Presented by

:
Shahid Sohail Director STP (CDA)

• GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE • PRESENT WATER SITUATION • RAINWATER POTENTIAL • RWH PRACTICES • RECOMMENDATION

Nearly 97% of the world's water is saltwater or otherwise undrinkable. Another 2% is held in ice caps and glaciers. That leaves just one percent for all of humanity's needs i.e. agricultural, residential, manufacturing, and community needs.
(United States Geological Survey)

Each day, the sun evaporates 1,000,000,000,000 (one trillion) tons of water.
(United States Geological Survey)

If present consumption patterns continue, two out of every three persons on Earth will live in water-stressed conditions by the year 2025.
(United Nations Environment Program)

Population Projection

Statistical Division, Government of Pakistan

Projected Water Demand

Asian Development Bank

Water Production – Sourcewise

JUNE 2, 2008

Water Production - Overall

* 55% leakage in the system (JBIC – SAPS study)

JUNE 2, 2008

Per Capita Water Availability
• Designed • Actual Prod. • After Leakages 100 GPCD 71 GPCD 32 GPCD

Statistical Division, Government of Pakistan

Water Production - Tubewells

JUNE 2, 2008

POINT TO PONDER

In the r ecent P as t 10 T ubewell s have dr ied down and other s are fast depl eti ng

Production Division – II - CDA

Al though CDA is vowed to Fi ll thi s Gap through Mega Proj ects, Yet ther e is a Sources. di re need to Protect the Exi sti ng

RAINFALL DATA OF ISLAMABAD
  1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Mean Jan 41.1 9.2 99.2 36.4 36.1 31.5 81.5 39.0 36.7 83.1 129.0 0.0 7.0 37.7 146.8 97.0 70.0 57.7 Feb 105.1 106.8 91.3 30.0 51.4 99.8 121.9 20.3 248.8 28.5 70.6 4.0 38.0 235.4 48.0 213.0 27.0 90.6 Mar 160.2 103.9 119.1 140.6 36.0 104.3 130.1 84.3 75.8 80.8 18.0 40.0 32.0 105.9 0.0 87.0 61.0 81.1 Apr 55.3 116.6 30.5 22.0 69.3 107.4 47.2 172.2 110.0 2.0 2.0 24.2 6.0 22.3 78.0 0.0 19.0 52.0 May 0.0 16.8 36.8 44.7 36.0 17.2 32.0 46.1 29.6 16.1 11.0 16.5 12.0 18.2 40.0 33.0 76.0 28.4 Jun 29.4 88.6 14.5 77.8 54.8 20.5 145.2 64.7 19.3 33.0 37.0 153.0 155.0 90.2 130.0 16.0 126.0 73.8 Jul 327.4 251.8 256.7 152.7 596.7 743.3 298.5 194.8 306.0 232.3 207.0 647.0 109.0 407.1 128.5 181.0 504.0 326.1 Aug 436.0 264.2 305.0 211.2 637.7 331.8 329.1 496.4 322.4 334.0 381.0 207.0 0.0 212.8 313.0 211.0 418.0 274.7 Sep 168.3 211.5 257.9 15.4 56.2 39.8 72.0 158.0 138.0 145.0 129.0 44.0 157.0 292.5 46.1 86.0 52.0 121.7 Oct 21.1 3.3 9.0 6.0 29.8 64.6 60.0 95.8 11.0 9.5 0.0 33.0 38.0 5.3 76.0 36.0 92.0 34.7 Nov 7.9 3.8 34.0 15.4 1.0 20.0 3.0 22.4 0.0 35.0 0.0 7.0 0.0 27.5 22.0 6.0 20.0 13.2 Dec 177.9 17.1 7.9 0.0 93.2 35.0 6.0 19.8 0.0 0.0 14.0 2.0 26.5 49.9 28.0 0.0 133.0 35.9 Total 1093.7 1193.6 956.9 752.2 1698.2 1615.2 1326.5 1413.8 1297.6 999.3 998.6 1177.7 580.5 1504.8 1056.4 966.0 1598.0 1189.9

(Pakistan Meteorological Department)

Sectorwise Availability of Rainwater
Average yearly rainfall Area per sector Total available rainwater = = = = = = = = = 1.19 m 4 x 106 sq.m 4.76 x 106 cu.m / year 1047.2 M. gallons / year 2.87 MGD 60% 1.72 MGD 40,000 43 GPCD

Rainwater utilization Available water for use Sector Population Per capital Availability

House wise Availability of Rainwater
Average yearly rainfall Area rooftop Area Total available rainwater Rainwater utilization Available water for use Person per House Per capital Availability = = = = = = = = 1.19 m 250 sq.m 295.5 cu.m / year 65,450 gallons / year 80% 52360 gallons / year 6 24 GPCD

Surface (Spreading) Methods

• • • •

Flooding Basin & Percolation Tanks Stream Augmentation Ditch & Furrow system

Sub-Surface Methods

• • • •

Recharge Well Pits & Shafts Dug wells Soakaways

Roof Top Harvesting

The rain water in urban area can be conserved through Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting Techniques for grey water usage and artificial recharge to ground water.

The advantages of Rain Water Harvesting are:

• • • • •

Rainwater is bacteriologically pure, free from organic matter and soft in nature. It will help in reducing the flood hazard. Improve the quality of existing ground water through dilution. Rainwater may be harnessed at place of need and may be utilized at time of need. The structures required for harvesting the rainwater are simple, economical and eco-friendly.

RWH in Islamabad

• • • •

Redesign of storm drainage system to allow infiltration of water into the ground. Construction of recharge wells at appropriate places Utilizing abandoned tubewells for recharging with minor modifications. Rights of usage of ground water be enforced through legislation.

RWH in Islamabad

• •

Use of Indigenous plants be preferred. Enforcing rooftop RWH on houses for grey water usage.

• •

Mandatory for new houses Mandatory for existing houses having private wells

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