Ethics in Business Research

This chapter includes issues……
– – – – Ethics in research Plagiarism Avoiding Plagiarism Citation and Referencing

• “Ethics are norms or standards of behavior that guide moral choices about our behavior and our relationship with others”. • Ethics defines what is or is not legitimate to do. • Ethics are dictated by the norms of the society • Three parties involved in research.. the sponsoring client and the respondent • For each of the party’s right there is obligation binding researcher .What is meant by ethics.... or what moral research procedures involve.. the researcher..

Rights and Obligations of Respondent • • • • • • • • • • Not to be harmed Informed consent Confidentiality and anonymity Researcher should avoid conflict of interest Observation issues In case of volunteer for research their written consent is not necessary Research purpose must be explained to respondent Participant can withdraw at any time Participants belief must be respected Contact names and numbers should be provided in case of any query .

Rights and Obligations of Researcher • Some key issues expressed by any code of ethics – – – – – – Purpose of research is research Objectivity Misrepresenting research Maintaining confidentiality of both respondents and clients Dissemination of false conclusions/ethical reporting Researcher should avoid conflicts of interest • Suggestions for researcher to maintain confidentiality – Information handling – Data should be stored in such a way that respondents name is not mentioned – Data should be stored at secure place – Written permission should be taken from respondents to disclose confidential information – Client of research should be provided with aggregate result .

Rights and Obligations of Client • General business ethics apply between client and researcher • To make/enable researcher provide actual answer of the question • Conclusions should be drawn from the data • Proper utilization of research .

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whether you give credit or not (see our section on “fair use” rules) • Most cases of plagiarism can be avoided by proper citing... ..Issue of Plagiarism and ethics. • Plagiarism is an act of fraud • It involves both stealing and lying afterwards • Plagiarism may include………… – – – – – turning in someone else’s work as your own copying words or ideas from someone else without giving credit failing to put a quotation in quotation marks giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation changing words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving credit – copying so many words or ideas from a source that it makes up the majority of your work...

Types of Plagiarism.. • Sources not cited – – – – – – – – – – – The Ghost Writer The Photocopy The Potluck paper The Poor Disguise The Labor of Laziness The Self-stealer The forgotten footnote The misinformer The too perfect paraphrase The resource-full citer The Perfect Crime • When sources are cited (but still plagiarized) .....

• Citation is a way to tell reader that certain material in your work came from any other source.... It includes…. ... – information about the author – the title of the work – the name and location of the company that published your copy of the source – the date your copy was published – the page numbers of the material you are borrowing • Why citation is necessary – – – – Helps reader to find out the original source Citing will avoid you to take some bad idea from research Citation sources show the amount of research you have done Citation strengthens your ideas as supported by others work as well – Citation helps reader to distinguish your ideas from other ones’. remedy for plagiarism..Citation.

.cont’d • Citation is required – Whenever you use quotes – Whenever you paraphrase – Whenever you use an idea that someone else has already expressed – Whenever you make specific reference to the work of another – Whenever someone else’s work has been critical in developing your own ideas...Citation.. remedy for plagiarism.. .

.... • If author is not renowned/researcher don’t know author/can’t get information about author In an essay presented at an Asian Studies conference held at Duke University. it will do so not because it has exhausted its powers but because it exists in a world grown alien to it. in his book The Art of the Novel. labor-unions... . Sheldon Garon analyzes the relation of state.” • If you are continuing work of same author it is not necessary to cite it again in forthcoming sentence/s.How to cite... and small businesses in Japan between the 1950s and 1980s. Milan Kundera..????? • Way of citation may vary according to discipline • Citing for the first times in your research……... suggests that “if the novel should really disappear.

“He tends to serve himself badly....... but it should no change sense or content.. – If you have to modify the words or format of quotation then don’t change too many words “The citizen-investor serves his fellow citizens badly by his inclination to withdraw from the community. • Paraphrasing – Summarizing the main idea of other researcher to make it presentable according to your research. by focusing his pursuit of happiness on [money].. .Quoting and Paraphrasing. you should have at least two lines analyzing it. . • Quoting – Taking exact words from original source is called quoting – For every line you quote. He does so by focusing his pursuit of happiness on something that very seldom makes people happy in the way they expect it to. .” – Minor changes are acceptable while quoting. He tends to serve himself badly as well.” – You can use editing symbol for quoting it….

.Listing References... • Bibliography – List of all sources that have been used in research process • The authors’ names • The titles of the works • The names and locations of the companies that published your copies of the sources • The dates your copies were published • Relevant page numbers (optional) • Foot notes – Placed at the bottom of the page – It cites reference or comment regarding the specific part of the text • End notes – Placed at the end of the document ....

Citation styles... Scott 1999. p.. 23) . • Documentary-Note style – Using foot notes and end notes for citation environmental reform in Alaska in the 1970s accelerated rapidly as the result of pipeline expansion1.Prof.” (Scott 1999..23 ) • Parenthetical style – Reference to source are made within body of work itself Professor Scott asserts that “environmental reform in Alaska in the 1970s accelerated rapidly as the result of pipeline expansion.. book name. (1Foot/end note..

..Citation styles in various disciplines.. • Citation styles according to discipline……. – Humanities • Chicago • MLA (Modern Language Association) • Turabian – Science • • • • • • ACS (American chemical society) AMA (American medical association) CBE (Council of Biology Editors) IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) NLM (National Library of Medicine) Vancouver – Social Sciences • AAA (American anthropological Association) • APA (American Psychological Association) • APSA (American Political Science Association) .

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