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What is the worlds oldest religion?

Tribal religions, animism, shamanism, and paganism The natural world consist of spirits and deities (gods).

2. Founder-Yahweh chose Abraham, a shepherd who lived in the city of Ur in Mesopotamia, to be the father of the Hebrew people.

3. Key beliefs
To the Hebrews, God was not a physical being, and no physical images were to made of him. Yahweh was the traditional name of God for the Jews.

4. Literature
The Torah and Talmud

5. Around 1650 BC, the descendants of Abraham moved to Egypt, where they were eventually forced into slavery. The Hebrews fled Egypt led by a Hebrew named Moses called the Exodus and Jews remember this day as Passover.
6. The Jews-Hebrews have a Covenant (contract) With God-the Jews-Hebrews Are the chosen people of God

7. The 10 commandments has served as a basis of Western laws, customs, and traditions from the time of Moses to present day (2)You shall have no other gods before me
(5)Honor your father and mother (6)You shall not kill (murder) (7)You shall not commit adultery (8)You shall not steal

8. During a 500 year period called the Diaspora, the Jews left or were exiled from Israel, and they spread out around the world.

THE PERSIAN EMPIRE (2000 B. C.- 100 B. C.):


-The Persian Empire was located primarily in the Middle East along the Iranian plateau between the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf- Cyrus the Great -It eventually grew to expand from the Nile River to the Indus River

-The Persian ruler Darius unified the empire:

1. He built many public roads 2. Introduced uniform weights and measures 3. *Divided the empire into provinces, which made the empire more manageable as well as promoting trade. 4. Defeated by the Greeks at the Battle of Marathon

-Darius son Xerxes led a Persian army against the Greeks. More successful than Darius but in the end being held up at Thermopylae and ultimately defeated at Salamis by the Greek Trireme

-Darius III will fight Alexander the Great unsuccessfully at Issus and Gaugamela

RELIGION-

Zoroastrianism-The religion taught that there was a constant battle between two forces GOOD & EVIL (Duality). All those who were on the good side would go to HEAVEN and all those who were on the bad side would go to HELL.

-The natural barrier that separates India from the rest of Asia are the

Himalayan

mountains in the North and East of India.

-The Himalayan mountain range is the highest mountain range in the world. Mt. Everest is located here-the highest mountain in the world (29,000 feet above sea level)

POSITIVE impact of the Himalayas on India: 1. Acts as a natural barrier or defense to help keep enemies out 2. Contains limited natural resources-iron ore, coal, manganese. etc. 3. Fresh water supply-source of the Ganges River

NEGATIVE impact of the Himalayas: 1. Has acted as a barrier to TRADE and contact with other peoples to the north and northeast of the region.

The exception is the Khyber Pass between the Hindu Kush Mountains in the northwest llowed trade, invasions, and cultural diffusion from he west and a little from the east

THREE GREAT RIVERS DOMINATE INDIA 1. Indus 2. Ganges 3. Brahmaputra

Some of these civilizations were the Mohenjo-Daro and the Harappa well planned cities, temples, settled farmers, brick houses, plumbing, and other early city structures!

MAURYA AND THE GUPTA!-Gupta


empire-there was a GOLDEN AGE! Arts, sculptures flourished, advances in medicine, cashmere and calico were produced

The Mauryan Empire (300 B. C. 184 B. C.) -First empire to unite most of India under one central government -it centered and developed along the Ganges river

Famous leader Asoka (Ashoka) in the beginning, he promoted warfare and wanted to conquer other lands. Then he became a Buddhist and began to practice more peaceful ways Asoka accomplished the following: 1. Promoted Buddhism in India and beyond; sending missionaries 2. Tolerated other religions including Hinduism

3. Indian culture flourished

The Gupta Empire (320 AD-550 AD) -Golden Age of India-time of great cultural and scientific achievements Accomplishments of the Gupta Empire: 1. Medical doctors set broken bones, surgery was performed 2. Textiles like cashmere and calico were created 3. Literature, art, and sculpture flourished

Early Religions of India

HINDUISM worlds oldest religion. No one person founded Hinduism. There is no one sacred book like the Bible. Their holy boo are collected in the Vedas. Polytheistic religion-many god

Deities (gods)Brahma-the creator Vishnu-the preserver of life Shiva-the destroyer and re creator

MAJOR BELIEFS OF HINDUISM

2. REINCARNATION 3. KARMA

4. DHARMA
BRAHMAN-means universal soul
Ultimate goal is to reach moksha-union with Brahman

5. Hinduism and Society-Both a religion and a social system (caste system) The caste system is a system of social stratification or ranking of people by occupation.

A belief that people are born into certain castes or classes of people

POSITIVE EFFECTProvided Social Order NEGATIVE EFFECT- little or NO SOCIAL MOBILITY OCCUPATIONAL GROUPINGS CASTE SYSTEM

THE RANKING OF THE CASTE SYSTEM

Brahminspriests Kshatriyasnobles/warriors

Vaisyasmerchants

SudrasFarm workersPeasants

And not even in the caste system because of their lowly status were the UNTOUCHABLES OR HARIJANS

Although the caste system outlawed today-people are known from what families or classes you come from suffer from discrimination!

BUDDHISM Founded in nearby India, by Prince Siddhartha Gautama (enlightened one) (563-487 B.C.), who rejected wealth and searched for the meaning of human suffering.

GREW OUT OF HINDUISM- RESPONSE TO IT!

2. Key Beliefs

-Believe in Karma and reincarnation, but one can escape the cycle of death and rebirth through Buddhist practices. -Rejected the Hindu caste system

3. Literature

The three baskets, sutras, tantras

You will always be getting praise and blame, but do not let either affect the poise of the mind: follow the calmness, the absence of pride.

-Founded a Middle Way to achieve peace and harmony to a perfect state of mind called nirvana. -Rejected indulgence in sensual pleasures, and indulgence in extreme hardship-choose the Middle Way! -Most Buddhists do not believe in a supreme being like a God -Nature worship and respect

FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS 1. All life is filled with suffering 2. Suffering is caused by selfish desire and indulgence 3. This selfish desire can be eliminated 4. There is a path, or way, to end desirefollow the Eight Fold Path

*Cultural Diffusion- Buddhism spread from India to China, Korea, Japan, and the rest of Southeast Asia. Only a small percentage of East Indians today are Buddhists.

ZEN BUDDHISM-EMPHASIS ON MEDITATION


MANDALAS

USE OF KOANS OR RIDDLES TO MAKE ONE THINK ABOUT IMPORTANT VALUES!

What is the sound of one hand clapping?


A tree falls in the woods-and nobody is around-does it make a sound?

To the Zen Master- How does one begin to see the world in an enlightened way? Zen Master-First, close your eyes.

JANISM IS RELATED TO BUDDHISM-IT IS LIKE EXTREME BUDDHISM-RIGHT


CONDUCT, RIGHT FAITH, RIGHT KNOWLEDGE AND TOTAL

NON-

VIOLENCE- VEGETARIANISM NO HARM TO ANY LIVING CREATURE!

CHINAS GEOGRAPHY: *Most of China is mountains or deserts *Only the river valleys of China have rich soil and good climate that people need for farming. Huang He, Yangtze, and Xi Rivers)

MAJOR CHINESE PHILOSOPHIES LEGALISM: Started around the ___________ Dynasty, practiced ruthlessly by ___________ Dynasty -Revolved around the idea that passing strict laws governing everyone was the best way to maintain an orderly society
Han Fei Zi ()

-Founded by Confucius (K'ung-fu-tzu) 551 BC-479 BC -More of a philosophy than a religion,-Emphasized strict moral conduct -Education should be the road for advancement in society- civil service exams to get the best people in government

-Filial Piety -this meant that children and young people must honor and love their parents and all older family members -Rulers and government are like parents who should be obeyed. The children are the citizens. The ruler is the father -Everyone has a role in society and must carry out their obligations -Do to other people as you would like them to do to you

RELATIONSHIPS! -The only equal relationship is friendship -Older people were superior to younger -men were superior to women -parents superior to children -elder brother was superior to younger brother -ruler superior to the subjects or people he ruled

TAOISM (pronounced as DAOISM): -Founded by Lao Tzu (604 BC?-nobody can verify his existenc -Emphasizes a need to be close to nature, accept nature, dont re it -Duality always exists GoodEvil, Yin (Female)Yang(Mal must develop balance -Simplicity and respect for living things, acceptance and yieldin

BUDDHISM: -Started in India but flourished in China, Japan, Korea, and Southeast Asia -Nirvana, Karma, Reincarnation, Enlightened One, Four Noble Truths, Eightfold Path, The Middle Way

Chinese Buddha of good fortune

Dynasties rule China: Dynasties-a succession of rulers from the same family. The Chinese dynasties ruled by the Mandate of Heaven. This meant the rulers power depended on heavens, the gods, and ancestors continued favor of his personal behavior. People must obey emperor because the heavens say so, BUT if ruler is unjust, ruler will LOSE Mandate of Heaven. Other rival families will takeover to rule China. [NOT THE COMMON PEOPLE!]