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Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases

Dr.Narumol Sawanpanyalert
Dept. of Medical Services

Infectious Disease Epidemiology: Major Differences


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A case can also be an exposure Subclinical infections influence epidemiology Contact patterns play major role Immunity There is sometimes a need for urgency

What is infectious disease epidemiology?  Epidemiology  Deals with one population  Risk  case  Identifies causes Infectious disease epidemiology Two or more populations A case is a risk factor The cause often known .

snails (helminthsschistosomiasis)  Blackfly (microfilaria-onchocerciasis) – bacteria?  Animals and sheep/goats – Echinococcus  Mice and ticks – Borrelia  Dogs . protozoa. (protozoa-malaria). prions  Helminths. fungi. viruses.What is infectious disease epidemiology? Two or more populations  Humans  Infectious  Vectors  Mosquito agents bacteria.

HIV. e.g. emerging infections. SARS  Surveillence of infectious disease  Identification of source of outbreaks  Studies of routes of transmission and natural history of infections  Identification of new interventions .What is infectious disease epidemiology? The cause often known  An infectious agent is a necessary cause What is infectious disease epidemiology then used for?  Identification of causes of new. vCJD.

etc . water contact.Routes of transmission Direct  Skin-skin  Herpes type 1  Mucous-mucous  STI Indirect  Food-borne  Salmonella  Water-borne  Hepatitis A  Across placenta  toxoplasmosis  Vector-borne  Malaria  Through breast milk  HIV  Air-borne  Chickenpox  Sneeze-cough  Influenza  Ting-borne  Scarlatina Exposure  A relevant contact – depends on the agent Skin. sexual intercourse.

Exposure to Infectious Agents No infection Clinical Sub-clinical Carrier Death Carrier Immunity Outcome No immunity (www) .

Epidemiologic Triad Disease is the result of forces within a dynamic system consisting of: agent of infection host environment .

Factors Influencing Disease Transmission Agent • Infectivity Environment • Weather • Housing • Geography • Occupational setting • Air quality • Food • Age • Sex • Pathogenicity • Virulence • Immunogenicity • Antigenic stability • Survival Host • Genotype • Behaviour • Nutritional status • Health status (www) .

Epidemiologic Triad-Related Concepts Infectivity (ability to infect) (number infected / number susceptible) x 100 Pathogenicity (ability to cause disease) (number with clinical disease / number infected) x 100 Virulence (ability to cause death) (number of deaths / number with disease) x 100 All are dependent on host factors .

Stress. Sleep Smoking Stomach Acidity Hygiene .Predisposition to Infections (Host Factors) Gender Genetics Climate and Weather Nutrition.

Infectious Agents Bacteria Viruses Fungi Protoctists / Protozoa Helminths .

Reservoirs A host that carries a pathogen without injury to itself and serves as a source of infection for other host organisms (asymptomatic infective carriers) .

Vectors A host that carries a pathogen without injury to itself and spreads the pathogen to susceptible organisms (asymptomatic carriers of pathogens) .

Infectious Disease Process Direct tissue invasion Toxins Persistent or latent infection Altered susceptibility to drugs Immune suppression Immune activation (cytokine storm) .

asymptomatic or latent  Animal.Spreading of Infection  Reservoir of infection – provides pathogen with conditions for survival – carriers.zoonoses various routes  Nonliving Reservoirs – water. fertilizer ect  Human .

Portals of entry and Exit Pathogens have preferred portals of entry and exit.  Most common portals   Respiratory tract  Gastrointestinal tract  Urogenital tract  Blood to blood .

Nosocomial (Hospital-acquired) infections 5-15% get infections while in the hospital.  Microbes in hospital  Chain of transmission  Compromised host  Is a hospital the best place to be if you are sick?  .

Common Causes of Nosocomial Infections Percentage of Total Infections 25% Percentage Resistant to Antibiotics 89% Coagulasenegative staphylococci S. aureus Enterococcus Gram-negative rods C. difficile 16% 10% 23% 13% 80% 29% 5-32% None .

422 .Which Procedure Increases the Likelihood of Infection Most? ANIMATION Nosocomial Infections: Prevention Clinical Focus. p.

Control of Nosocomial   Aseptic techniques  Hand washing (40% compliance) Infection control staff .

Exposure to Infectious Agents No infection Clinical Sub-clinical Carrier Death Carrier Immunity Outcome No immunity (www) .

Epidemiologic Triad Disease is the result of forces within a dynamic system consisting of: agent of infection host environment .

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