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Human Resource Development

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Definition of HRD
A set of systematic and planned activities designed by an organization to provide its members with the necessary skills to meet current and future job demands.


Emergence of HRD
Employee needs extend beyond the

training classroom

Includes coaching, group work, and

problem solving

Need for basic employee development Need for structured career development ASTD changes its name to the American

Relationship Between HRM and HRD

Human resource management (HRM)

encompasses many functions

Human resource development (HRD) is just

one of the functions within HRM


HRD Functions
Training and development (T&D)

Organizational development

Career development


Training and Development (T&D)

v Training improving the knowledge, skills

and attitudes of employees for the shortterm, particular to a specific job or task e.g.,
Employee orientation Skills & technical training Coaching Counseling


Training and Development (cont.)

Development preparing for future

responsibilities, while increasing the capacity to perform at a current job

Management training development


Organizational Development
The process of improving an organizations

effectiveness and members well-being through the application of behavioral science concepts

Focuses on both macro- and micro-levels HRD plays the role of a change agent


Career Development
v Ongoing process by which individuals

progress through series of changes until they achieve their personal level of maximum achievement.
Career planning Career management


Critical HRD Issues

Strategic management and HRD

The supervisors role in HRD

Organizational structure of HRD


Strategic Management & HRD

Strategic management aims to ensure

organizational effectiveness for the foreseeable future e.g., maximizing profits in the next 3 to 5 years

HRD aims to get managers and workers

ready for new products, procedures, and materials


Supervisors Role in HRD

Implements HRD programs and procedures

On-the-job training (OJT)


Career and employee development

A front-line participant in HRD 4/14/12

Organizational Structure of HRD Departments

Depends on company size, industry and


No single structure used

Depends in large part on how well the HRD

manager becomes an institutional part of the company i.e., a revenue contributor, not just a revenue user

HRD Organization in a Large Company


What Is HRD ?
HRD is a process of developing and

unleashing human expertise through organization development (OD) and personnel training and development (T&D) for the purpose of improving performance.


Training & HRD Model

Assessm ent Assess Needs Prioritize Needs Design Implementa tion Evaluation Select evaluation criteria Determin e evaluatio Deliver the Conduct n design HRD evaluatio program or intervention n of program or Interpret 4/14/12 interventi results on

Define Objectives Develop Lesson Plan Develop /Acquire materials Select Trainer/leader Select Methods & Techniques Schedule the

Needs Assessment
v It is a process by which an organizations HRD

needs are identified & articulated. It is the starting process of HRD and training process.

v A needs assessment can identify:

Reaching the goals Fulfill gaps between employee skill & skill Fulfill gaps between current & the skills needed

for future
The condition under which the HRD activity will 4/14/12


Level of needs assessment Level What is Measured ?

Strategic/ Where is training needed & in what Organization condition will the training be al conducted ? Task What must be done to perform the job effectively? Person Who should be trained ? What kind of training do they need ?


Component Of Strategic Needs Analysis

v Organizational Goals

v Organizational Resources

v Organizational Climate


Task Analysis Process

v Steps to be considered in Task analysis


Develop an overall job description

Identify the task

Describe what should be done in the task. Describe what is actually done in the task.

Describe KSAOs needed to perform the job


Identify the area that can benefit from training

Person Analysis
Performance Data Observation Work Sampling Interviews Questionnaires Tests Attitude Surveys Training Progress Charts Rating Scales Critical Incidents

Designing Effective HRD Process

Define Objectives

Develop Lesson Plan

Develop/Acquire materials

Select trainer/ leader

Select methods and techniques 4/14/12

Develop Lesson Plan

Content to be covered

Sequencing of activities

Selection or designing of training media

Timing and Planning of each activity

Selection of the method of instruction to be 4/14/12


Preparing training materials

Program Announcements

Program Outlets

Training Manuals or Textbooks


Scheduling the HRD programs

Scheduling during work hours Scheduling after work hours

Registration and enrollment issues


Implementing HRD Programs

v Training Delivery Methods
1. On-the-job Training Methods

1. Classroom Training approaches

1. Self-Paced / Computer Based Training

Media & Methods


v Models & Frameworks of Evaluation

1. Kirkpatricks Evaluation

Framework 1967,1987,1994) Evaluating HRD Programs (a) Reaction (Level-1)

. Did the trainees like the program & feel it

was valuable?

(b) Learning (Level-2)

. Did the trainees learn what the HRD

objectives said they should learn? (c) Job Behavior (Level-3)


Models & Frameworks of Evaluation (cont.)

2. Other Frameworks or Models of Evaluation:(a) CIPP Model(Galvin,1983) (b) Brinkerhoff(1987) (c) Kraiger, Ford & Salas(1993) (d) Holton(1996) (e) Phillips(1996)


Other Frameworks or Models of Evaluation

(a) CIPP Model(Galvin,1983)
Context, Input, Process, Product

(b) Brinkerhoff(1987)
Goal setting Program design Program implementation Immediate outcomes Intermediate or Usage outcomes

Data Collection For HRD Evaluation

1. Data Collection Methods:-

(a) Interview (b) Questionnaire (c) Direct Observation (d) Tests & Simulations (e) Archival Performance Data


Data Collection For HRD Evaluation (cont.)

2. Choosing Data Collection Methods:(a) Reliability:Suppose employee leadership skills are judged by having supervisors watch employees interact with each other in a role-playing exercise. If one of the supervisors assigns consistently harsher scores than the others, that personal bias & error will be reflected in low leadership ability scores for certain employees who might otherwise be considered excellent leaders.


Data Collection For HRD Evaluation (cont.)

(b) Validity:Suppose a trainer decides to use a written test to measure whether trainees have learned the procedure for completing travel expense forms. The test is valid to the extent that the scores on the test indicate whether the employee actually knows how to complete the forms. If the focus of training was on knowing which information to report on the expense form, yet the items on the test focus more on performing calculations, the test scores may be measuring the wrong thing. If this is the case, use of such a test will likely lead to poor decisions.


Data Collection For HRD Evaluation (cont.)

3. Types of data:(a) Individual performance (b) System wide performance (c) Economic


Self - Report Data:-

(a) Mono-method Bias (b) Socially Desirable Responses


Career Development
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What is a career?
The property of an occupation or


The occupation itself, or an employees tenure within an organization.

Advancement :

Ones progression and increasing success within an occupation or organization.

Status of a profession:

Some use the term career to separate the professions.

Involvement in ones work:

Career Development
v Definition:

It is an ongoing process by which individuals progress through a series of stages, each of which is a characterized by relatively unique set of issues, themes, and tasks.

Models of Career Development

Traditional models:
1. Occupational choice :Preparation for work. 2. Organizational Entry. 3. Early Career: Establishment and Achievement. 4. Midcareer. 5. Late Career.


Models of Career Development


Contemporary view of career Development:

Four career concept 1. Linear 2. Expert 3. Spiral 4. Transitory


Issues in Career Development

Developing Career Motivation
Career resilience Career insight Career identity

Career Development for Nonexempt