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9) Todays Objectives: Students will be able to relate the In-Class Activities: positions, velocities, and Check homework, if any accelerations of particles Reading quiz undergoing dependent motion. Applications Define dependent motion Develop position, velocity, and acceleration relationships Concept quiz Group problem solving Attention quiz

APPLICATIONS The cable and pulley system shown here can be used to modify the speed of block B relative to the speed of the motor. It is important to relate the various motions in order to determine the power requirements for the motor and the tension in the cable.

If the speed of the cable coming onto the motor pulley is known, how can we determine the speed of block B?

DEPENDENT MOTION

In many kinematics problems, the motion of one object will depend on the motion of another object.

The blocks in this figure are connected by an inextensible cord wrapped around a pulley. If block A moves downward along the inclined plane, block B will move up the other incline.

The motion of each block can be related mathematically by defining position coordinates, sA and sB. Each coordinate axis is defined from a fixed point or datum line, measured positive along each plane in the direction of motion of each block.

In this example, position coordinates sA and sB can be defined from fixed datum lines extending from the center of the pulley along each incline to blocks A and B. If the cord has a fixed length, the position coordinates sA and sB are related mathematically by the equation sA + lCD + sB = lT Here lT is the total cord length and lCD is the length of cord passing over arc CD on the pulley.

The velocities of blocks A and B can be related by differentiating the position equation. Note that lCD and lT remain constant, so dlCD/dt = dlT/dt = 0

dsA/dt + dsB/dt = 0

=>

vB = -vA

The negative sign indicates that as A moves down the incline (positive sA direction), B moves up the incline (negative sB direction). Accelerations can be found by differentiating the velocity expression. Prove to yourself that aB = -aA .

Consider a more complicated example. Position coordinates (sA and sB) are defined from fixed datum lines, measured along the direction of motion of each block.

Note that sB is only defined to the center of the pulley above block B, since this block moves with the pulley. Also, h is a constant.

The red colored segments of the cord remain constant in length during motion of the blocks.

The position coordinates are related by the equation 2sB + h + sA = l Where l is the total cord length minus the lengths of the red segments.

Since l and h remain constant during the motion, the velocities and accelerations can be related by two successive time derivatives: 2vB = -vA and 2aB = -aA

When block B moves downward (+sB), block A moves to the left (-sA). Remember to be consistent with the sign convention!

This example can also be worked by defining the position coordinate for B (sB) from the bottom pulley instead of the top pulley. The position, velocity, and acceleration relations then become 2(h sB) + h + sA = l and 2vB = vA 2aB = aA

Prove to yourself that the results are the same, even if the sign conventions are different than the previous formulation.

DEPENDENT MOTION: PROCEDURES These procedures can be used to relate the dependent motion of particles moving along rectilinear paths (only the magnitudes of velocity and acceleration change, not their line of direction).

1. Define position coordinates from fixed datum lines, along the path of each particle. Different datum lines can be used for each particle. 2. Relate the position coordinates to the cord length. Segments of cord that do not change in length during the motion may be left out. 3. If a system contains more than one cord, relate the position of a point on one cord to a point on another cord. Separate equations are written for each cord. 4. Differentiate the position coordinate equation(s) to relate velocities and accelerations. Keep track of signs!

EXAMPLE PROBLEM

Given: In the figure on the left, the cord at A is pulled down with a speed of 8 m/s.

Plan: There are two cords involved in the motion in this example. The position of a point on one cord must be related to the position of a point on the other cord. There will be two position equations (one for each cord).

EXAMPLE (continued)

Solution: 1) Define the position coordinates from a fixed datum line. Three coordinates must be defined: one for point A (sA), one for block B (sB), and one relating positions on the two cords. Note that pulley C relates the motion of the two cords.

DATUM

sA

sC

sB

Define the datum line through the top pulley (which has a fixed position). sA can be defined to the center of the pulley above point A. sB can be defined to the center of the pulley above B. sC is defined to the center of pulley C. All coordinates are defined as positive down and along the direction of motion of each point/object.

EXAMPLE (continued)

2) Write position/length equations for each cord. Define l1 as the length of the first cord, minus any segments of constant length. Define l2 in a similar manner for the second cord: Cord 1: 2sA + 2sC = l1 Cord 2: sB + (sB sC) = l2 3) Eliminating sC between the two equations, we get 2sA + 4sB = l1 + 2l2

DATUM

sA

sC

sB

4) Relate velocities by differentiating this expression. Note that l1 and l2 are constant lengths. 2vA + 4vB = 0 => vB = - 0.5vA = - 0.5(8) = - 4 m/s

The velocity of block B is 4 m/s up (negative sB direction).

Given: In this pulley system, block A is moving downward with a speed of 4 m/s while block C is moving up at 2 m/s. Find: The speed of block B. Plan:

Solution: 1) A datum line can be drawn through the upper, fixed, pulleys. 2) Defining sA, sB, and sC

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