRUM
LEAK DETECTION
9
(Page 249 manual)
Introduction
Problems that appear to be
Leaks
Outgassing
Leaks
Virtual
Real
Backstreaming
Diffusion
Permeation
Trapped Volumes
Vented Screw
Double O ring sealed shafts
Atmosphere
(760 torr)
Vacuum
Differential Pumping
Atmosphere
(1013 mbar)
Vacuum
To Pump
1 mbar
PERMEATION LEAKS
Permeation “leaks” are different
than real leaks because the only way
to stop them is to change to a less
permeable material
One standard cubic
centimeter/sec
(std. cc/sec)
Leak rate of 1 x 10
-1
std cc/sec
Leak rate of 1 x 10
-3
std
cc/sec
Leak Rates over Time
LEAK RATES
10
-1
STD CC/SEC --- 1 CC/10 SEC
10
-3
STD CC/SEC --- 3 CC/HOUR
10
-5
STD CC/SEC --- 1 CC/DAY
10
-6
STD CC/SEC --- 1 CC/2 WEEKS
10
-7
STD CC/SEC --- 3 CC/YEAR
10
-9
STD CC/SEC --- 1 CC/30 YEARS
Why Helium is used
HELIUM
• Helium is very light and small
• Low concentration in air (0.0005%)
• Permits dynamic testing
• Permits non-destructive testing
• Helium is safe
CONVENTIONAL LEAK DETECTOR
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Test Piece
Test Port
High Vac. Pump
Roughing Pump
Fore Pump
RoughingValve
Test Valve
Pump Valve
Spectrometer Tube
Cold Trap
Roughing Gauge
Vent Valve

7
6
12
4 5
1
3
8
11
2
9
10
Ion Separation in Magnetic
Field
Ion Source
To Pre-Amplifier
Collector
Magnetic Field
Deflects He Ions
90
O
, other ions
more or less than
90
O
.
He ions pass
through slit and
are collected
Lighter ions:
more
Heavier ions:
less
Ion Gauge
Tracer probe leak detection
technique
That’s All, Folks

Energy Balance for a Typical Pumping System
100%
ELECTRICITY MOTOR 12% LOSS

COUPLING

2% LOSS

PUMPS VALVES PIPES

24% LOSS

9% LOSS
11% LOSS

WORK DONE ON WATER

Base plate-mounted centrifugal pump installation
(Source: ASHRAE HVAC Systems and Equipment Handbook 2004)

Centrifugal pump

Pump motor

Centrifugal pump body

A double-suction, horizontal split-case, single-stage centrifugal pump
(Source: Wang, S. K., 2001. Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration)

CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
• DEFINITION: DEVICE THAT USES AN EXTERNAL POWER SOURCE TO APPLY FORCE TO A FLUID IN ORDER TO MOVE IT FROM ONE PLACE TO ANOTHER • USED TO DECREASE THE MECHANICAL ENERGY OF FLUID. • THE ENERGY DECREASES MAY BE USED TO DECREASE THE VELOCITY. THE PRESSURE OR THE ELEVATION OF THE FLUID.

. THERMAL POWER STATIONS.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS • PUMPS FIND APPLICATION IN VARIOUS TYPES OF INDUSTRIES SUCH AS -CHEMICAL -PETROCHEMICAL -REFINERIES -FERTILISERS -PAPER -SUGAR ETC • THE PUBLIC WORKS. SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ALSO FIND MAJOR APPLICATION FOR PUMPS.

ADOPTABILITY TO USE WITH MOTOR OR TURBINE DRIVE.SIMPLICITY .LOW FIRST COST .SMALL FLOOR SPACE .QUICK OPERATION AND .PULSATING) .CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS *ADVANTAGES OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS .LOW OPERATION & MAINTENANCE EXPENSE . .UNIFORM FLOW ( NON .

30 16.30 4.50 62.90 2.40 TOTAL 4250 178.30 28.BREAK-UP OF ENERGY SAVINGS POTENTIAL IN PUMPS INDUSTRY /SECTOR ANNUAL SAVING POTENTIAL (in Rs.00 * BASED ON AVERAGE ELECTRICITY PRICE OF Rs 3.80 8.70 12. Million)* CHEMICAL & PETROCHEMICAL PLANT PULP AND PAPER PLANT STEEL PLANT FERTILIZER PLANT THERMAL POWER PLANT TEXTILE PLANT CEMENT PLANT COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS & HOTELS PUBLIC WATER WORKS OTHERS (in MW) 700 675 400 300 270 100 45 60 1500 200 29.00 PER UNIT AND OPERATING PERIOD OF 8000 HOURS PER YEAR .20 1.60 11.

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP CHARACTERISTICS HEAD CAPACITY .

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP CHARACTERISTICS HEAD CAPACITY .

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP CHARACTERISTICS EFFICIENCY CAPACITY BHP CAPACITY .

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP CHARACTERISTICS OPERATING POINT HEAD CAPACITY .

INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE. • DO NOT OVERSIZE THE PUMP. WHICH IS USUALLY IN THE RANGE OF 50-70% OF THEIR MAXIMUM CAPACITY. • ENSURE ALL THE JOINTS ARE LEAK PROOF TO AVOID AIR IMPRESS DURING PUMPING OPERATION. • DO NOT ALLOW AN EXTRA PRESSURE LOSS IN THE PIPING AS A ‗SAFETY FACTOR‘ • PROVISION FOR AIR VENTING FROM THE SYSTEM IN DESIGN.ENERGY CONSERVATION IN PUMPS AT DESIGN STAGE • SELECT PUMPS IN THEIR RANGE OF GREATEST EFFICIENCY. • ENSURE THAT (NPSH)A >(NPSH)R • KEEP SECTION LIFT OF 4. .5 TO 5M.

m3/s H = TOTAL HEAD. DEFINITION THE SPECIFIC SPEED OF AN IMPELLER.SPECIFIC SPEED SPECIFIC SPEED IS A CORRELATION OF PUMP CAPACITY. NS = ( N*√Q)/H3/4 Ns = SPECIFIC SPEED N = ROTATIVE SPEED IN rpm Q = CAPACITY. HEAD AND SPEED AT OPTIMUM EFFICIENCY. IF IT WERE SUCH A SIZE AS TO DISCHARGE 1M3/S. IS THE REVOLUTION PER MINUTE AT WHICH A GEOMENTRICALLY SIMILAR IMPELLER WOULD RUN. AGAINST 1M HEAD. THIS IS A NUMBER EXPRESSED AS . m ( Head per stage for a multistage pump) .

SUCTION PRESSURE .PUMP PROCESS DESIGN • PUMP SUCTION PRESSURE * SYSTEM PRESSURE * STATIC PRESSURE * LIVE PRESSURE DROP • PUMP DISCHARGE PRESSURE * SYSTEM PRESSURE * STATIC PRESSURE * LINE PRESSURE DROP * PRESSURE DROP ACROSS INSTRUMENTS * PRESSURE DROP ACROSS EQUIPMENTS • DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE = DISCHARGE PRESSURE .

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP CHARACTERISTICS HEAD FRACTION HEAD STATIC HEAD CAPACITY .

HEAD EFFICIENCY STATIC HEAD CAPACITY .CENTRIFUGAL PUMP CHARACTERISTICS SYSTEM CHAR.

OVER LOADED MOTOR .CAVITATION . LEADING TO WEAR ON VALVES NOT DESIGNED FOR CONTROL AND INCREASED NOISE LEVELS .HIGH ENERGY COST .THROTTLING MAY OCCUR.OVER DESIGN * MORE USUALLY ENCOUNTERED DUE TO DESIGNERS OVER PROVISION OF SAFETY MEASUREMENT * RESULTS HIGH EQUIPMENTS COST * THE SYSTEM COULD SUFFER DUE TO THE FOLLOWING .REDUCED PUMP LIFE ( ESPECIALLY IF THE FLOW RATES ARE MUCH ABOVE THE OPTIMUM) .PUMP .PUMP INLET CONDITIONS WILL SUFFER .

PUMP . AT HIGHER HEADS AND DECREASED FLOW .UNDER DESIGN * PUMPS OPERATING AWAY FROM THEIR DESIGNED DUTY POINTS. RESULTING IN THE PLANT BEING UNABLE TO MEET ITS DESIGN PERFORMANCE * INCREASE IN NOISE LEVELS * REDUCED PUMP LIFE .

0 M ON THE NPSH REQUIRED * THE NORMAL ALLOWABLE MARGINS IN POWER ARE 5 .15 % BETWEEN THE MAXIMUM POWER IN OPERATING A PUMP & THE MOTOR RATING .1.5 .DESING CONSIDERATIONS * OVER DESIGN LEADS TO CONSIDERABLE LOSS OF EFFICIENCY & ENERGY IN PUMPS * MINIMISE OVER DESIGN * AN IDEAL SAFTY MARGIN FOR A PUMP WILL BE 10 % EACH ON CAPACITY & HEAD * THE IDEAL MARGIN FOR MPSH WHOUD BE 0.

VARIOUS TYPE PUMP EFFICIENCY * AUXIAL PUMP * MIXED FLOW PUMP * SINGLE STAGE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP * MULTISTAGE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP * TURBINE PUMP * SUBMERCIBLE PUMP 80 % 70 % 60 % 40 % 50 % 35 % * RECIPROCATING PUMP * JET PUMP 30 % 15 % .

8Kg/cm2 7.4m 7. 5Kg/cm2 .2m 1.5 Kg/cm2 Globe valve 0.2m 0.35Kg/cm2 21.CASE STUDY 1 0.15Kg/cm2 0.

20 = 0.64 =1.Liquid pumped Flow rate Specific gravity at PT Viscosity Vapour pressure Geometric pipe length Suction Discharge Fluid velocity Suction Discharge = hydrocarbon fluid =115m3/hr =1.5Kg/Cm2 =10m =100m =1m/s =2m/s .

6 1.6 1.6 4.2 12 9 6.1 4.5 19.8 3 27.Pipe fitting Gate valve Strainer Elbow Tee NRV Entrance Exit Reducer Equilibrium length in m suction Discharge 1.8 8 12 8 1.2 .

Find out the following A) suction & Discharge line sizes B) Suction & Discharge pressure C) Motor Hp required D) (NPSH)a Pump should be located at the storage area so that the line pressure drop is smaller. Positive head developed is more. .

RECOMMENDED VELOCITIES FOR SIZING PUMP SUCTION & DISCHARGE PIPE LINES DESCRPTION SUCTION (m/s) 0.5 .00 VISCOUS LIQUIDS LIGHT OILS WATER PUMPING COST CAPITAL COST ECONOMIC PIPE DIAMETER PIPE DIAMETER .50 DISCHARGE (m/s) 0.00 1.50 0.80 1.2.80 1.

Solution: Suction side: Fluid flow rate = 115m3/hr Q = Av Q = π/4Ds2*v 115/3600 = π/4Ds2*1 Ds = 0.2016m ∆pf = 4fLv2/2gD .

9 m NRe = [(D*ρ*v)/µ] = [(0.6*1)+3(6.0351Kg/Cm2 .6*2)+4.8+(12*1)+(1.81*0.42 F = 4.0035+0.264(403200)-0.6*10-3 ] = 403200 Since Turbulent flow F = 0. L = Geometric length + equivalent pipe length for fitting.2016] = 0.2922m = 0.Geometric length of the suction side Equivalent length=10m L = (1.2922*10-4*1200 = 0.1)+12 = 39.9*12)/2*9.67*10-3*61.9=61. L = 10+51.2016*1*1200)/0.9+12=51.67*10-3 F = [(4*4.9.

1426m 1.816 -0.Static head = (7.816Kg/Cm2 Suction pressure Kg/Cm2 System pressure Static head Line pressure drop Suction pressure Discharge side: Q = AdVd 115/3600 = π/4Dd2*2 Dd = 0.0351 2.2-0.2809Kg/Cm2 .5 0.4)*1200*10-4 = 0.

42 = 4.6*10-3 = 570400 F = 0.0 Exit 1*8 8 NRV 1*19.0 Entrance 2*8 16.8 = 176.2 Elbow 3*4.6 13.8 19.264(570400)-0.0035+0. Gate value 6*1.8 Tee 4*3 12.8 m L = 100+76.8 76.Equivalent length calculation.51*10-3 .1426*2*1200)/0.8m NRe = DVP/µ = (0.2 7.

81*0.1426 = .496 0.∆pf =[(4*f*L*v2)/2gD] ∆pf = 4*4.2-0.56m = 4.51*10-3*176.496Kg/Cm2 Discharge pressure Kg/Cm2 System pressure Pressure drop across cv Pressure drop across orifice Pressure drop across He Static head Line Pressure drop Discharge pressure 7.4)*10-4*1200 = 2.547Kg/Cm2 Static head = (21.5 0.8 0.15 0.35 2.56*10-4*1200 = 0.547 = 11.843Kg/Cm2 .8*22/2*9.

7809 Kg/Cm2 =7.209 mWC =7.600/7.6 = 81.0075MLC Horse power required HHP = (115/3600)*[(1200*95.5 = 0.45 Motor HP = BHP/Motorŋ = 81.621mWC (NPSH)a Suction pressure –Vapour pressure = 2.2809-1.87 BHP = HHP/Pumpŋ = 48.2 = 6.843-2.9 = 90 .45/0.Differential pressure = Discharge pressure –suction pressure = 11.621)/75] = 48.2809 = 9.5621Kg/Cm2 = 95.87/0.209/1.809 mWC Safety margin = 0.

LIQUID PUMPED CONDENSATE AT 850C AT 50m3/hr.2m GATE VALVE =1.CASE STUDY 2 CALCULATE NPSH AVAILABLE FOR THE PUMP SHOWN IN FIG.4m STRAINER =0.2m REDUCER =0.5m 1m 0.5m 100ǿ pipe SPECIFIC GRAVITY AT 850C =0. 4” x 3”reducer 0.9 VISCOSITY AT 850C VAPOUR AT 850C =0.48kg/cm2 EQUIVALENT PIPE LENGTH FOOT VALVE =12m ELBOW =3.32cp =0.9m .

264(497812.57*10-3 ∆pf =[(4*4.604m .81*0.9*1)=17.5 F = 0.7 L = 3+17.77m/sec NRe = [(D*ρ*v)/µ]=[(0.7=20.5)-0.2*1)+(1.7*1.57*10-3*20.1)]=0.033kg/cm2 Line pressure drop ∆pf =[(4*f*L*v2)/2gD] L =(12*1)+(3.0035+0.77)/0.12*v = 50/3600 V= 50/3600*4/π*1/0.7 π/4*D2*v = Q π/4*0.772)/(2*9.SOLUTION: Static head =10-4x900x1.2*1)+(0.32*10-3]=497812.5=0.01 V=1.4*1)+(0.33mwc=1.42 F =4.1*900*1.135kg/cm2 System pressure =10.

04mwc =3.64 mwc =0.364 Kg/Cm2 =3.9 =3.480 (Vapour pressure) =0.System pressure Static head Line pressure drop (10-4*900*0.378MLC .884 -0.033 -0.884Kg/Cm2 0.60mwc =3.04/0.04mwc Safety margin (NPSH)a =3.604) (NPSH) available Kg/Cm2 1.054 =0.135 -0.

5 Kw FROM 7.5 Kw TO 40 Kw = 20 % = 15 % ABOVE 40 Kw = 10 % * ABOVE FACTORS ARE APPLICABLE ONLY TO THOSE CASES.SAFETY MARGINS CONSIDERED IN DETERMINING THE MOTOR SIZES UPTO 7. WHERE THE PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS CAN BE PREDICTED ACCURA TELY AT DESIGN STAGE • ECON MEASURES AT THE DEGIGN STAGE RESULTS IN * IMPROVED OPERATING EFFICIENCY * REDUCTION IN OPERATION & MAINTANANCE COSTS * IMPROVED PROFITS .

25 TIMES THE BOILER CAPACITY COOLING TOWEER PUMPS IN A POWER PLANT WILL HAVE A CAPACITY OF 60 TIMES THE BOILER CAPACITY .PUMP CAPACITY BOILER FEED PUMP WILL HAVE A CAPACITY OF 1.2 TO 1.

m3/s Q*P P .PREDICTION OF PUMP EFFICIENCY PUMP EFFICIENCY = USEFUL OUTPUT POWER.CURRENT CONSUMED BY THE PUMP.DIFFERENTIAL HEAD. AMPS * 100 HHP BHP * 100 COSø . kg/m2 102 . BHP = Q . kW INPUT POWER.SUPPLY VOLTAGE .FLOW RATE . 440 V I .POWER CONSUMED IN WATTS OUTPUT POWER.73 VI COS ø V .8 W . W =1 .POWER FACTOR. NORMALLY > 0. kW = INPUT POWER.

m3 / s) * (DIFFERENTIAL HEAD kg /m2) * 1/102 = 45 / 3600 * ( 30* 104) * 1/102 = 36.76 kW VOLTAGE MEASSURED = 400 V CURRENT MEASSURED = 85A POWER FACTOR INPUT POWER. kW = (FLOW RATE.52 % * 100 . kW = 0.85 = 1 .73 VI COSø / 1000 = 1 .76 EFFICIENCY = 50 = 73.CASE STUDY 3 PREDICTION OF PUMP EFFICIENCY FLOW RATE MEASURED.73 * 400*85*0.85 / 1000 = 50 kW 36. Q = 45 m3 /h HEAD .P = 30 kg/ cm2 = 30* 104 kg /m2 USEFUL OUTPUT POWER.

9. A Cosǿ = Power factor . V I = Current drawn by the motor. Kg / m3 ŋPump = Pump efficiency ŋMotor = Motor efficiency V = Supply voltage.807m/s H = Head in m ρ = Fluid density.EFFICIENCY OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS ŋPump = (Output / Input)x100 ŋPump = [Q*H*g*ρ] / [3600 x ŋmotor x 1000 x P] P = Input power in KW = [(√ 3 *V*I*COSǿ) / 1000] Q = Flow rate in m3/ h G = Acceleration due to gravity.

H1. BRAKE HORSE POWER.BHP2.D2 & N2 .PUMP PERFORMANCE WITH IMPELLER DIAMETER & OR SPEED CHANGE Q1. DIAMETER & SPEED Q2. DIAMETER & SPEED DIAMATER CHANGE ONLY Q2 H2 BHP2 = Q1( D2 /D1) = H1(D2/D1)2 = BHP1(D2/D1)3 . HEAD. BRAKE HORSE POWER.BHP1.D1 & N1 .INITIAL CAPACITY.H2. HEAD.NEW CAPACITY.

CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS-CAPACITY CONTROL • PARALLEL OPERATION • CONTROL VALUE WITH BY PASS REGULATION • SPEED REGULATION • THROTTLING AT CONSTANT SPEED .

ENERGY CONSERVATION OPTIONS IN PUMPING SYSTEM • • • • • • • • • IMPELLER TRIMMING DOWN SIZING THE IMPELLER IMPELLER REPAIR AND REPLACEMENT REPLACEMENT WITH SMALLER PUMPS SPEED VARIATION COMBINED THROTTLING & SPEED CONTROL DECENTRALIZATION OF PUMPING SYSTEM AVOID UNNECESSARY PUMPING PROVIDE OVERHEAD TANK FOR GRAVITY FLOW .

FOR THE GIVEN PIPE SIZE • Normal Flow Rate = Q1 • Normal Pressure Drop = ∆P1 • Max. Pressure Drop = ∆P2 What is the relation between ∆P1 & ∆P2 ? ∆P2 = X2 ∆P1 Where X = (Q2 / Q1) . Flow Rate = Q2 • Max.

For example : Q1 = 65 m3/ h . ∆P1 = 0.68 kg / cm2 . ∆P2 = ? ∆P2 = (Q2 / Q1)2 * ∆P1 =(80/65)2 * 0.45 kg / cm2 Q2 = 80 m3/ h .45 = 0.

PUMP PERFORMANCE WITH IMPELLER DIAMETER & OR SPEED CHANGE SPEED CHANGE ONLY Q2 = Q1(N2/N1) H2 = H1(N2/N2)2 BHP2 = BHP1(N2/N1)3 DIAMETER AND SPEED CHANGE Q2 = Q1(D2/D1 * N2/N1) H2 = H1(D2/D1 * N2/N2)2 BHP2 = BHP1(D2/D1 * N2/N1)3 .

A SUCTION LINE SHOULD BE SELECTED LARGER ENOUGH SO THAT THE FLUID DOESNOT TRAVEL FASTER THAN 0. * SLOPE UNIFORMLY TO PUMP FROM FLUID SUPPLY TO AVOID AIR PACKETS * BYPASS DESIGN SHOULD TAKE FLUID BACK TO FLUID SOURCE & NOT INTO SUCTION LINE * SUCTION LINE SHOULD BE FIRMLY ANCHORED OR BURIED TO AVOID PUTTING A STRAIN ON THE PUMP & TO HELP PREVENT SYSTEM VIBRATIONS FROM ACTING DIRECTLY ON THE PUMP .DESIGN OF PIPINGS * THE SUCTION LINE SHOULD NEVER BE SMALLER THAN PUMP INLET & SHOULD BE LARGER IF FEASIBLE * WHEN TWO OR MORE PUMPS ARE CONNECTED TO A COMMAN HEADER.8 m/s THROUGH THE SUCTIONLINE AT THE COMBINED CAPACITY.

RADIUS INSTEAD OF 900 ELLS * IF A REDUCER IS REQUIRED IN SUCTION LINE BETWEEN MAIN LINE & PUMP. SHOULD ELLS BE REQUIRED USE 45O LONG. USING NO ELLS.DESIGN OF PIPINGS FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE DESIGN OF SUCTION PIPING : * PUMP SHOULD BE AS CLOSE TO THE FLUID SUPPLY AS POSSIBLE * USE FULL OPENING VALVES & AVOID CONSTRICTING VALVES * THE IDEAL PIPE ARRANGEMENT IS SHORT AND DIRECT. USE AN ECCENTRIC REDUCER RATHER THAN CONCENTRIC WITH STRAIGHT PORTION IN TOP .

5M HIGHER VALUE CAN BE ACHIEVED UNDER CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCE . • GENERALLY SPEAKING. • . • CAVITATION CAN CREATE SEVERE EROSION ON PUMP IMPELLERS WHICH IN TURN SETS UP VIBRATION AND NOISE. • VARIOUS FACTORS. CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS ARE LIMITED TO SUCTION LIFT OF A APPROXIMATES 4.CAVITATION: • IT IS A PHENOMENON WHICH HAS BEEN KNOWN FOR ITS DESTRUCTIVE POWERS & GENERALLY ARISES BECAUSE OF THE BOILING OF A LIQUID DUE TO LOW PRESSURE RATHER THAN HIGH PRESSURE. EITHER COLLECTIVE OR INDIVIDUALLY CONTRIBUTE TO THIS PHINOMENON IN THE PUMPING FIELD. • ABNORMALLY HIGH SUCTION LIFTS OR IN CORRECT PIPE LAYOUTS ARE TWO PROMINENT FAULTS. RUNNING WITH A RESULT AND LOSS IN PUMPING EFFICIENCY.

35M FOR WATER AT 40C SUCTION LIFT IS REDUCED BY ATTITUDE FRICTIONAL LOSSES IN THE SUCTION BY INCLUDING VELOCITY HEAD AND ENTERY LOSSES. REQUIRED NPSH.T. .• • • • THEORETICAL SUCTION LIFT 10. THE EFFECT AND VAPOUR PRESSURE OF THE FLUID AT P.

CONCLUSON THE EFFICIENCYOF PUMP CAN BE IMPROVED BY THE ADOPTION OF THE FOLLOWING MEASURES * RIGHT SELECTION OF PUMP FOR A PARTICULAR APPLICATION * SELECTION AND INSTALLATION OF CORRECT SIZE PUMPS * ENERGY EFFICIENT OPERATING PRACTICES * UNITIZATION OF PUMPS * INSTALLATION OF VARIABLE SPEED DRIVERS * SEREGATION OF HIGH-HEAD AND LOW-HEAD USERS * UTILIZATION OF GRAVITY HEAD .

. MONITORING AND CONTROL THE ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN PUMPING SYSTEMS IS BEST ACHIEVED BY ADOPTION OF ENERGY CONSERVATION AND RATED DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS AT THE IMPLEMENTATION / PROJECT STAGE.CONCLUSON * INSTALLATION OF HIGH EFFICIENCY PUMPS * RELOCATION OF PROCESS CODENSERS * ADOPTION OF THE PROPER DESIGN PARAMETERS FOR PUMPS AND PIPING * PROPER INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL FOR EFFICIENT OPERATION.

VALVES .

used to permit flow in only one direction (ex: ball-check. needle.used to shut off or partially shut off the flow of fluid ( ex: globe. gate. liftcheck) • Special types: – Relief valves – Pressure-reducing valves – Remote-operated valves . swing-check. plug.Types of Valves • Two basic groups: – Stop valves . butterfly) – Check Valves .

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Globe Valve • Most common valve in a propulsion plant • Body may be straight. oil and water lines . angle. air. or cross type • Valve inlet and outlet openings are designed to suit varying requirements of flow • Valve may be operated in the partially open position (throttled) • Commonly used in steam.

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Gate Valve • Used for a straight line of flow where minimum restriction is desired • Not suitable for throttling • May be rising stem or nonrising stem .

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trim and drain.Ball Valve • Most ball valves are quick acting . sanitary. hydraulic.only require 90o turn to completely open or shut valve • Some ball valves may have gearing for ease of use (also increases operating time) • Used in seawater. and oil transfer systems . air.

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relatively small. and chill water systems . saltwater. and quick acting • May be used for throttling • Used in freshwater. F-76. lube oil.Butterfly Valve • Lightweight. JP-5.

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Check Valve • Allows fluid to flow in a system in only one direction • May be swing. lift. or ball type • Check valves may be built into globe valves or ball valves .

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Relief Valve • Installed in piping systems to protect them from excessive pressure • The relieving pressure is set by the force exerted on the disk by the spring • Relief valves may have a lever which allows manual opening of the valve for test purposes .

Valve Operating Devices • Manual – Handwheel or lever is directly connected to the stem and is operated by hand • Hydraulic – Hydraulic pressure is applied to one side of a piston which is connected to the stem of the valve • Motor – A hydraulic. or air driven motor is used to turn the stem of the valve • Solenoid – Uses an electromagnet to open or close a valve against spring pressure . electric.

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IMPROVING PUMP’S PERFORMANCE & REDUCING ENERGY CONSUMPTION .

Questions  How do pumps perform?  How can I select an efficient pump?  What causes a pump to become inefficient?  How can I determine my pump’s performance?  How can I improve my pump’s performance?  Will improving my pump’s performance reduce my energy bill? .

Basic Concepts  Definition Energy = kilowatt-hours o One kilowatt is 1.34 horsepower o Hours = operating time Energy cost is based on kwhr consumed and unit energy cost ($/kwhr)  Reducing energy costs Reduce Input Horsepower Reduce Operating Hours Reduce Unit Energy Cost .

Improving Pumping Plant Efficiency Adjust pump impeller Repair worn pump Replace mismatched pump Convert to an energy-efficient electric motor .

Centrifugal or Booster Pump Shaft Frame Impeller Discharge Inlet Stuffing Box Balance Line Volute Wearing Rings .

Deep Well Turbine .

Deep Well Turbine .

Submersible Pump .

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Improving Pumping Plant Performance .

Impeller Adjustment .

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Effect of Impeller Adjustment Capacity (gpm) Total Overall Input Head Efficiency Horsepower (feet) (%) 148 152 181 206 302 323 488 489 54 71 59 63 54 65 57 68 42 49 55 65 61 67 133 144 Pump 1 Before After Pump 2 Before After Pump 3 Before After Pump 4 Before After 605 910 708 789 432 539 616 796 .

0% +9.8% +18.Effect of Impeller Adjustment on Energy Use Same Operating Same Volume Time of Water +16.8% Pump Pump Pump Pump 1 2 3 4 .7% -22.8% -12.3% -16.3% +8.2% +5.

Repair Worn Pump

Effect of Pump Repair
Before
    Pumping lift = 95 feet Capacity = 1552 gpm IHP = 83 Efficiency = 45%

After
 Pumping lift = 118 feet  Capacity = 2008 gpm  IHP = 89  Efficiency = 67%

Summary of the Effect of Repairing Pumps
 63 pump tests comparing pump performance beforeand-after repair  Average percent increase in pump capacity – 41%  Average percent increase in total head – 0.5% (pumping lift only)  Average percent increase in pumping plant efficiency – 33%  IHP increased for 58% of the pumping plants. Average percent increase in input horsepower – 17%

Adjusting/Repairing Pumps
 Adjustment/repair will increase pump capacity and total head  Adjustment/repair will increase input horsepower  Reduction in operating time is needed to realize any energy savings
 More acres irrigated per set  Less time per set

 Energy costs will increase if operating time is not reduced

Replace Mismatched Pump A mismatched pump is one that is operating properly. but is not operating near its point of maximum efficiency .

Matched Pump Efficiency (%) Improperly Matched Pump 0 0 Capacity (gpm) .

Mismatched Pump Pumping Plant Test Data Pumping Lift (feet) 113 Discharge Pressure (psi) 50 Total Head (feet) 228 Capacity (gpm) 940 Input Horsepower 112 Overall Efficiency (%) 48 .

Multiple Pump Tests Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 (Normal) Capacity (gpm) 940 870 1060 Pressure (psi) 50 79 15 Pumping Lift (feet) 113 112 112 Total Head (feet) 228 295 147 IHP 112 112 104 Overall Efficiency (%) 48 57 38 .

400 (annual operating time of 2000 hours and an energy cost of $0.000 Kwhr  Reduce the annual energy costs by $3.Replacing this pump with one operating at an overall efficiency of 60% would:  Reduce the input horsepower by 19%  Reduce the annual energy consumption by 34.10/kwhr) .

Replacing a Mismatched Pump Pumping plant efficiency will increase Input horsepower demand will decrease Energy savings will occur because of the reduced horsepower demand .

How do I determine the condition of my pump? Answer: Conduct a pumping plant test and evaluate the results using the manufacturer’s pump performance data .

Pumping Lift .

Discharge Pressure Pump Capacity .

8 PIPE DIAMETERS 2 PIPE DIAMETERS FLOW FLOW METER .

Input Horsepower .

Is a pump worn or mismatched? Multiple pump tests Compare pump test data with manufacturer’s pump performance curves .

200 TOTAL HEAD (fe e t) 150 Sm all Difference 100 REPAIRED PUMP Pumping Lift = 102 ft Capacity = 537 gpm Input Horsepower = 28 Overall Efficiency = 50% Kwhr/af = 211 50 WORN PUMP Pumping Lift = 45 ft Capacity = 624 gpm Input Horsepower = 19 Overall Efficiency = 39% Kwhr/af = 123 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Large Difference 0 700 800 900 1000 1100 PUM P CAPACITY (gpm ) .

100 TOTAL HEAD (fe e t) 80 60 1984(54%) 1983 (64%) 1985 (62%) 40 20 0 2000 2400 2800 PUM P CAPACITY (gpm ) 3200 3600 .

100 TOTAL HEAD (fe e t) 80 60 1983 (64%) 1984 (66%) 40 1985 (55%) 20 0 2000 2400 2800 PUM P CAPACITY (gpm ) 3200 3600 .

consider adjusting impeller  50% to 55% . consider repairing or replacing pump if adjustment has no effect  Less than 50% .Recommended Corrective Action  Eo greater than 60% .no corrective action  55% to 60% .consider adjusting impeller.consider repairing or replacing pump .

Energy-efficient Electric Motors .

0 95.5 86.2 .7 91.7 Energy Efficient 91.5 90.8 96.5 95.2 91.0 94.7 93.Efficiencies of Standard and Energy-efficient Electric Motors Horsepower Standard 10 20 50 75 100 125 86.2 90.

Variable Frequency Drives .

What is a Variable Frequency Drive? Electronic device that changes the frequency of the power to an electric motor Reducing the power frequency reduces the motor rpm Reducing the motor rpm. and thus the pump rpm. decreases the pump horsepower demand o A small reduction in pump rpm results in a large reduction in the horsepower demand .

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When are Variable Frequency Drives Appropriate? One pump is used to irrigate differentlysized fields. Pump capacity must be reduced for the smaller fields Number of laterals changes during the field irrigation (odd shaped fields) Fluctuating ground water levels Fluctuating canal or ditch water levels .

100 128 1770 40 Throttled 50 64 600 90 1770 24 VFD 50 60 700 55 1345 44 Acres Pressure (psi) Capacity (gpm) Input Horsepower RPM Overall Efficiency (%) .Centrifugal pump used to irrigate Both 80-and 50-acre fields Unthrottled 80 80 1.

Note: Pumping plants should be operated at the reduced frequency for at least 1.000 hours per year to be economical .

Convert To Diesel Engines .

Options for Converting From Electric Motors to Engines Direct drive (gear head) Engine shaft to pump shaft efficiency = 98% Diesel-generator Engine shaft to pump shaft efficiency less than about 80% .

Considerations Brake Horsepower = Shaft Horsepower Engines and motors are rated based on brake horsepower ( 100 HP electric motor provides the same horsepower as a 100 HP engine Input horsepower of an engine is greater than that of an electric motor for the same brake horsepower .

temperature. etc.Engine Horsepower Maximum horsepower Continuous horsepower  About ¾’s of the maximum horsepower  Derated for altitude. . accessories.

200 167 157 173 BRAKE HORSEPOWER 150 128 110 100 144 50 0 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 ENGINE RPM .

39 0.38 0.38 0.37 0.38 0.37 0.37 0.34 0.32 0.36 0.30 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 ENGINE RPM .40 FUEL CONSUMPTION (lb/bhp-hr) 0.0.

2 35.2 34 33.1 34.40 38 ENGINE EFFICIENCY (%) 36 35.9 32 30 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 ENGINE RPM .1 34.7 33.

160 PUMP HP 140 120 CONTINUOUS ENGINE HP HORSEPOWER 100 80 60 40 20 0 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 RPM 1900 2000 2100 2200 .

RPM Fuel Use Versus RPM Pump Flow Gallons of Diesel Rate (gpm) per Hour 1228 1731 2161 2486 9 11 15 19 1500 1600 1700 1800 Gallons of Water per Gallon of Diesel 8187 9617 8644 8019 .

etc Hours of operation Horsepower Cost of pollution control devices for engines .Electric Motors vs Diesel Engines: Which is the Best?      Unit energy cost Capital costs. maintenance costs.

500 $0.8 $16.25/gal 48.95/gal 37.5 Capital Cost Unit Energy Cost Total Cost ($/af) .5 Diesel Engine $11.Comparison of electric motor and diesel engine 100 HP 1.100 gpm 2.9 $16.500 $0.14/kwhr 60.500 $1.95/gal 39.000 hours per year Electric Motor $5.500 $0.

Optimizing Pump Systems for Energy Efficiency .

and they can be arranged to operate in parallel or in series. fittings and valves before and after a pump as well as the motor and motor driver. • Pump Systems can have static head (pressure). or be circulating systems (friction only systems) . • There can be multiple pumps.What Is A Pump System? • A Pump System comprises of all piping. motors and drives.

The goal should be to maximize the overall cost effectiveness of the pumping.First. Let's Get A Big Picture Perspective Of Energy Flow in Pumping Electric utility Systems feeder Transformer Motor breaker/ starter Adjustable speed drive (electrical) Motor At each interface. or how much flow is delivered per unit of input energy. Coupling Pump Fluid system Ultimate goal 133 . there are inefficiencies.

Specific Energy Es  g HS fHS h h p m Pel x Time Pumped Volume Es = =  = Fluid density h h g = Gravitational H constant fHS S = Static head = Hydraulic System factor m p = Motor efficiency = Pump efficiency .

Understand The Ultimate Goal Electric utility feeder Transformer Motor breaker/ starter Adjustable speed drive (electrical) Motor Coupling Pump Fluid system Maximize the overall effectiveness. Ultimate goal 136 .

It Is Essential To Understand The Ultimate Goal Of The Fluid System To Optimize It exists • Understand why the system • Have clearly defined criteria for what is really needed • Understand what's negotiable and what's not 137 .

Requirements For Designing A System • Duration Curve (Flow) • System Curve (Pressure vs. Flow) • Pump & Component selection .

Annualized Flow Duration Curve 3000 Inflow [GPM] 2000 1000 0 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 Time [hours] .

Fluid system Ultimate goal 140 .Understand The Fluid System Electric utility feeder Transformer Motor breaker/ starter Adjustable speed drive (electrical) Motor Coupling Pump Maximize the overall effectiveness.

ft 80 Friction 40 Static/ Fixed Total 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 Flow rate.System Curves Are Made Up Of Two Fundamental Components .The Static Head And The Frictional Head 120 Head. gpm 5000 141 .

Hydraulic System f HS Factor f • The Hydraulic System factor is HS defined as ―The ratio of a hydraulic system‘s static head to total head‖. SYSTEM CURVE Head fHS = HS Total head Loss Head Static Head HS + HF Flow .

What Are Some Sources Of Friction In Pumping Systems? Pipe walls Valves Elbows Tees Reducers/expanders Expansion joints Tank inlets/outlets (In other words. almost everything that the pumped fluid passes through. as well as the fluid itself) 143 .

Operational Costs Are Influenced By The Selection Of Components And Their Size .

ual Frictional Cost Per 100 ft Of Pipe 5000 Annual cost ($) 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 12" 14" 16" 1000 2000 3000 flow rate (gpm) 4000 5000 Assumptions: 80% combined pump and motor efficiency. electricity cost = 10 ¢/kWh .

full open valves. 10¢/kWh.Frictional Losses Can Be Translated Into Operating Costs 1000 Annual Cost ($) 800 600 400 200 0 0 Check valve Butterfly valve Sch. Assumptions: 80% combined pump & motor efficiency . 100 ft length. 40 pipe (new) 500 1000 1500 flow rate (gpm) 2000 2500 12-inch line.

Understanding The Pump Electric utility feeder Transformer Motor breaker/ starter Adjustable speed drive (electrical) Motor Coupling Maximize the overall effectiveness Pump Fluid system Ultimate goal 147 .

gpm 5000 148 Rated: 3190 gpm.Nameplate Data Applies To One Particular Operating Point 200 Head. 97 ft . ft 150 100 50 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 Flow rate.

How Do We Know Where We'll Be Operating On The Pump Curve? 100 90 80 head (ft) Pump head curve Nameplate 70 60 50 40 30 0 System head curve Pump and system curve intersection (operating point) 1000 2000 3000 flow rate (gpm) 4000 5000 .

Pump Flow head (ft).Efficiency And Brake Horsepower Are Commonly Plotted vs. efficiency (%) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1000 BEP Operating point System Pump head brake hp efficiency 2000 3000 flow rate (gpm) 4000 5000 . power (bhp).

12" pipe System head.Using A Larger Pipe Changes The Frictional Part Of The System Curve 100 90 80 head (ft) System head. 16" pipe 70 60 50 40 30 0 1000 2000 3000 flow rate (gpm) 4000 5000 .

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP PERFORMANCE WITH VSD REGULATION 30-60 HZ (295-590 RPM) FLYGT C 3531 .

Specific Energy in Three Different Single Pump Systems No static head 50% static head 85% static head Throttling VSD Regulation On-Off Regulation Speed / Flow Speed / Flow Speed / Flow .

Now Let's Look At The Electrical End Of The Shaft Electric utility feeder Transformer Motor breaker/ starter Adjustable speed drive (electrical) Maximize the overall effectiveness Motor Coupling Pump Fluid system Ultimate goal 154 .

6 0.4 0.5 10 25 50 100 125 200 fit 7.0 0.2 Rated horsepower 3 5 7.2 .0 1.5 fit 100 0.8 Power (fraction of rated) 1.Motor Efficiency Curves Are Dependent Upon Size And Type 100 Efficiency(%) 90 80 70 60 50 0.

Understanding Drive Performance Electric utility feeder Maximize the overall effectiveness Transformer Motor breaker/ starter Adjustable speed drive (electrical) Motor Coupling Pump Fluid system Ultimate goal 156 .

The Efficiency Of Inverters Is Affected By Operating Speed 100 efficiency(%) 90 80 70 60 Typical inverter efficiencies as a function of motor speed 50 75 100 speed (% of rated) 125 .

Evaluate System Design • Is the system effectiveness acceptable? • If the system has static head. Compare with frictionless performance! .

Re-Evaluate System Choices Relative To Needs • • • • • Number of pumps Pump sizes VFD operation? Pipe diameters Component selection .

When the System is Commissioned the Theoretical Calculations Should be Compared to Actual Operational Data to Ensure that it is Operating as Intended .

the electrical front end can help reduce the fluid system losses • Be careful with local optimization • Determine the specific energy and compare with the ideal .Summary • Most avoidable losses are in the pump and fluid system. not in the electrical front end • However.

MEASUREMENTS .

the atmospheric pressure is generally about 100KPa. pressure is the most important parameters in industrial process control • The unit of pressure is the Pascal (Pa) with 1Pa being 1N/m2 • At the surface of the earth. This is sometimes referred to as a pressure of 1bar.Pressure measurement • Together with temperature and flow. .

Manometers – U-tube manometer – The cistern manometer – The inclined tube manometer 2.1.Diaphragms – Reluctance diaphragm gauge – Capacitance diaphragm gauge •Bourdon tubes .

3、 Force-balance Dead-weight tester Spring

4、Electrical pressure gauge •Strain gauge •Piezoelectric •piezoresistance

Manometers The basic manometer consists
P2 of a U-tube containing a liquid.A pressure difference between the gases above the liquid in the two limbs produces a difference h in vertical heights of the liquid in the two limbs.

P1

P1  P2   gh

If one of the limbs is open to the atmosphere then the pressure difference is the gauge pressure.

Water, alcohol and mercury are commonly used manometric liquids. U-tube manometers are simple and cheap and can be used for pressure differences in the range 20 Pa to 140KPa. The accuracy is typically about  1%.

•Temperature affect---------liquid expansion

m  V0 0  V   ---real temperature V  V0 (1  r ) r  coefficient of cubical exp ansion of the liquid

0V0 0    V 1  

Thus the pressure when measured by a U-tube manometer at a temperature , when the manometer liquid density at 0°C is known, is given by:

h 0 g P   gh  1  

Cistern manometer
An industrial form of the U-tube manometer is cistern manometer. It has one of the limbs with a much greater cross-sectional area than the other.A difference in pressure between the two limbs causes a difference in liquid level with liquid flowing from one limb to the other. P2 P1  P2   gH  (h  d )  g P1 Ah  A2d A1 1 d A2d A2 h H P1  P2  (  d )  g  (  1)d  g A2 A1 A1  c dg

This form of manometer thus only require the level of liquid in one limb to be measured from a fixed point.

t u b e m a n o m e t e r.The inclined tube manometer The inclined tube manometer is a U-tube manometer with one limb having a larger cross-section than the other and the narrower limb being inclined at some angle  to the horizontal. . It is generally used for the measurement of small pressure differences and gives greater accuracy than the c o n v e n t i o n a l U .

P1 H P2 d x h  Initial zero level with no pressure difference A2 A2 P1  P2  (  1)d  g  (  1)  gx sin  A1 A1 Since A2 is much greater than A1. the equation approximates to: P1  P2   gx sin  .

. a difference in pressure between two sides of a diaphragm results in it blowing out to one side or the other. If the fluid for which the pressure is required is admitted to one side of the diaphragm and the other side is open to the atmosphere. the diaphragm gauge gives the gauge pressure.Diaphragms With diaphragm pressure gauges. the gauge gives the pressure difference. If fluids at different pressures are admitted to the two sides of the diaphragm.

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1.Bourdon tubes .

a helical spiral. a flat spiral. for example. . This displacement may be monitored in a variety of ways.The bourdon tube may be in the form of a “C”. an increase in the pressure in the tube causes the tube to straighten out to an extent which depends on the pressure. to move the core of an LVDT. to directly move a pointer across a scale. to move a slider of a potentiometer. In all forms.

With the two coils connected in opposite arms of an a. the out of balance voltage is related to the pressure difference causing the diaphragm displacement N 0 s0 L 2 2 . bridge.2 Reluctance diaphragm gauge The displacement of the central part of the diaphragm increases the reluctance of the coil on one side of the diaphragm and decreases it on the other.c.

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the capacitive transducer can be either an absolute. This capacitance change results from the movement of a diaphragm element. The diaphragm is usually metal or metal-coated quartz and is exposed to the process pressure on one side and to the reference pressure on the other.C A d d C2 d0 Capacitance pressure transducers were originally developed for use in low vacuum research. gauge. or differential pressure transducer. . Depending on the type of pressure.

.The capacitor can also form part of the tuning circuit of a frequency modulated oscillator and so give an electrical output related to the pressure difference across the diaphragm.

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force balance gauge Dead-Weight Tester Schematic Mg P A Calibration of the pressure gauges in the region of 20Pa to 2000kPa is generally by means of the Deadweight tester. . The pressure is determined by adding weights to the platform so that it remains at a constant height. Pressure is produced by winding in a piston.

Potentiometric Pressure Transducer .

322Pa=1 torr The lower the absolute pressure is. .Measurement of low pressures (vacuum) Vacuum tends to be used for pressures less than the atmospheric pressure.013×105 Pa. the higher the degree of vacuum is. 1mmHg=133. namely 1. this being the pressure equivalent to that given by a column of mercury of height 1 mm. A unit that is often used for such pressure is the torr.

Pressure measurement • Pressure driven equipment (IC engines. many more . turbines. altitude) • Indirect measurement of flow rate or velocity • Scuba diving • Many. etc.) • Pneumatic or Hydraulic mechanical elements • Biomedical applications (Blood Pressure. ... Barometric Chambers) • Losses in pipes and ducts – energy efficiency • Atmospheric conditions (weather forecast.

p1 p3 p1 = p2 = p3 p2 .Pressure Pressure in a fluid acts equally in all directions Pressure in a static liquid increases linearly with depth p= g  h pressure increase increase in depth (m) The pressure at a given depth in a continuous. static body of liquid is constant.

.pa = gh So a manometer measures gauge pressure.Measuring pressure (1) Manometers p1 = px p1 p2=pa z x liquid density  (negligible pressure change in a gas) (since they are at the same height) px = py pz= p2 = pa h y py .pz = gh p1 .

4*103*9.Measuring Pressure (2) Barometers A barometer is used to measure the pressure of the atmosphere. p2 .8) ~800mm vacuum p1 = 0 h p2 = pa . The simplest type of barometer consists of a column of fluid.p1 = gh pa = gh examples water: h = pa/g =105/(103*9.8) ~10m mercury: h = pa/g =105/(13.

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT • Absolut. Differential • Barometer • Manometer .

Absolute pressure Pabs = 0 Presiune referinta Pabs    R  T .

Barometer 0 P=0 A h h Patm Patm A Pabs  A  0  A  hg  g  h  A Pabs  hg  g  h Well-type manometer .

Differential pressure P  P2  P1 P2 P1 .

Types of pressures .

Static And Dynamic Pressure Dynamic pressure = Stagnation pressure (A) .Static pressure (B) .

Static pressure (B) .Static And Dynamic Pressure Dynamic pressure = Stagnation pressure (A) .

diaphragms.Types of pressure transducers: • Liquid Column manometers • Elastic tubes. membranes (equipped with displacement or strain sensors) • Semiconductor elements (with implanted stress elements) • Piezoelectic elements (directly convert crystal lattice stress into voltage) .

Liquid Column Manometers P1 P2 P1 A A h h P2  A  P1  A    g  h  A P2  P1    g  h “U tube” manometer P2 A .

Liquid Column Manometers P1 P1 A A h P2 h P2  A  P1  A    g  h  A P2  P1    g  h P2 A .

Inclined Manometer P A  P A  g h A 2 1 P2  P1    g  h h sin(  )  hr h  h r sin(  ) P2  P1    g  sin(  )  h r h P2  hr P1 P1 A A P2 A .

Pressure transducers P  P2  Patm Patm P2 .

Pressure transducers • Elastic elements • Changing pressure change the shape of the elastic element • Shape changing is detected by a resistive or position transducer Tub Tip C Spirala Tuburi Bourdon Tub rasucit Elicoidal P Diferentiala Plata evacuat P Absoluta Ondulata Capsula Diafragme Diferential sau absolut .

Pressure transducers • Elastic elements • Changing pressure change the shape of the elastic element • Shape changing is detected by a resistive or position transducer .

Pressure Sensor range .

Elastic Type Manometers .

.. Two dummy gages mounted elsewhere Why do we not put 4 active gages? .More Elastic types.

Dial-type Manometer Dial-type Manometer as a mini measurement system .

Diaphragm type manometers To be able to detect pressure. we need to detect the diaphragm deflection .

Strain gauges used with Diaphragm .

Strain gage transducers are availablefor pressure ranges as low as 1300 MPa • • . the strain gage is used to measure the displacement of an elastic diaphragm due to a difference in pressure across the diaphragme If the low pressure side is a sealed vacuum reference. the transmitter will act as an absolute pressure transmitter. Essentially. is used to measure the deflection of an elastic diphragme or Bourdon tube it becomes a comonent in apressure transducer Strain-gage transducers are used for narrow-span pressure and for differential pressure measurements.Strain gage based pressure cell • • • When a strain gage.

This capacitance change results from the movement of a diaphragm element (The diaphragm is usually metal or metal-coated quartz and is exposed to the process pressure on one side and to the reference pressure on the other. gauge. from high vacuums in the micron range to 70 MPa. Depending on the type Differential pressure transducers in a variety of ranges and outputs of pressure. or differential pressure transducer. Capacitance pressure transducers have a wide rangeability. the capacitive transducer can be either an absolute.Capacitance based pressure cell • • Capacitance pressure transducerswere originally developed for use in low vacuum research. • • .

This type of transducer can be used for low differential pressure applications as well as to detect absolute and gauge pressures. whose wiper arm is mechanically linked to a Bourdon or bellows element. .• • • The potentiometric pressure sensor provides a simple method for obtaining an electronic output from a mechanical pressure gauge. The device consists of a precision potentiometer.

A digital counter circuit detects the shift. and by the sensing diaphragm at the other.1% of calibrated span.1% • • . with six-month drift of 0. differential pressures and gauge pressures up to 42 MPa. Typical accuracy is 0. This type of transducer can be used for low differential pressure applications as well as to detect absolute and gauge pressures. A change in process pressure changes the wire tension. An oscillator circuit causes the wire to oscillate at its resonant frequency. Because this change in frequency can be detected quite precisely. which in turn changes the resonant frequency of the wire.The resonant wire pressure transducer • • • • The resonant-wire pressure transducer was introduced in the late 1970s. a wire is gripped by a static member at one end. Resonant wire transducers can detect absolute pressures from 10 mm Hg.

T is the period of oscillation when the applied pressure is P. Resonant piezoelectric pressure sensors measure the variation in resonant frequency of quartz crystals under an applied force. These transducers can be used for absolute pressure measurements with spans from 0-100 kPa to 0-6 MPa or for differential pressure measurements with spans from 0-40 kPa to 0-275 kPa . Piezoresistive pressure sensors can be used from about 21 KPa to 100 MPa.Piezoelectric sensors • • • • • • • • • Piezoresistive pressure sensors are sensitive to changes in temperature and must be temperature compensated. The relationship between the applied pressure P and the oscillation frequency is: P = A(1-TO/T) . The beam is maintained in oscillation at its resonant frequency. and A and B are calibration constants for the transducer. . The sensor can consist of a suspended beam that oscillates while isolated from all other forces. Changes in the applied force result in resonant frequency changes.B(1-TO/T2) where TO is the period of oscillation when the applied pressure is zero.

Inductance is that property of an electric circuit that expresses the amount of electromotive force (emf) induced by a given rate of change of current flow in the circuit. In these sensors. which in turn changes the inductance or reluctance of an electric circuit. reluctance. Reluctance is resistance to magnetic flow. and eddy currents. a change in pressure produces a movement. . the opposition offered by magnetic substance to magnetic flux.Magnetic pressure transducers • • • These included the use of inductance.

As the process pressure moves the vane between the source diode and the measuring diode. They are available with ranges from 35 kPa to 413 MPa and with 0. • • • . the amount of infrared light received changes. A light emitting diode (LED) is used as the light source.1% full scale accuracy.Optical pressure transducers • • Optical pressure transducers detect the effects of minute motions due to changes in process pressure and generate a corresponding electronic output signal. and a vane blocks some of the light as it is moved by the diaphragm. Optical pressure transducers do not require much maintenance. They have excellent stability and are designed for long-duration measurements.

the pressure acts as a spring and the connecting tube as a damping element.Sensor/Cavity System Response (Helmholz Resonator) 4 3. .5 0 Pressure signal at the source Pressure signal at the sensor face The fundamental natural frequency of the tube/cavity system may be expressed as  f    2  V  L   a / 2     a C  where C is the sound velocity.5 Pressure 2 1.5 3 2. In this second order system air acts as mass. L and a are the length and area of the connecting tube and V is the cavity volume.5 1 0.

Bourdon tube over pressure protection • Most pressure instruments are provided with overpressure protection of 50% to 200% of range These protectors satisfy the majority of applications. • . If excessive overpressure is expected to be of longer duration. snubbers can be installed. Where higher overpressures are expected and their nature is temporary (pressure spikes of short duration—seconds or less). However. this will result in a loss of measurement when the relief valve is open. one can protect the sensor by installing a pressure relief valve.

the diaphragm can detect extruder pressures up to 10.000-psig increase in process pressure will raise the air output signal by 5 psig.000 psig. The standard element material is heavy-duty stainless steel. This device may include as many as twenty coils and can measure pressures well in excess of 10. . and the measurement error is around 1% of span. Helical Bourdon tube sensors provide high overrange protection and are suitable for fluctuating pressure service. Another mechanical high pressure sensor uses a helical Bourdon element (Figure B). without requiring any mechanical linkage. If the diaphragm area ratio is 200:1.Mechanical High pressure sensors • • In the case of the button repeater ( figA). a 1.000 psig and can operate at temperatures up to 4300°C because of its selfcooling design. The pressure of the output air signal follows the process pressure in inverse ratio to the areas of the two diaphragms. An improvement on the design shown in Figure B detects tip motion optically. It operates on direct force balance between the process pressure (P1) acting on the sensing diaphragm and the pressure of the output air signal (P2) acting on the balancing diaphragm. but must be protected from plugging.

• ionization. .Vacuum mesurement • Vacuum gauges in use today fall into three main categories: • mechanical. • thermal.

Vacuum mesurement .

Semiconductor-type Sensors

Static Calibration
p  mg 2  Rcyl

Pressure transducers

Pressure transducers

Pressure transducers

Pressure transducers

Pressure transducers .

Pressure transducers .

c. Amplifier Arm Inductive motor Reluctance detector Diaphragm Pivot P1 Pressure cell P2 .c.Pressure servo-transducer Output voltage Converter a. / c.

Piezoelectric pressure transducer Differential amplifier Crystal Y1 Charge amplifier P1 Diaphragm Compensation crystal Y2 .

Preso-sensitive switch Power Relay C1 B C2 A Pressure admission .

Fluid Flow Measurements • • • • • Pitot Tube Venturi Meter Orifice Meter Rotameter Others – Coriolis (Vortex shedding) – Turbine .

Pitot Tube 1 atm h1 V1 1 2 h2 P1 1 2 g P2 1 2 g  v1  h1  Ws   v2  h2  F 1 2 g c gc 2 2 gc gc .

Pitot Static Tube V1 1 h .

control surface 1 Dt = venturi throat diameter. control surface 2 . P2 Di = pipe inner diameter.Venturi Meter 1 V1 P1 2 V2.

see Figure 5. p 155 for CV as a function of Re. then v2  CV 1  4 2 gh  m   f  .Dt   Di Ratio of throat diameter to pipe ID v2  CV 1  4 2 gc P  CV = coefficient of discharge (accounts for friction losses) Usually CV = 0.98. If a manometer is used to measure P.9.

Orifice Meter Vena contracta V1 P1 h Di is the pipe ID and Do is the orifice diameter   Do/Di .

Orifice Design Equation 4m   0.8 Q. volumetric flow = VoA0 and the mass flow m = fQ .61 Di2 2 gc P  f 2 With 0.2<<0.

Rotameter W V  1  If calibrated for one fluid. then Q2  Q1   2   1/ 2 .

Twist angle is proportional to mass flow rate. 5. Vortex-shedding flow meter – flow past a blunt object causes vortexes Turbine meters – paddle wheel speed measures flow rate Thermal gas mass flow meter – a slip stream is heated by a constant heat input and temperature rise is related to the gas mass flow Magnetic flow meters – a magnetic field is generated across a conducting fluid with the induced voltage proportional to the flow velocity Coriolis mass flow meter – fluid enters two U-tube side channels where coriolis forces cause a twist in the tubes. 2. 3. . 4.Others 1.

v2 2 dh v1   dt From the equation of continuity  D1  v2  v1    D2  2 .Unsteady Flow D1. v1 1 Toricelli‟s Equation z1 h z2 v2  2gh Velocity of surface 1 D2.

Q • • • • Tracer method BS5857 Ultrasonic flow measurement Tank filling method Installation of an on-line flowmeter .Flow Measurement.

The mass flow rate is calculated from: qcw where qcw q1 C1 C2 = q1 x C1/C2 = cooling water mass flow rate. kg/kg = concentration of tracer at downstream position during the „plateau‟ period of constant concentration. . kg/s = concentration of injected tracer.Tracer Method The Tracer method is particularly suitable for cooling water flow measurement because of their sensitivity and accuracy. kg/kg The tracer normally used is sodium chloride. This method is based on injecting a tracer into the cooling water for a few minutes at an accurately measured constant rate. kg/s = mass flow rate of injected tracer. A series of samples is extracted from the system at a point where the tracer has become completely mixed with the cooling water.

a section of the pipe can be replaced with new pipe for flow measurements. . For better accuracy.Ultrasonic Flow meter Operating under Doppler effect principle these meters are non-invasive. Scales and rust in the pipes are likely to impact the accuracy. The pipe section where measurement is to be taken should be hammered gently to enable scales and rusts to fall out. Ensure measurements are taken in a sufficiently long length of pipe free from flow disturbance due to bends. meaning measurements can be taken without disturbing the system. tees and other fittings.

Tank filing method In open flow systems such as water getting pumped to an overhead tank or a sump. The internal tank dimensions should be preferable taken from the design drawings. the flow can be measured by noting the difference in tank levels for a specified period during which the outlet flow from the tank is stopped. in the absence of which direct measurements may be resorted to. .

.Installation of an on-line flowmeter If the application to be measured is going to be critical and periodic then the best option would be to install an on-line flowmeter which can rid of the major problems encountered with other types.

additional .

KE • Friction head: measure of energy lost that heats fluid Z1 + P1/ + V12/2g = Z2 + P2/ + V22/2g + [(U2 – U1) – W – Q] q + wshaft = (h2 – h1) + (v22 – v12)/2 + g(z2 –z1) Z/z: fluid height. PE • Velocity head: measure of fluid‘s mech. . acceleration • BOTTOM LINE: Total energy within the control volume is constant under SS conditions.Pumps – Bernoulli‘s Theorem • Pressure head: measure of fluid‘s mech. V/v: fluid velocity U: internal energy Q/q: heat transferred h: enthalpy : fluid density W/w: work g: grav. P: fluid pressure.

2 ASSUMPTIONS: • • • Steady state flow (flow speed is constant in time at any given point along pipe). etc.) 1 ANALYSIS: • • Conservation of Mass. No internal energy change (no transformation of mechanical energy to thermal energy. eddies. . Work Energy Theorem. no whirlpools.Flow of Fluids in Pipes GOALS: Understand how the fluid pressure and flow speed change from point to point along the pipe. no viscous drag). Irrotational flow (no vorticity.

Principle of Continuity Consider the amount (mass m1) of fluid passing into the region between points 1 and 2 in the pipe during a time t: v1 1 A1 1 2 m1  1v1t  A1  length volume This is the mass of the fluid that passed point 1. .

.Principle of Continuity v2 v1 1 2 Conservation of mass (along with steady state flow) says that whatever flowed into the region between 1 and 2 MUST have flowed out: 1v1t  A1    2 v2 t  A2  1v1 A1   2 v2 A2 The product  m1  m2 v A is called ―mass flow rate‖ with units kg/s.

. The product v A is called ―(volume) flow rate‖ with units m3/s. pipe cross-sectional area A (and A alone) governs flow speed. flow speed increases through a constriction. In particular.Principle of Continuity v1 1 v2 2 ASSUMPTION: The fluid density remains constant (liquid). v1 A1  v2 A2 v1 A1  v2 A2 For the flow of liquids.

a) What is the flow speed within the constricted portion of the pipe in m/s? b) What is the volume flow rate of the water in the pipe? .0 cm.4 m/s through a pipe of circular cross section 2.0 cm in diameter meets a constriction of diameter 1.Check Question on Principle of Continuity Water flowing at 0.

.The Bernoulli Equation y y2 v2 2 PE   v2t  A2 gy2 v1 y1 1   v1t  A1 gy1 Principle of Continuity says: v1t  A1  v2t  A2  V PE  gy2  gy1  gy V The change in gravitational PE per unit volume swept out.

.The Bernoulli Equation y y2 v2 2 v1 y1 1 1 2 KE   v2t  A2 v2 2 1 2   v1t  A1 v1 2 Principle of Continuity says: v1t  A1  v2t  A2  V KE 1 2 1 2 1  v2  v1    v 2 V 2 2 2    The change in gravitational KE per unit volume swept out.

The Bernoulli Equation y y2 v2 p2 A2 2 W  p1 A1v1t  v1 y1 1 p1 A1  p2 A2 v2t  Principle of Continuity says: A1v1t   A2 v2t   V W  p1  p2  p V The work done on system by adjacent fluid per unit volume swept out. .

The Bernoulli Equation The Work Energy Theorem relates the net work to the change in total mechanical energy: W KE PE   V V V Thereby giving us Bernoulli‘s equation in its two common forms: 1 p    v 2  gy  0 2    1 2 1 2 p1  v1  gy1  p2  v2  gy2 2 2 .

.

BASIC VACUUM PRACTICE .

Why is a Vacuum Needed? To move a particle in a (straight) line over a large distance (Page 5 manual) .

Why is a Vacuum Needed? Atmosphere Contamination (usually water) (High)Vacuum Clean surface To provide a clean surface .

HOW DO WE CREATE A VACUUM? .

VACUUM PUMPING METHODS VACUUM PUMPS (METHODS) Gas Transfer Vacuum Pump Positive Displacement Vacuum Pump Reciprocating Displacement Pump Diaphragm Pump Piston Pump Multiple Vane Rotary Pump Rotary Pump Drag Pump Entrapment Vacuum Pump Kinetic Vacuum Pump Fluid Entrainment Pump Ejector Pump Liquid Jet Pump Gas Jet Pump Vapor Jet Pump Diffusion Pump Diffusion Ejector Pump Ion Transfer Pump Bulk Getter Pump Getter Ion Pump Self Purifying Diffusion Pump Fractionating Diffusion Pump Adsorption Pump Cold Trap Getter Pump Sublimation Pump Evaporation Ion Pump Sputter Ion Pump Liquid Ring Pump Rotary Piston Pump Sliding Vane Rotary Pump Rotary Plunger Pump Gaseous Ring Pump Turbine Pump Axial Flow Pump Radial Flow Pump Molecular Drag Pump Dry Pump Roots Pump Cryopump Turbomolecular Pump Condenser .

BAROMETER Mercury: 13.321 mm 760 mm 29.58 x shorter : 10321 mm/13.58=760 mm (= 760 Torr) 10.9 in WATER (Page 12 manual) MERCURY .58 times heavier than water: Column is 13.

PRESSURE OF 1 STANDARD ATMOSPHERE: 760 TORR. 0O C AND 45O LATITUDE . 1013 mbar AT SEA LEVEL.

9 760 760 760.000 101.013 1013 gauge pressure (psig) pounds per square inch (psia) inches of mercury millimeter of mercury torr millitorr or microns pascal bar millibar .325 1.7 29.Pressure Equivalents Atmospheric Pressure (Standard) = 0 14.

0 x 10-3 8.93 0.000 21.1 0.0018 0.1 x 10-2 8.25 1.00005 0.7 x 10-4 4.000 940 33 1.03 0.0 x 10-4 6.1 x 10-1 5.0001 0.8 5.0000087 Variable (Page 13 manual) 593 158 7.3 x 10-1 1.6 x 10-5 5 to 50 79.7 x 10-3 665 to 6650 .4 x 10-2 4.THE ATMOSPHERE IS A MIXTURE OF GASES PARTIAL PRESSURES OF GASES CORRESPOND TO THEIR RELATIVE VOLUMES GAS SYMBOL PERCENT BY VOLUME PARTIAL PRESSURE PASCAL TORR Nitrogen Oxygen Argon Carbon Dioxide Neon Helium Krypton Hydrogen Xenon Water N2 O2 A CO2 Ne He Kr H2 X H2 O 78 21 0.0005 0.

4 0.6 x 10 -4 (LIQUID NITROGEN) (Page 14 manual) 10 -24 .VAPOR PRESSURE OF WATER AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES T (O C) 100 (BOILING) P (mbar) 1013 32 25 0 -40 -78.5 -196 (DRY ICE) (FREEZING) 6.13 6.

(Page 15 manual) .

Vapor Pressure of some Solids (Page 15 manual) .

PRESSURE RANGES RANGE PRESSURE ROUGH (LOW) VACUUM 759 TO 1 x 10 -3 (mbar) HIGH VACUUM 1 x 10 -3 TO 1 x 10 -8 (mbar) ULTRA HIGH VACUUM LESS THAN 1 x 10 -8 (mbar) (Page 17 manual) .

GAS FLOW CONDUCTANCE

(Page 24 manual)

Viscous and Molecular Flow

Viscous Flow (momentum transfer between molecules)

Molecular Flow (molecules move independently)

FLOW REGIMES
Viscous Flow: Distance between molecules is small; collisions between molecules dominate; flow through momentum transfer; generally P greater than 0.1 mbar Transition Flow: Region between viscous and molecular flow Molecular Flow: Distance between molecules is large; collisions between molecules and wall dominate; flow through random motion; generally P smaller than 10 -3 mbar
(Page 25 manual)

MEAN FREE PATH
MOLECULAR DENSITY AND MEAN FREE PATH

1013 mbar (atm)
# mol/cm3

1 x 10-3 mbar 4 x 10 13 (40 trillion)
2 inches 5.1 cm

1 x 10-9 mbar 4 x 10 7 (40 million)
31 miles 50 km

3 x 10 19 (30 million trillion)
2.5 x 10-6 in 6.4 x 10-5 mm

MFP

FLOW REGIMES
Mean Free Path is less than 0.01 Characteristic Dimension Mean Free Path Characteristic Dimension

Viscous Flow:

Transition Flow:

is between 0.01 and 1

Molecular Flow:

Mean Free Path is greater than 1 Characteristic Dimension

Conductance in Viscous Flow

Under viscous flow conditions doubling the pipe diameter increases the conductance sixteen times. The conductance is INVERSELY related to the pipe length
(Page 28 manual)

Conductance in Molecular Flow Under molecular flow conditions doubling the pipe diameter increases the conductance eight times. . The conductance is INVERSELY related to the pipe length.

Series Conductance RT = R1 + R2 1 = 1 + 1 CT CT C1 C2 C1 C2 PUMP SYSTEM 1 = C1 + C2 C1 x C2 C T = C 1 x C2 C1 + C2 (Page 29 manual) .

GAS LOAD Outgassing Permeation Real Leaks Diffusion Virtual Backstreaming GAS LOAD (Q) IS EXPRESSED IN: mbar liters per second .

Pumpdown Curve 10+1 10-1 Pressure (mbar) 10-3 10-5 10-7 Volume Surface Desorption Diffusion 10-9 10-11 1 10 10 3 10 5 Permeation 10 7 10 9 10 11 10 13 10 15 10 17 Time (sec) .

Roughing Pumps 2 (Page 39 manual) .

VACUUM PUMPING METHODS VACUUM PUMPS (METHODS) Gas Transfer Vacuum Pump Positive Displacement Vacuum Pump Reciprocating Displacement Pump Diaphragm Pump Piston Pump Multiple Vane Rotary Pump Rotary Pump Drag Pump Entrapment Vacuum Pump Kinetic Vacuum Pump Fluid Entrainment Pump Ejector Pump Liquid Jet Pump Gas Jet Pump Vapor Jet Pump Diffusion Pump Diffusion Ejector Pump Ion Transfer Pump Bulk Getter Pump Getter Ion Pump Self Purifying Diffusion Pump Fractionating Diffusion Pump Adsorption Pump Cold Trap Getter Pump Sublimation Pump Evaporation Ion Pump Sputter Ion Pump Liquid Ring Pump Rotary Piston Pump Sliding Vane Rotary Pump Rotary Plunger Pump Gaseous Ring Pump Turbine Pump Axial Flow Pump Radial Flow Pump Molecular Drag Pump Dry Pump Roots Pump Cryopump Turbomolecular Pump Condenser .

PUMP OPERATING RANGES Ultra High Vacuum High Vacuum Rough Vacuum Rotary Vane Mechanical Pump Rotary Piston Mechanical Pump Dry Mechanical Pump Sorption Pump Blower/Booster Pump Venturi Pump High Vac. Pumps 10-12 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 P (mbar) 10-2 1 10+2 . Pumps Ultra-High Vac.

VACUUM SYSTEM USE 9 1 8 7 5 8 1 2 3 3a 4 5 6 7 8 9 3 (Page 44 manual) 4 7 2 6 3a Chamber High Vac. Gauge . Pump Roughing Pump Foreline Pump Hi-Vac. Valve Roughing Valve Foreline Valve Vent Valve Roughing Gauge High Vac.

Rotary Vane. Oil-Sealed Mechanical Pump (Page 45 manual) .

Pump Mechanism .

How the Pump Works (Page 46 manual) .

OIL BACKSTREAMING 2 PRESSURE LEVELS: LESS THAN 0.2 mbar .

The Molecular Sieve/Zeolite Trap (Page 48 manual) .

Dry Vacuum Pumps .

Blower/Booster Pump (Page 61 manual) .

One Stage Roots Blower Pump Assembly .

VACUUM SYSTEM USE 12 1 9 11 3 2 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Chamber Foreline Roughing Valve Roughing Gauge Roughing Pump Foreline Foreline Valve Foreline Gauge High Vacuum Valve Booster/Blower Vent Valve High Vacuum Gauge 10 8 7 6 5 (Page 62 manual) .

Sorption Pump Components (Page 54 manual) .

Vapor Pressure (Page 56 manual) .

Cryo-condensation .

Cryo-sorption (Page 55 manual) .

HIGH VACUUM PUMPS 3 (Page 63 manual) .

VACUUM PUMPING METHODS VACUUM PUMPS (METHODS) Gas Transfer Vacuum Pump Positive Displacement Vacuum Pump Reciprocating Displacement Pump Diaphragm Pump Piston Pump Multiple Vane Rotary Pump Rotary Pump Drag Pump Entrapment Vacuum Pump Kinetic Vacuum Pump Fluid Entrainment Pump Ejector Pump Liquid Jet Pump Gas Jet Pump Vapor Jet Pump Diffusion Pump Diffusion Ejector Pump Ion Transfer Pump Bulk Getter Pump Getter Ion Pump Self Purifying Diffusion Pump Fractionating Diffusion Pump Adsorption Pump Cold Trap Getter Pump Sublimation Pump Evaporation Ion Pump Sputter Ion Pump Liquid Ring Pump Rotary Piston Pump Sliding Vane Rotary Pump Rotary Plunger Pump Gaseous Ring Pump Turbine Pump Axial Flow Pump Radial Flow Pump Molecular Drag Pump Dry Pump Roots Pump Cryopump Turbomolecular Pump Condenser .

Subl. Pump 10-12 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 P (Torr) 10-2 1 10+2 .PUMP OPERATING RANGES Ultra High Vacuum High Vacuum Rough Vacuum Roughing Pumps Liquid Nitrogen Trap Diffusion Pump Turbo Pump Cryo Pump Ion Pump Tit.

Pump 3 Roughing Pump 3a Fore Pump 4 Hi-Vac. Valve 5 Roughing Valve 6 Foreline Valve 7 Vent Valve 8 Roughing Gauge 9 High Vac. Gauge 3 4 8 2 2 6 3a .VACUUM SYSTEM USE 9 1 8 7 5 8 1 Chamber 2 High Vac.

Oil Diffusion Pump .

Pump Construction (Page 66 manual) .

How the Pump Works .

How the Pump Works .

First stage vapors are separated from others .

Mechanical Pump Effect 10-10 10--3 Inlet Pressure (Torr) 10--1 . Constant Speed 3. Constant Q (Overload) 4.Pumping Speed 1 Pumping Speed (Air) 2 Critical Point 3 4 1. Compression Ratio Limit 2.

Maximum Tolerable Foreline Pressure (Page 73 manual) .

LN2 reservoir with baffles (Page 78 manual) .

How the LN2 Trap Works Gas Water (H2O) Argon (A) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Carbon Monoxide (CO) Helium (He) Hydrogen (H2) Oxygen (O2) Neon (Ne) Nitrogen (N2) Solvents (Page 79 manual) Approximate Vapor Pressure (mbar) 10-22 500 10 -7 >760 >760 >760 350 >760 760 <10 -10 .

Turbomolecular Pump INLET FLANGE ROTOR BODY STATOR BLADES HIGH PUMPING SPEED HIGH COMPRESSION BEARING EXHAUST HIGH FREQ. MOTOR BEARING (Page 81 manual) .

Rotor .stator assembly (Page 82 manual) .

Pump Operation Molecule V Moving Wall with Speed V Principle of the Turbomolecular Pump (Page 83 manual) .

Gauge 1 5 2 2 4 3 (Page 91 manual) .Roughing through the turbo 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 Chamber Turbo Pump Roughing Pump Vent Valve Roughing Gauge High Vac.

Pumping by Cryocondensation .

Cryosorption in charcoal (Page 98 manual) .

Charcoal placement .

Gauges 5 (Page 123 manual) .

Ion Gauge Cold Cathode Gauge Residual Gas Analyzer McLeod Gauge Spinning Rotor Gauge 10-12 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 P (mbar) 10-2 1 10+2 .Gauge Operating Ranges Ultra High Vacuum High Vacuum Rough Vacuum Bourdon Gauge Capacitance Manometer Thermocouple Gauge Pirani Gauge Hot Fil.

Bourdon Gauge .

How the gauge works .

Heat Transfer Gauges Thermocouple gauge and Pirani Gauge .

Thermocouple Gauge .

How the gauge works .

Ionization gauges .

Ionization current is the measure of vacuum .

Residual Gas Analyzer QUADRUPOLE HEAD CONTROL UNIT .

How the RGA works .

.) .U.RGA SPECTRUM RELATIVE INTENSITY H2 O NORMAL (UNBAKED) SYSTEM (A) H2 N2.M. CO CO2 MASS NUMBER (A.

) CO2 (B) .M.U.RGA SPECTRUM RELATIVE INTENSITY N2 SYSTEM WITH AIR LEAK H2 O O2 H2 MASS NUMBER (A.

LEAK DETECTION 9 (Page 249 manual) .

Introduction .

Problems that appear to be Leaks Diffusion Permeation Real Leaks Outgassing Virtual Backstreaming .

Trapped Volumes .

Vented Screw .

Double O ring sealed shafts Atmosphere (760 torr) Vacuum .

Differential Pumping Atmosphere (1013 mbar) Vacuum To Pump 1 mbar .

PERMEATION LEAKS Permeation “leaks” are different than real leaks because the only way to stop them is to change to a less permeable material .

One standard cubic centimeter/sec (std. cc/sec) .

Leak rate of 1 x 10-1 std cc/sec .

Leak rate of 1 x cc/sec -3 10 std .

3 CC/HOUR 10 -5 STD CC/SEC --.1 CC/30 YEARS .Leak Rates over Time LEAK RATES 10 -1 STD CC/SEC --.1 CC/2 WEEKS 10 -7 STD CC/SEC --.1 CC/DAY 10 -6 STD CC/SEC --.3 CC/YEAR 10 -9 STD CC/SEC --.1 CC/10 SEC 10 -3 STD CC/SEC --.

Why Helium is used .

0005%) Permits dynamic testing Permits non-destructive testing Helium is safe .HELIUM • • • • • Helium is very light and small Low concentration in air (0.

CONVENTIONAL LEAK DETECTOR 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Test Piece Test Port High Vac. Pump Roughing Pump Fore Pump RoughingValve Test Valve Pump Valve Spectrometer Tube Cold Trap Roughing Gauge Vent Valve 1 12 9 8 3 5 4 10 2 11 7 6 .

Ion Source To Pre-Amplifier Lighter ions: more Collector Heavier ions: less He ions pass through slit and are collected .Ion Separation in Magnetic Field Ion Gauge Magnetic Field Deflects He Ions 90O. other ions more or less than 90O.

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