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DEFINATION:A pump is
a machine which converts mechanical energy(supplied to it from some external source)into pressure energy of the liquid which is used to lift the liquid from lower to higher level.
TYPES OF PUMPS
2. POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT
In centrifugal pumps, the
mechanical energy of the liquid is increased by the centrifugal action. Centrifugal pumps are typically used where high volumetric flow rates at low pressure are needed. e.g pumping water, milk, lubricants. It is equally suitable for handling suspension with high solid content.
MULTISTAGE CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
These consists of two or more pumps, which
may be mounted on the same shaft or different shaft, are generally installed where high pressure heads are required.
e.g high pressure water supply pumps, boiler
feed water pumps.
When high head is required ,the pumps are
required on the same shaft or connected in series.
If high discharge is required, the pump is
required in parallel.
COMPONENTS OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
IMPELLER: It is a wheel or rotor that is provided with
series of curved blades or vanes .This is mounted on shaft, which is coupled to electric motor.
Four –vane enclosed impeller may generally be used
for normal pumping of liquid streams, which do not contain large particles.
Two vane impeller with the inlet ends of the vane
surrounded is useful for the fluids that contain fibrous solids.
An open impeller can be used for the fluid containing
large particulate matter.
CASING: This is an airtight chamber in which the impeller rotates.
It is provided with inlet (suction) and outlet
(discharge) for liquid to be pumped.
SHAFT: It is mounted on bearings, which handle shaft
load without excessive wear. Shaft transmits power from drive into impeller.
STUFFING BOX : It provides a seal around a rotating
shaft , which moves axially. It meant for reducing and avoiding leakage.
MECHANICAL SEAL: It minimizes the leakage by
permitting relative motion like stuffing boxes but these are good only with the rotating members. This is used in equipments handling highly corrosive fluids.
OPERATION OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
The impeller blades when revolve in casing, it produces a reduction in pressure at the eye of the impeller, and the liquid flows into the impeller from the suction pipe.
The liquid is thrown outward by centrifugal action along the blades. As a result of high speed of rotation the liquid acquires the high kinetic energy.
The acquired kinetic energy is then converted into pressure energy when it leaves the blade tips and the liquid passes into the volute chamber and finally discharged through the outlet.
ADVANTAGES OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
It is simple in construction.
It gives a steady delivery/discharge. Lower maintenance cost. It can handle liquid containing high proportions of
suspended solids. It operates at high speed. For equal capacity, it is much smaller than other pumps.
It is not self priming.
Low efficiencies(50-65%) It does not develop a high pressure It can’t handle very viscous liquids efficiently. If the non return valve is not provided in the delivery
line, the liquid will run back as soon as pump stops.
POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
In these pumps, a definite
volume of liquid is trapped in a chamber, which is alternatively filled from the inlet and emptied at a higher pressure through the discharge.
It has an expanding cavity on
the suction side of the pump and the decreasing cavity on the discharge side. Liquid is allowed to flow into the pump as the cavity on the suction side expands and the liquid is forced out of the discharge as the cavity collapses.
CLASSIFICATION OF POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
a) Reciprocating pumps
e.g Piston pumps, plunger pumps diaphragm pump etc. b) Rotary pumps e.g Gear pump, mono pump
PISTON PUMP: It consists of a
piston or plunger which reciprocates back and forth in a closely fitted stationary cylinder. A fixed volume of liquid is discharged from the pump following the completion of stroke. These pumps may be: .Single acting or double acting In this maximum discharge pressure is about 50 atmosphere.
MAIN COMPONENTS OF PISTON PUMPS
PISTON: The piston may be motor driven or a steam
cylinder may be used to drive a piston rod directly.
CYLINDER: Often two or more cylinders are used in
parallel with common suction and discharge headers, and the configuration of pistons is adjusted to minimise fluctuation in the discharge rate.
GASKET: It is used as packing for preventing leakage.
CHECK VALVE: Whenever the flow stops or tends to
reverse , the valve automatically closes by gravity by aspiring pressure against the disc.
OPERATION OF PISTON PUMPS
In these pumps the cylinder is connected to
suction and delivery pipes. Each of these pipes are provided with suction valve and delivery valve, which permits unidirectional flow.
Backward movement causes partial vacuum.
Forward movement causes high pressure of the
In this, the piston forces a liquid against a diaphragm,
which is in contact with the liquid to be pumped.
It is useful for corrosive liquids.
Advantages : It is inherently hygienic.
We can avoid excessive shear which causes undesirable
ADVANTAGES OF RECIPROCATING PUMPS
They can be designed for higher heads They are more flexible in operation
They operate nearly at constant efficiency
These are self priming These are suitable for highly viscous liquids
These are costlier than centrifugal pumps
These can’t deliver liquid at uniform pressure These can’t handle the liquids with large amount of
solids in suspension.
It consists of two identical spur gears
working with a fine clearence inside the casing. As the gear rotates the liquid is trapped in between their teeth and is flown to the discharge end around the casing The rotating gear builds up the sufficient pressure to force the liquid into the delivery pipe Each tooth of the gear act as piston of a reciprocating pump to force the liquid into the discharge pipe.
It resembles with a gear pump in
action. As the lobes rotate, the liquid is trapped in the pockets formed between the lobes and casing.
The lobes build up sufficient pressure
to force the liquid into the delivery pipe.
DRAWBACK: Its discharge is not so
constant as that of gear pump.
consists of a disc rotating eccentrically in the pump casing. The disc has a no. of slots containing vanes, which are free to slide radially into the slots. When the rotator rotates the disc, the vanes are pressed against the casing and the liquid is suctioned from the bottom side. The vanes build up sufficient pressure to force the liquid into the delivery pipe.
FACTORS EFFECTING THE CHOICE OF PUMPS FOR OPERATION
(a) The quantity of liquid to be pumped. (b) The head against which the liquid to be (c) (d)
pumped The nature of the liquid to be handled. Method of operation Cost of mechanical efficiency. The nature of the power supply.
Measurement of Performances of Pumps
CAPACITY : It is the rate at which the liquid is
pumped by fluid moving device.
OVERALL EFFICIENCY: It is the ratio of power output
of pump to the power input to the pump.
POWER CONSUMED: The power consumed (W)will
be the product of total head and capacity.
HEAD DEVELOPED:The head(H)is proportional to
the square of the capacity i.e square of the speed (N) of the impeller. TOTAL HEAD: System head is divided into two parts: Total suction head:it tends to move the liquid from the suction tank to the pump. Total discharge head: it tends to prevent flow from the pump to the discharge tank. TOTAL HEAD(H): Total discharge head – Total suction head
Fans is the machinery for compressing and moving gases
These are the gas motive devices having a compression
ratio less than 1.03.
These are installed where small pressure upto 2,760 N/m is
Fan is an air blowing device used in grain conditioning
TYPES OF FANS
AXIAL FLOW: Air moves parallel
to the shaft axis and the right angle to the field of rotation of blades.
Axial flow fans are classified as:
Tube Axial fan
(a) Tube Axial fan (b)Vane Axial fan
Vane Axial fan
In these fans part of energy to produce pressure is
created by centrifugal action as the fan rotates.
The air enters the centrifugal fan parallel to the shaft,
moves radially through the blades, and discharged tangentially.
CLASSIFICATION OF CENTRIFUGAL FANS
(a) Forward curved centrifugal fans: these are also
known as squirrel cage fan due to large no. of blades i.e 60.The concave side of blades faces the direction of rotation. (b) Backward curved centrifugal fan: blades are curved backward. It has 16 blades.T he convex sides faces the direction of rotation. (c) Straight bladed centrifugal fans: It has 6-20 blades.
FANS IN PARALLEL
When two or more fans delivers air from different inlet locations to the same system, the fans are said to be operating in parallel.
FANS IN SERIES
DEFINATION : When two or more fans deliver air from same inlet locations to the same system, the fans are said to operating in series.
MIXED FLOW FANS
In a mixed flow fan the air flows in
both axial and radial direction relative to the shaft.
Mixed flow fans develops higher
pressures than axial fans.
CROSS FLOW FANS
In a cross flow fan the air flows in an inward
direction and then in an outward radial direction.
Introduction to food process Engineering
( By P.G Smith) Intro duction to food engineering (By. R.Paul Singh, Dennis R. Heldman) Experiments in Food process Engineering (By. H.Pandey, H.K Sharma, R.C Chahuan,B.C Sarkar,M.B.Bera) Food process engineering and technology (By Zeki-Berk) www. Google.com(pumps and fans -wikipedia)
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