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Prepaid By: Patel viral Zaveri priyank

Prepaid By:

Patel viral Zaveri priyank

 The diagram is a graphic representation of the effects of temperature and composition upon the
  • The diagram is a graphic representation of the effects of temperature and composition upon the phase present in alloy.

  • This diagram deals with the allotropic forms of iron, microstructure, and phase transformation during heating and cooling.

  • The diagram is constructed by plotting temperature along y-axis and carbon percent along x-axis.

 The alloys of iron are very important for engineering application.  Steel and cast iron
  • The alloys of iron are very important for engineering application.

  • Steel and cast iron are the important alloys of iron with carbon.

  • The iron carbon system provides the most prominent example of heat treatment and property alteration

based on polymorphic transformation.

  • The iron carbon system provide exact amount of solid and liquid form.(Lever Rule)

Iron is allotropic metal, which means that it exists in more than one type of lattice

Iron is allotropic metal, which means that it exists in

more than one type of lattice structure.

 

Types

1.

BCC

2.

FCC

The body-centered cubic unit cell has atoms at each of the eight corners of a cube

The body-centered cubic unit cell has atoms at each of

the

eight corners of a cube plus one atom in the center of the cube.

The body-centered cubic unit cell has atoms at each of the eight corners of a cube

The bcc arrangement does not allow the atoms to pack together as

closely as the FCC arrangements. The bcc structure is often the high temperature form of metals that are close-packed at lower temperatures.

The face center cubic structure has atoms located at each of the corners and the center

The face center cubic structure has atoms located at each of

the corners and the center of all the cubic faces. so the corner atoms are shared among eight unit cells. Additionally, each of its six face center atoms is shared with an adjacent atom. Since 12 of its atoms are shared, it is said to have a coordination number of

12.

The face center cubic structure has atoms located at each of the corners and the center

The FCC structure the atoms can pack closer together than they can in the bcc structure. The atoms from one layer nest themselves in the empty space between the atoms of the adjacent layer. To picture packing arrangement

 Solid solution  Cooling curve  Polymorphism  Allotropy
  • Solid solution

  • Cooling curve

  • Polymorphism

  • Allotropy

 A solid solution occurs when we alloy two metals and they are completely soluble in
  • A solid solution occurs when we alloy two metals and they are completely soluble in each other in solid state. If a solid solution alloy is viewed under a microscope only one type of crystal can be seen just like a pure

metal. Solid solution alloys have similar properties to

pure metals.

  • Types of solid solution

  • 1. Substitutional Solid solution

  • 2. Interstitial solid solution

Substitutional
Substitutional

The name of this solid

solution tells you exactly

what happens as atoms of the solvent metal are replaced or substituted

by atoms of the solute

metal. In this case, the atoms of the two metals in the alloy, are of similar

size.

Interstitial
Interstitial
  • In interstitial solid

solutions the

atoms of the parent or solvent metal are bigger

than the atoms of

the alloying or solute metal. In this case, the

smaller atoms fit

into interstices i.e spaces between the larger atoms.

Cooling curve
Cooling curve

It is the method to determine the temperature at which phase change occur in an alloy system .it consist of following the temperature as a function of time .

Types

Cooling curve for pure metal

Cooling curve of binary solid solution.

Cooling curve of a binary eutectic systems.

Use

To study the changes that occur during the solidification of alloy.

Polymorphism

  • Polymorphism is a physical phenomenon where a material may have more than one crystal structure. A material that shows polymorphism exists in more than one type of space lattice in the solid state.

Allotropy

  • If the change in structure is reversible, then the polymorphic change is known as allotropy. The crystal structure depends on both the temperature and the

external pressure.

Allotropy of Iron
Allotropy of Iron

In its normal room

temperature state, iron is

BCC in lattice arrangement, whereas at 908 °C it changes o FCC and than at

1403 °C back to BCC again.

One another changes occurs at about 770 °C (curie point) at which the room

temperature magnetic properties of iron disappear and its become non-magnetic

Lever rule
Lever rule

The lever rule is a tool used to determine weight percentages of each phase of a binary

equilibrium phase

diagram. It is used to

determine the percent weight of liquid and solid phases for a given

binary composition and

temperature that is between the liquids and solidus.

Lever rule The lever rule is a tool used to determine weight percentages of each phase
 Alpha Ferrite : interstitial solid solution of C inalpha-Fe [BCC in crystal structure]  Delta
  • Alpha Ferrite : interstitial solid solution of C inalpha-Fe [BCC in crystal structure]

  • Delta Ferrite : interstitial solid solution of C in delta Fe [BCC in crystal structure]

  • Cementite(Fe3C):an intermetallic compound of C and Fe

[Orthorhombic in crystal structure]

  • Pearlite : mechanical mixture of alpha-Fe and Fe3C

  • Austenite : interstitial solid solution of C in gamma-Fe [FCC in crystal structure]

  • phases are formed under equilibrium condition

  • Ac0 (210°C): the curie temperature of cementitie,above this temperature Fe3C, is non magnetic.

  • Ac1 (723°C) : eutectoid temperature , also called lower critical temperature

  • Ac2 (768°C) : above this temperature alpha ferrite becomes non magnetic

  • Ac3 / Acm : known as upper critical temperature,structure is completely austenite

 In the alloy content 0.15% carbon the initial crystal structure of δ -solid solution and
  • In the alloy content 0.15% carbon the initial crystal structure of δ-solid solution and whole of liquid phase is completely transform to from austenite on cooling at 1492 °C

 

L

+

δ

γ (austenite)

structure:

-

BCC

FCC

composition:

0.09

0 .53

0.15

 Alloy with carbon contain 4.33% the liquid is transforming to austenite and cementite on cooling
  • Alloy with carbon contain 4.33% the liquid is transforming to austenite and cementite on cooling 1147 °C

 

L

γ

+

fe3C

structure :

-

FCC

orthorhombic

composition:

4.3

2.11

6 .67

Ledeburite : eutectic mixture of austenite & Cementite

 In iron carbon alloy with 0.8% c the austenite is transformed in to ferrite and
  • In iron carbon alloy with 0.8% c the austenite is transformed in to ferrite and cementite by eutectoid reaction on cooling 723 °C

 

γ

α

+

Fe3C

Structure :

FCC

BCC

Orthorhombic

Composition :0.77

 

0.022

6.67

The eutectoid of ferrite and cementite is called as pearlite

Transformation in eutectoid steel
Transformation in
eutectoid steel

On cooling at eutectoid point all austenite will

transform in to 100 % of

perlite

Microstructure at room temperature will alternate layer of ferrite and cementite called perlite

Different structure are occur during transformation see in fig.

Transformation in eutectoid steel On cooling at eutectoid point all austenite will transform in to 100
Microstructure of eutectoid steel
Microstructure of
eutectoid steel

In the micrograph, the dark areas are Fe3C layers, the light phase is α-ferrite

Mechanically, pearlite

has properties

intermediate to soft, ductile ferrite and hard, brittle cementite.

Microstructure of eutectoid steel In the micrograph, the dark areas are Fe3C layers, the light phase
Microstructure of eutectoid steel In the micrograph, the dark areas are Fe3C layers, the light phase
Transformation in hypoeutectoid steel
Transformation in
hypoeutectoid steel

There are solid state

transformation in this

steel

They are transformation

of γ iron to

α iron and

decomposition of austenite

Different structure are

occur during

transformation see in fig.

Transformation in hypoeutectoid steel There are solid state transformation in this steel They are transformation of
Microstructure of hypoeutectoid steel
Microstructure of
hypoeutectoid steel

Hypoeutectoid alloys contain proeutectoid ferrite (formed

above the eutectoid

temperature) plus the

eutectoid perlite

that contain eutectoid ferrite and cementite.

Microstructure of hypoeutectoid steel Hypoeutectoid alloys contain proeutectoid ferrite (formed above the eutectoid temperature) plus the
Microstructure of hypoeutectoid steel Hypoeutectoid alloys contain proeutectoid ferrite (formed above the eutectoid temperature) plus the
Transformation in hypereutectoid steel
Transformation in
hypereutectoid steel

There are solid state transformation in this steel.

The structure of hypereutectoid steel at room temperature consist cementite and pearlite.

Different structure are occur during transformation see in fig.

Transformation in hypereutectoid steel There are solid state transformation in this steel. The structure of hypereutectoid
Microstructure of hypereutectoid steel
Microstructure of
hypereutectoid steel

Hypereutectoid alloys contain proeutectoid cementite

(formed above the eutectoid temperature)

plus perlite that contain

eutectoid ferrite and cementite.

Microstructure of hypereutectoid steel Hypereutectoid alloys contain proeutectoid cementite (formed above the eutectoid temperature) plus perlite
Microstructure of hypereutectoid steel Hypereutectoid alloys contain proeutectoid cementite (formed above the eutectoid temperature) plus perlite
Transformation in eutectic cast iron
Transformation in
eutectic
cast iron

Eutectic cast iron solidifies at 1147°C. In the

temperature range 1147°C -

723°C the solid alloy consist of ledeburite eutectic (austenite and cementite).

The final structure will be transformed ledeburite.

Transformation in eutectic cast iron Eutectic cast iron solidifies at 1147°C. In the temperature range 1147°C

Transformation in

hypoeutectic cast iron
hypoeutectic
cast iron

case a structure just below 1147°C consist of pro eutectic austenite and ledeburite.

on further cooling in the temperature range 1147°C - 723°C excess carbon come out from the proeutectic austenite

Therefore at the eutectoid temperature both eutectic and proeutectic austenite would contain 0.8% carbon and would decompose by eutectoid reaction to pearlite.

So at room temperature consist of cementite, pearlite and ledeburite.

Transformation in hypoeutectic cast iron • case a structure just below 1147 ° C consist of
Transformation in hypereutectic cast iron
Transformation in
hypereutectic
cast iron

case a structure just below 1147°C consist of proeutectic cementite and ledeburite.

on further cooling in the temperature range 1147°C - 723°C excess carbon come out from the eutectic austenite.

Proeutectic cementite will remain such since it does not change during colling.

At 723°C austenite would contain 0.8% carbon and would decompose by eutectoid reaction

to pearlite.

Final structure will proeutectic cementite ,pearlite and cementite.

Transformation in hypereutectic cast iron case a structure just below 1147 ° C consist of proeutectic

Transformation Diagrams for steels

 The TTT diagrams are for the isothermal (constant T) transformations.  At low temperatures, the
  • The TTT diagrams are for the isothermal (constant T) transformations.

  • At low temperatures, the transformation occurs sooner and grain is reduced.

  • Slow diffusion at low temperatures leads to fine grained microstructure with thin-layered structure of pearlite (fine pearlite).

  • At higher temperatures, high diffusion rates allow for larger grain growth and formation of thick layered structure of pearlite (coarse pearlite).

  • At compositions other than eutectoid, a proeutectoid phase (ferrite or cementite) coexist with pearlite. Additional curves for proeutectoid transformation must be included on TTT diagrams.

Determination of T-T-T Diagram • Austenitization • Quenched in molten salt bath (at constant temperature) •

Determination of T-T-T Diagram

Austenitization Quenched in molten salt bath (at constant temperature) Allow to transfer Cool to room temperature Conduct tests on other specimens (different temperature and time) Draw the C-curve

• Cooling curve-a • (slow cooling rate, coarse pearlite with low hardness) Cooling curve-b (Formation of

Cooling curve-a

(slow cooling rate, coarse pearlite with low hardness) Cooling curve-b (Formation of medium pearlite)

Cooling curve-c

(martensite and fine pearlite)

(slow oil quench, fine pearlite) Cooling curve-d

Cooling curve-e

(bainite)

(Martensite) Cooling curve-ef

Cooling curve-g (Critical cooling rate, martensite)

Advantages and Disadvantage

Advantages

helps in determining Heat Treatment cycle

gives idea about hardenability of steel

helps in determining structure and properties during

isothermal transformation

Disadvantage

do not predict the exact temperature of start or end of transformation during continuous cooling

can not be used as MAPS giving the structure at different cooling rates

 Solid state transformations that occur in steels are varied and interesting. These are similar to
  • Solid state transformations that occur in steels are varied and interesting. These are similar to those occur in many other systems and helps explain the properties.

  • Fe-C diagram is use for study the behaviour of heat treatment on steel & cast iron.

  • It is use for study the behaviour of micro-structure of alloy element.