Training and Developing the Work Force

Training
The process of providing employees with specific skills or helping them correct deficiencies in their performance.

Development
An effort to provide employees with the abilities the organization will need in the future.

Training versus Development
Training
Focus Scope Time Frame Goal Current job Individual employees Immediate Fix current skill deficit

Development
Current and future jobs Work group/organization Long term Prepare for future work demands

Challenges in Training
 Is training the solution to the problem?  Are the goals of training clear and realistic?  Is training a good investment?  Will the training work?

The Training Process
Needs Assessment Phase •Organization Needs •Task Needs •Person Needs Development and Conduct of Training •Location •Presentation •Type

Evaluation

Guidelines for Using On-theJob Training
Managers Should Select OJT When:
          Participatory learning is essential. One-on-one training is necessary. Five or fewer employees need training. Taking employees out of the work environment for training is not cost-effective. Classroom instruction is not appropriate. Equipment and safety restrictions make other training methods ineffective. Frequent changes in standard operation procedures allow minimal time for retraining. Work in progress cannot be interrupted. The task for which the training is designed is infrequently performed. Immediate changes are necessary to meet new safety requirements.

Guidelines for Using On-theJob Training (cont.)
Managers Should Select OJT When:
 A defined proficiency level or an individual performance test is required for certification or qualification.

What OJT Should Cover:
 Large or secured equipment.  Delicate or calibrated instruments.  Tools and equipment components of a complex system.  Delicate or dangerous procedures.  Classified information retained in a secured area.

Sources of Customer Dissatisfaction with IBM Telephone Service
Calls Not Returned 24.1% Voice Systems and Message Expectations 18.1% Operator Assistance 6.7% Excessive Rings 4.3% Telephone Tag 2.4%

Getting to Knowledgeable Person or Backup 44%

IBM Senior Vice President’s Memo to All Managers
INTEROFFICE MEMO

Overall, the rating of our telephone service by customers and internal users is poor. Together, we are going to fix this problem, and fix it fast.

Steps to Skill Improvement at IBM
1. Build in commitment. • Gain support of management. 2. Thoroughly analyze the problem. • Is it important? • What is the real problem? 3. Gain line support. 4. Develop training strategies. • Is there more than one group of employees that needs training? • Design material appropriate to each group’s needs and motivation levels. 5. Develop motivational strategies. • Take steps to heighten awareness of issues. • Signal importance of issue through measurement and recognition programs.

Career Development
An ongoing and formalized effort that focuses on developing enriched and more capable workers.

Career Development System: Linking Organizational Needs with Individual Career Needs
Organizational Needs
What are the organization’s major strategic issues over the next two to three years? • What are the most critical needs and challenges that the organization will face over the next 2 - 3 years? • What critical skills, knowledge, and experience will be needed to meet these challenges? • What staffing levels will be required? • Does the organization have the strength necessary to meet the critical challenges?

Individual Career Needs
How do I find career opportunities within the organization that: • Use my strengths • Address my developmental needs • Provide challenges • Match my interests • Match my values • Match my personal style

Issue:
Are employees developing themselves in a way that links personal effectiveness and satisfaction with the achievement of the organization’s strategic objectives?

The Career Development Process
Assessment Phase Direction Phase

Development Phase

The Assessment Phase of Career Development
 Self-Assessment
x x

Self-assessment is increasingly important for companies that want to empower their employees to take control of their careers Whether done through workbooks or workshops, self-assessment usually involves doing skills assessment exercises, completing an interests inventory, and clarifying values. Some of the tools traditionally used by organizations in selection are also valuable for career development. Among these are:
    

 Organizational Assessment
x

Assessment centers Psychological testing Performance appraisal Promotability forecasts Succession planning

Common Assessment Tools
Self-Assessment Career workbooks Career-planning workshops Organizational Assessment Assessment centers Psychological testing Performance appraisal Promotability forecasts Succession planning

Sample Skills Assessment Exercise
Proficiency: Preference:

Use the scales below to rate yourself on each of the following skills. Rate each skill area both for your level of proficiency and for your preference.
1 Still learning 1 Don’t like to use this skill 2 OK — competent 2 OK — Don’t particularly like or dislike 3 Proficient 3 Really enjoy using this skill

Skill Area
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Problem solving _______ Team presentation _______ Leadership _______ Inventory _______ Negotiation _______ Conflict management _______ Scheduling _______ Delegation _______ Participative management_______ Feedback _______ Planning _______ Computer _______

Proficiency

x

Preference
_______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______

=

_______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______

Score

The Direction Phase of Career Development
 Individual Career Counseling
x

This refers to one-on-one sessions with the goal of helping employees examine their career aspirations. Information services provide career development information to employees.
Job-posting systems  Skills inventories  Career paths  Career resource center

 Information Services
x

Career Path
A chart showing the possible directions and career opportunities available in an organization; it presents the steps in a possible career and a plausible timetable for accomplishing them.

Alternative Career Paths for a Hotel Employee

Waiter/ Waitress Busperson Host/ Hostess

Pantry Worker

Pastry Cook

Sauce Cook

ShortOrder Cook

SousChef

Storeroom Clerk

Assistant Steward

Liquor Storeroom Steward

Beverage Manager

Asst. Banquet Manager

Banquet Manager

The Development Phase of Career Development
 Mentoring
x

Mentoring relationships generally involve advising, role modeling, sharing contacts, and giving general support. Employee coaching consists of ongoing, sometimes spontaneous, meetings between manages and their employees to discuss the employee’s career goals and development. Job rotation involves assigning employees to various jobs so that they acquire a wider base of skills. Organizations offer tuition assistance programs to support their employees’ education and development.

 Coaching
x

 Job Rotation
x

 Tuition Assistance Programs
x

Advancement Suggestions
 Remember that performance in your function is important, but interpersonal performance is critical  Set the right values and priorities.  Provide solutions, not problems.  Be a team player.  Be customer oriented.  Act as if what you’re doing makes a difference.