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PRESENTATION ON PUMPS AND FANS

PUMPS
DEFINATION:A pump is

a machine which converts mechanical energy(supplied to it from some external source)into pressure energy of the liquid which is used to lift the liquid from lower to higher level.

PUMP

TYPES OF PUMPS
1.

CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS

2. POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT

PUMPS

CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
In centrifugal pumps, the

mechanical energy of the liquid is increased by the centrifugal action. Centrifugal pumps are typically used where high volumetric flow rates at low pressure are needed. e.g pumping water, milk, lubricants. It is equally suitable for handling suspension with high solid content.

MULTISTAGE CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS


These consists of two or more pumps, which

may be mounted on the same shaft or different shaft, are generally installed where high pressure heads are required.
e.g high pressure water supply pumps, boiler

feed water pumps.

Contd
When high head is required ,the pumps are

required on the same shaft or connected in series.


If high discharge is required, the pump is

required in parallel.

COMPONENTS OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS


IMPELLER: It is a wheel or rotor that is provided with

series of curved blades or vanes .This is mounted on shaft, which is coupled to electric motor.
Four vane enclosed impeller may generally be used

for normal pumping of liquid streams, which do not contain large particles.

CONTD
Two vane impeller with the inlet ends of the vane

surrounded is useful for the fluids that contain fibrous solids.


An open impeller can be used for the fluid containing

large particulate matter.

Contd.
CASING: This is an airtight chamber in which the impeller rotates.
It is provided with inlet (suction) and outlet

(discharge) for liquid to be pumped.


SHAFT: It is mounted on bearings, which handle shaft

load without excessive wear. Shaft transmits power from drive into impeller.

Contd..
STUFFING BOX : It provides a seal around a rotating

shaft , which moves axially. It meant for reducing and avoiding leakage.
MECHANICAL SEAL: It minimizes the leakage by

permitting relative motion like stuffing boxes but these are good only with the rotating members. This is used in equipments handling highly corrosive fluids.

OPERATION OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS


The impeller blades when revolve in casing, it produces a reduction in pressure at the eye of the impeller, and the liquid flows into the impeller from the suction pipe.

The liquid is thrown outward by centrifugal action along the blades. As a result of high speed of rotation the liquid acquires the high kinetic energy.

The acquired kinetic energy is then converted into pressure energy when it leaves the blade tips and the liquid passes into the volute chamber and finally discharged through the outlet.

ADVANTAGES OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS


It is simple in construction.
It gives a steady delivery/discharge. Lower maintenance cost. It can handle liquid containing high proportions of

suspended solids. It operates at high speed. For equal capacity, it is much smaller than other pumps.

DISADVANTAGES
It is not self priming.
Low efficiencies(50-65%) It does not develop a high pressure It cant handle very viscous liquids efficiently. If the non return valve is not provided in the delivery

line, the liquid will run back as soon as pump stops.

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS


In these pumps, a definite

volume of liquid is trapped in a chamber, which is alternatively filled from the inlet and emptied at a higher pressure through the discharge.
It has an expanding cavity on

the suction side of the pump and the decreasing cavity on the discharge side. Liquid is allowed to flow into the pump as the cavity on the suction side expands and the liquid is forced out of the discharge as the cavity collapses.

CLASSIFICATION OF POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS


a) Reciprocating pumps

e.g Piston pumps, plunger pumps diaphragm pump etc. b) Rotary pumps e.g Gear pump, mono pump

RECIPROCATING PUMPS
PISTON PUMP: It consists of a

piston or plunger which reciprocates back and forth in a closely fitted stationary cylinder. A fixed volume of liquid is discharged from the pump following the completion of stroke. These pumps may be: .Single acting or double acting In this maximum discharge pressure is about 50 atmosphere.

MAIN COMPONENTS OF PISTON PUMPS


PISTON: The piston may be motor driven or a steam

cylinder may be used to drive a piston rod directly.


CYLINDER: Often two or more cylinders are used in

parallel with common suction and discharge headers, and the configuration of pistons is adjusted to minimise fluctuation in the discharge rate.

Contd.
GASKET: It is used as packing for preventing leakage.
CHECK VALVE: Whenever the flow stops or tends to

reverse , the valve automatically closes by gravity by aspiring pressure against the disc.

OPERATION OF PISTON PUMPS


In these pumps the cylinder is connected to

suction and delivery pipes. Each of these pipes are provided with suction valve and delivery valve, which permits unidirectional flow.
Backward movement causes partial vacuum.
Forward movement causes high pressure of the

liquid.

DIAPHRAGM PUMP
In this, the piston forces a liquid against a diaphragm,

which is in contact with the liquid to be pumped.


It is useful for corrosive liquids.

Advantages : It is inherently hygienic.


We can avoid excessive shear which causes undesirable

rheological behaviour.

ADVANTAGES OF RECIPROCATING PUMPS


They can be designed for higher heads They are more flexible in operation

They operate nearly at constant efficiency


These are self priming These are suitable for highly viscous liquids

DISADVANTAGES
These are costlier than centrifugal pumps
These cant deliver liquid at uniform pressure These cant handle the liquids with large amount of

solids in suspension.

Gear Pump

Lobe Pump

Vane pump

GEAR PUMP
It consists of two identical spur gears

working with a fine clearence inside the casing. As the gear rotates the liquid is trapped in between their teeth and is flown to the discharge end around the casing The rotating gear builds up the sufficient pressure to force the liquid into the delivery pipe Each tooth of the gear act as piston of a reciprocating pump to force the liquid into the discharge pipe.

LOBE PUMPS
It resembles with a gear pump in

action. As the lobes rotate, the liquid is trapped in the pockets formed between the lobes and casing.
The lobes build up sufficient pressure

to force the liquid into the delivery pipe.


DRAWBACK: Its discharge is not so

constant as that of gear pump.

VANE PUMP
It

consists of a disc rotating eccentrically in the pump casing. The disc has a no. of slots containing vanes, which are free to slide radially into the slots. When the rotator rotates the disc, the vanes are pressed against the casing and the liquid is suctioned from the bottom side. The vanes build up sufficient pressure to force the liquid into the delivery pipe.

FACTORS EFFECTING THE CHOICE OF PUMPS FOR OPERATION


(a) The quantity of liquid to be pumped. (b) The head against which the liquid to be (c) (d)

(e)
(f)

pumped The nature of the liquid to be handled. Method of operation Cost of mechanical efficiency. The nature of the power supply.

Measurement of Performances of Pumps


CAPACITY : It is the rate at which the liquid is

pumped by fluid moving device.


OVERALL EFFICIENCY: It is the ratio of power output

of pump to the power input to the pump.


POWER CONSUMED: The power consumed (W)will

be the product of total head and capacity.

Contd
HEAD DEVELOPED:The head(H)is proportional to

the square of the capacity i.e square of the speed (N) of the impeller. TOTAL HEAD: System head is divided into two parts: Total suction head:it tends to move the liquid from the suction tank to the pump. Total discharge head: it tends to prevent flow from the pump to the discharge tank. TOTAL HEAD(H): Total discharge head Total suction head

FANS
Fans is the machinery for compressing and moving gases

conveniently.
These are the gas motive devices having a compression

ratio less than 1.03.


These are installed where small pressure upto 2,760 N/m is

required.
Fan is an air blowing device used in grain conditioning

systems.

TYPES OF FANS
AXIAL FLOW: Air moves parallel

to the shaft axis and the right angle to the field of rotation of blades.
Axial flow fans are classified as:

Tube Axial fan

(a) Tube Axial fan (b)Vane Axial fan


Vane Axial fan

CENTRIFUGAL FANS
In these fans part of energy to produce pressure is

created by centrifugal action as the fan rotates.


The air enters the centrifugal fan parallel to the shaft,

moves radially through the blades, and discharged tangentially.

CLASSIFICATION OF CENTRIFUGAL FANS


(a) Forward curved centrifugal fans: these are also

known as squirrel cage fan due to large no. of blades i.e 60.The concave side of blades faces the direction of rotation. (b) Backward curved centrifugal fan: blades are curved backward. It has 16 blades.T he convex sides faces the direction of rotation. (c) Straight bladed centrifugal fans: It has 6-20 blades.

FANS IN PARALLEL
DEFINATION:

When two or more fans delivers air from different inlet locations to the same system, the fans are said to be operating in parallel.

FANS IN SERIES
DEFINATION : When two or more fans deliver air from same inlet locations to the same system, the fans are said to operating in series.

MIXED FLOW FANS


In a mixed flow fan the air flows in

both axial and radial direction relative to the shaft.


Mixed flow fans develops higher

pressures than axial fans.


.

CROSS FLOW FANS


In a cross flow fan the air flows in an inward

direction and then in an outward radial direction.

REFERENCES
Introduction to food process Engineering

( By P.G Smith) Intro duction to food engineering (By. R.Paul Singh, Dennis R. Heldman) Experiments in Food process Engineering (By. H.Pandey, H.K Sharma, R.C Chahuan,B.C Sarkar,M.B.Bera) Food process engineering and technology (By Zeki-Berk) www. Google.com(pumps and fans -wikipedia)

THANX