Factor Analysis

Factor Analysis
Factor analysis is a general name denoting a class of procedures primarily used for data reduction and summarization. It helps in reducing the number of variables being studied to a smaller number by combining related ones into factors . Factor is an underlying dimension that accounts for several observed variables Factor analysis is an interdependence technique in that an entire set of interdependent relationships is examined without making the distinction between dependent and independent variables.

Factor Analysis
• Factor analysis is used in the following circumstances: – To identify latent or underlying factors, from an array of seemingly important variables by analysing correlations between variables – To identify a new, smaller, set of uncorrelated factors to replace the original set of correlated variables in subsequent multivariate analysis (regression or discriminant analysis). – To identify a smaller set of salient ( Surrogate) variables from a larger set for use in subsequent multivariate analysis.

• Evaluate credit card usage & behavior of customers . • Initial set of variables is large: Age, Gender, Marital status ,Income, education,employment status, credit history& family background • Reduction of 9 variables in 3 factors : --Demographic Characteristic (Age, Gender, Marital status) --Socio-economic Status (Income, education, employment status ) --Background status (credit history& family background)

Factor Analysis

Factor Analysis
Height

Size
Weight

Occupation

Education

Social Status

Source of Income

• Feel Powerful. • Economical. • Man’s Vehicle. Ride for three to be allowed) Factor Analysis . • Ride for three to be allowed • Reduction of 10 variables to 3 factors through factor analysis --Pride(Man’s Vehicle. • Friends Jealous. • Feel good to see Ad of My Brand. Friends Jealous. Feel good to see Ad of My Brand.) --Utility( Economical. • Safe travel.Feel Powerful. Comfortable ride. Safe travel) --Economy (Affordable.• Evaluate buying behavior of customers for a two wheeler • Initial set of variables is large: • Affordable. • Comfortable ride. • Sense of freedom.

Factor Analysis • • • • Factors determining buying behaviour of small cars Factors determining choice of an airlines Factors leading to cigarette smoking Underlying dimensions for willingness to donate regenerative & non regenerative body parts • Factors determining choice of a bank .

Factor Analysis Two Stages in Factor Analysis ----Factor Extraction ----Factor rotation .

Based on the Concept of Eigen Value Higher the eigen value of the factor. of factors Popular method is Principal Component Analysis.Factor Extraction • • • • • • • Determines Number of factors to be extracted Factors are linear combinations of original variables Maximum number of factors equals no. of variables Purpose is to reduce variables to fewer no. higher is the amount of variance explained by the factor • Extract least number of factors to explain maximum variance .

Factor Analysis-Extraction • Each original variable has Eigen value =1due to standardization • Only factors with eigen value >= 1 are retained • Factors with eigen value < 1 are no better than a single variable • The number of factors extracted is determined so that cumulative % of variance extracted reaches a satisfactory level ( at least 60% ) .

• The Shape of the plot is used to determine the number of factors • The plot has a distinct break between steep slope of factors with large eigen values & a gradual trailing off associated with rest of the factors • The gradual trailing off is referred to as Scree • The point at which scree begins denotes the No. of factors • Generally number of factors determined by scree plot is 1or 2 more than determined by eigen values . A scree plot is a plot of the Eigen values against the number of factors in order of extraction.Factor Analysis-Extraction • Scree plot.

0 0.0 2.5 Scree Plot 0.5 Eigenvalue 2.0 1 2 3 4 5 Component Number 6 .0 1.3.5 1.

• After extraction the next task is to interpret & name the factors • This is done by identifying which factors are associated with which original variables • The factor matrix is used for this purpose • The original factor matrix is unrotated & comes as output of stage I • The rotated factor matrix comes as output of stage II when we request the computer package to perform rotation & give us a rotated factor matrix • The popular method of rotation is Orthogonal(varimax ) Factor rotation .

we would like each factor to have nonzero. However % of variance accounted for by each factor does change • In factor rotation smallest loadings tend towards 0 & largest loadings tend towards 1. • In rotating the factors. through rotation the factor matrix is transformed into a simpler one that is easier to interpret. • The rotation is called orthogonal rotation if the axes are maintained at right angles. it seldom results in factors that can be interpreted. because the factors are correlated with many variables. • Therefore. . or significant. loadings or coefficients for only some of the variables.Factor rotation • Although the initial or unrotated factor matrix indicates the relationship between the factors and individual variables. • Rotation does not affect communalities& % of total variance explained.

• • • • • • • • • • Example To determine benefits consumer seeks from purchase of a toothpaste A sample of 30 respondents was interviewed Respondents were asked to indicate their degree of agreement with the following statements using a 7 point scale(1=Strongly agree.7= Strongly disagree) V1:Important to buy a toothpaste that prevents cavities V2:Like a toothpaste that gives shiny teeth V3:A toothpaste should strengthen your gums V4:Prefer toothpaste that freshens breath V5:Prevention of tooth decay is not an important benefit V6:The most important consideration is attractive teeth Data obtained are given in the next slide .

0 40 . 0 20 . 0 40 . 0 40 . 0 30 . 0 30 . 0 40 . 0 60 . 0 40 . 0 60 . 0 40 . 0 40 . 0 60 . 0 20 . 0 50 . 0 50 . 0 60 . 0 30 . 0 40 . 0 50 . 0 20 . 0 60 . 0 20 . 0 50 . 0 10 . 0 10 . 0 30 . 0 40 . 0 50 . 0 40 . 0 60 . 0 40 . 0 60 . 0 10 . 0 50 . 0 50 . 0 . 0 30 . 0 20 . 0 70 . 0 30 . 0 30 . 0 70 . 0 40 .Conducting Factor Analysis R S ODN E P NE T N ME UBR 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 2 6 2 7 2 8 2 9 3 0 V 1 70 . 0 40 . 0 70 . 0 60 . 0 30 . 0 30 . 0 30 . 0 30 . 0 20 . 0 40 . 0 40 . 0 20 . 0 70 . 0 30 . 0 40 . 0 50 . 0 20 . 0 30 . 0 40 . 0 60 . 0 40 . 0 30 . 0 20 . 0 70 . 0 40 . 0 40 . 0 40 . 0 40 . 0 40 . 0 60 . 0 40 . 0 70 . 0 30 . 0 60 . 0 40 . 0 70 . 0 20 . 0 70 . 0 40 . 0 30 . 0 30 . 0 60 . 0 70 . 0 70 . 0 30 . 0 V 6 40 . 0 30 . 0 30 . 0 10 . 0 40 . 0 30 . 0 40 . 0 40 . 0 60 . 0 20 . 0 40 . 0 40 . 0 50 . 0 50 . 0 60 . 0 20 . 0 40 . 0 V 3 60 . 0 30 . 0 50 . 0 40 . 0 60 . 0 10 . 0 70 . 0 30 . 0 10 . 0 20 . 0 40 . 0 V 5 20 . 0 20 . 0 70 . 0 30 . 0 30 . 0 60 . 0 30 . 0 30 . 0 60 . 0 50 . 0 10 . 0 60 . 0 40 . 0 30 . 0 V 2 30 . 0 20 . 0 10 . 0 60 . 0 30 . 0 20 . 0 50 . 0 60 . 0 60 . 0 40 . 0 40 . 0 60 . 0 60 . 0 60 . 0 30 . 0 30 . 0 10 . 0 30 . 0 20 . 0 40 . 0 30 . 0 40 . 0 20 . 0 50 . 0 20 . 0 20 . 0 20 . 0 40 . 0 20 . 0 40 . 0 V 4 40 . 0 40 . 0 10 . 0 20 . 0 10 . 0 60 . 0 30 . 0 40 . 0 20 . 0 50 . 0 70 . 0 20 . 0 20 . 0 70 . 0 60 . 0 20 . 0 20 . 0 60 . 0 30 . 0 60 .

As a rough guideline. and judgment of the researcher. . theory. • An appropriate sample size should be used. there should be at least four or five times as many observations (sample size) as there are variables.Formulate the Problem • The objectives of factor analysis should be identified. • The variables to be included in the factor analysis should be specified based on past research. It is important that the variables be appropriately measured on an interval or ratio scale.

5 imply that factor analysis may not be appropriate .Construct the Correlation Matrix • The analytical process is based on a matrix of correlations between the variables.5 and 1.0) indicate factor analysis is appropriate. • Bartlett's test of sphericity can be used to test the null hypothesis that the variables are uncorrelated in the population: in other words. the population correlation matrix is an identity matrix. Rejection of this hypothesis indicates the appropriateness of factor analysis • Another useful statistic is the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy. High values (between 0. Values below 0.It is an index used to examine the appropriateness of factor analysis .

873 -0.155 0.086 -0.572 0.640 V3 V4 V5 V6 1.640 1.018 1.004 V2 1.778 -0.000 -0.020 0.000 .007 0.136 1.000 -0.530 0.000 -0.248 -0.000 -0.000 -0.858 0.Correlation Matrix Variables V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V1 1.

314 df = 15 Significance = 0.Tests For Appropriateness of FACTOR ANALYSIS • • • • • Barlett test of sphericity Approx.00000 Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy = 0. Chi-Square = 111.660 .

df = 15.314 . p-value .• For factor analysis to be appropriate variables must be correlated • Barlett test of sphericity • H0: Correlation matrix is unit matrix • Approx.05: Reject Ho: • Variables in the matrix are correlated • Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy = 0.660 > . Chi-Square = 111. Significant at 5% level.5: Sample is adequate • Both tests indicate appropriateness of factor analysis Interpretation of correlation matrix .0000< .

The diagonal of the correlation matrix consists of unities. Principal components analysis is recommended when the primary concern is to determine the minimum number of factors that will account for maximum variance in the data for use in subsequent multivariate analysis. and full variance is brought into the factor matrix. . The factors are called principal components.Determine the Method of Factor Analysis • In principal components analysis. the total variance in the data is considered.

000 1.536 9 8.790 I nitial Eigen values Factor 1 2 3 4 5 6 Eigen value 2.000 1.520 36.044 1.Results of Principal Components Analysis Com m unalities Variables V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 I nitial 1. % 4 5.000 1.848 9 5.878 0.894 0.0 00 .442 0.183 0.520 8 2.000 1.000 1.580 100.488 8 9.731 2.341 0.085 % of variance 45.723 0.969 7.000 Ex traction 0.926 0.739 0.420 Cum ulat.688 3.218 0.360 5.

351 0.871 R otation Sum s of Squared Loadings Factor Eigenvalue % of variance 1 2.802 2 2.520 36.488 .869 -0.688 44.802 82.936 -0.261 37.520 82.Results of Principal Components Analysis .687 Cum ulat.795 0.928 -0. % 45.342 -0.488 Factor M atrix Variables V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 Factor 1 0.177 Factor 2 0.789 -0.131 0.218 % of variance 45.301 0. % 44. Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings Factor 1 2 Eigen value 2.731 2.969 Cumulat.253 0.

027 0.345 -0.057 0.350 0.011 0.017 -0.Results of Principal Components Analysis R otated Factor M atrix Variables V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 Factor 1 0.084 0.001 0.848 -0.146 0.845 -0.377 -0.395 .358 -0.083 Factor 2 -0.098 -0.962 -0.059 0.043 0.052 Factor 2 0.885 Factor Score Coefficient M atrix Variables V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 Factor 1 0.933 0.375 -0.934 -0.

In this approach the number of factors extracted is determined so that the cumulative percentage of variance extracted by the factors reaches a satisfactory level. It is recommended that the factors extracted should account for at least 60% of the variance.Determine the Number of Factors • Determination Based on Percentage of Variance. .

the number of factors determined by a scree plot will be one or a few more than that determined by the Eigenvalue criterion. Experimental evidence indicates that the point at which the scree begins denotes the true number of factors. A scree plot is a plot of the Eigenvalues against the number of factors in order of extraction. . Generally.Determine the Number of Factors • Determination Based on Scree Plot.

5 Scree Plot Eigenvalue 2.2 3.5 1.0 0.Fig 19.5 0.0 1.0 2.0 1 2 3 4 5 Component Number 6 .

Interpret Factors • A factor can then be interpreted in terms of the variables that load high on it from rotated factor matrix • FACTOER I has high coefficients for • V1:Important to buy a toothpaste that prevents cavities • V3:A toothpaste should strengthen your gums • V5:Prevention of tooth decay is not an important benefit FACTOR I may be labelled as health benefit • FACTOR II has high coefficients on • V2:Like a toothpaste that gives shiny teeth • V4:Prefer toothpaste that freshens breath • V6:The most important consideration is attractive teeth FACTOR II may be labelled as aesthetic factor .

using the factor loadings as coordinates. .Factor Loading Plot • Another useful aid in interpretation is to plot the variables. Variables at the end of an axis are those that have high loadings on only that factor. and hence describe the factor.

5 -1.854 -0.848 -0.0 .0 0.934 -0.083 -0.5 1.Factor Loading Plot Rotated Component Matrix Component Plot in Rotated Space Component 1 V4 V6 V2 Variable 2 V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 Component 1 0.933 0.962 -0.885 1.057 0.5 0.098 -0.027 0.0 ∗∗ ∗ Component 2 ∗ V5 V1 ∗∗ V3 -0.084 0.5 0.146 0.1.0 .0 0.0 -0.

the choice between these variables should be based on theoretical and measurement considerations. That variable could then be used as a surrogate variable for the associated factor. Similarly V6 could be selected as surrogate for F2 • Thus future analysis could be done with only 2 variables V5 (Tooth Decay) & V6(Attracive teeth) .V3 and V5 have high loadings on F1.Select Surrogate Variables • By examining the factor matrix. • However. In such a case. one could select for each factor the variable with the highest loading on that factor.it could be selected as surrogate variable. • In our example all 3 variables V1. the choice is not as easy if two or more variables have similarly high loadings.the highest being V1. But if prior knowledge suggests that V5 is important .

081 0.2 17 0.024 -0.038 -0.038 -0.0 51 0.895 -0.739 -0. the communalities. the upper right triangle.723 0.0 29 0.158 0.027 -0.748 -0. The lower left triangle contains the reproduced correlation matrix.016 0.8 59 0. the diagonal.018 -0.926 0.031 0.Results of Principal Components Analysis .152 0.790 .746 -0.020 0.033 -0.105 0. the residuals between the observed correlations and the reproduced correlations.078 0. Factor Score Coefficient M atrix Variables V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 0.177 0.0 22 -0.117 0.8 94 -0.057 0.730 -0.031 0.053 -0.902 -0.878 0.107 -0.

Conducting Factor Analysis Problem formulation Construction of the Correlation Matrix Method of Factor Analysis Determination of Number of Factors Rotation of Factors Interpretation of Factors Calculation of Factor Scores Determination of Model Fit Selection of Surrogate Variables .

+ WikXk where Fi = Wi = k = estimate of i th factor weight or factor score coefficient number of variables . Fi = Wi1X1 + Wi2X2 + Wi3X3 + . .Factor Analysis Model The factors can be expressed as linear combinations of the observed variables. .

Factor Analysis Model • It is possible to select weights or factor score coefficients so that the first factor explains the largest portion of the total variance. • Then a second set of weights can be selected. • This same principle could be applied to selecting additional weights for the additional factors. so that the second factor accounts for most of the residual variance. subject to being uncorrelated with the first factor. .

between all possible pairs of variables included in the analysis. r. The diagonal elements. are usually omitted. Bartlett's test of sphericity is a test statistic used to examine the null hypothesis that the variables are uncorrelated in the population. • Correlation matrix. A correlation matrix is a lower triangle matrix showing the simple correlations. In other words. .Statistics Associated with Factor Analysis • Bartlett's test of sphericity. each variable correlates perfectly with itself (r = 1) but has no correlation with the other variables (r = 0) A large value of test statistics favors rejection of null hypothesis & factor analysis is meaningful. the population correlation matrix is an identity matrix. which are all 1.

The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy is an index used to examine the appropriateness of factor analysis. as given in the input correlation matrix. • Residuals are the differences between the observed correlations.5 imply that factor analysis may not be appropriate. • Scree plot. • Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy. The percentage of the total variance attributed to each factor.Statistics Associated with Factor Analysis • Factor scores. • Percentage of variance. High values (between 0. and the reproduced correlations. Factor scores are composite scores estimated for each respondent on the derived factors. . as estimated from the factor matrix.0) indicate factor analysis is appropriate. Values below 0. A scree plot is a plot of the Eigenvalues against the number of factors in order of extraction.5 and 1.

• Appendix .

If the number of variables is less than 20. • Determination Based on Eigenvalues.0. because of prior knowledge. only factors with a variance greater than 1. the researcher knows how many factors to expect and thus can specify the number of factors to be extracted beforehand. this approach will result in a conservative number of factors. Factors with variance less than 1.0 are no better than a single variable. Hence.0 are retained. due to standardization. An Eigenvalue represents the amount of variance associated with the factor.Determine the Number of Factors • A Priori Determination. Sometimes. since. In this approach. . each variable has a variance of 1.0 are included. only factors with Eigenvalues greater than 1.

the number of factors determined by a scree plot will be one or a few more than that determined by the Eigenvalue criterion. Generally.Determine the Number of Factors • Determination Based on Scree Plot. . It is recommended that the factors extracted should account for at least 60% of the variance. Experimental evidence indicates that the point at which the scree begins denotes the true number of factors. • Determination Based on Percentage of Variance. In this approach the number of factors extracted is determined so that the cumulative percentage of variance extracted by the factors reaches a satisfactory level. A scree plot is a plot of the Eigenvalues against the number of factors in order of extraction.

2 3.0 1 2 3 4 5 Component Number 6 .0 2.Fig 19.0 1.0 0.5 1.5 0.5 Scree Plot Eigenvalue 2.

A drawback is that with large samples (size greater than 200). It is possible to determine the statistical significance of the separate Eigenvalues and retain only those factors that are statistically significant. although from a practical viewpoint many of these account for only a small proportion of the total variance.Determine the Number of Factors • Determination Based on Split-Half Reliability. • Determination Based on Significance Tests. The sample is split in half and factor analysis is performed on each half. many factors are likely to be statistically significant. Only factors with high correspondence of factor loadings across the two subsamples are retained. .

. loadings or coefficients for only some of the variables. or significant. through rotation the factor matrix is transformed into a simpler one that is easier to interpret. because the factors are correlated with many variables.Rotate Factors • Although the initial or unrotated factor matrix indicates the relationship between the factors and individual variables. it seldom results in factors that can be interpreted. Therefore. • The rotation is called orthogonal rotation if the axes are maintained at right angles. • In rotating the factors. we would like each factor to have nonzero.

• The rotation is called oblique rotation when the axes are not maintained at right angles. Orthogonal rotation results in factors that are uncorrelated. Sometimes. . thereby enhancing the interpretability of the factors. Oblique rotation should be used when factors in the population are likely to be strongly correlated. This is an orthogonal method of rotation that minimizes the number of variables with high loadings on a factor. allowing for correlations among factors can simplify the factor pattern matrix. and the factors are correlated.Rotate Factors • The most commonly used method for rotation is the varimax procedure.

using the factor loadings as coordinates. . and hence describe the factor. • Another useful aid in interpretation is to plot the variables.Interpret Factors • A factor can then be interpreted in terms of the variables that load high on it. Variables at the end of an axis are those that have high loadings on only that factor.

027 0.933 0.Factor Loading Plot Rotated Component Matrix Component Plot in Rotated Space Component 1 1.5 0.0 -0.0 0.0 V4 Variable 2 V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 Component 1 0.0 0.0 -0.934 -0.057 0.5 -1.098 -0.885 ∗∗ ∗ V6 V2 Component 2 ∗ V5 ∗ ∗ V3 V1 .1.962 -0.5 0.146 0.0 .854 -0.848 -0.5 1.084 0.083 -0.

. + Wik Xk .Calculate Factor Scores The factor scores for the ith factor may be estimated as follows: Fi = Wi1 X1 + Wi2 X2 + Wi3 X3 + . .

In such a case. That variable could then be used as a surrogate variable for the associated factor. the choice between these variables should be based on theoretical and measurement considerations. • However. one could select for each factor the variable with the highest loading on that factor. the choice is not as easy if two or more variables have similarly high loadings.Select Surrogate Variables • By examining the factor matrix. .

These differences are called residuals. . • The differences between the observed correlations (as given in the input correlation matrix) and the reproduced correlations (as estimated from the factor matrix) can be examined to determine model fit.Determine the Model Fit • The correlations between the variables can be deduced or reproduced from the estimated correlations between the variables and the factors.

Results of Common Factor Analysis Com m unalities Variables V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 I nitial 0.600 0.218 0 .723 Barlett test of sphericity • Approx.789 0.731 2 .000 .480 0.48 8 8 9.688 3.53 6 9 8.085 % of variance 4 5.044 1.341 0 .58 0 100 .587 Ex traction 0.96 9 7.859 0.543 0.360 5.836 0.562 0.183 0 .442 0 .52 0 8 2. Chi-Square = 111.814 0.00000 • Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy = 0.928 0. % 4 5.314 • df = 15 • Significance = 0.420 Cum ulat.660 I nitial Eigenvalues Factor 1 2 3 4 5 6 Eigenvalue 2 .84 8 9 5.763 0.52 0 3 6.

9 49 -0.2 06 0.837 31.734 -0 .837 42.964 Factor M atrix Variables V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 Factor 1 0.868 % of variance Cum ulat.126 73. % 42.897 31.168 0 .621 Cum ulat.541 42. % 42.343 73.8 50 -0.570 1.1 01 Factor 2 0 .259 0 .9 14 -0.844 R otation Sum s of Squared Loadings Factor 1 2 Eigenvalue % of variance 2.Results of Common Factor Analysis Ex traction Sum s of Squared Loadings Factor 1 2 Eigenvalue 2.720 0 .2 46 -0.038 0 .343 1.964 .

271 -0.217 -0.253 -0. R otated Factor M atrix Variables V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 Factor 1 0.075 Factor 2 -0.079 0.024 0.769 -0.963 -0.747 -0.054 0.166 0.059 0.885 0.Results of Common Factor Analysis .847 Factor Score Coefficient M atrix Variables V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 Factor 1 0.150 0.090 -0.169 0.628 -0.030 0.500 .083 Factor 2 0.902 -0.101 0.023 -0.

600 -0.836 -0.008 0.024 0.645 V5 V6 -0.789 0. the upper right triangle. Factor Score Coefficient M atrix Variables V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V1 V2 0.046 0.022 -0.580 -0.197 0.003 -0.133 0.006 -0.Results of Common Factor Analysis The lower left triangle contains the reproduced correlation matrix.042 0.042 -0.850 -0.161 -0.786 0.928 0.723 .012 0.031 0. the residuals between the observed correlations and the reproduced correlations.629 V3 V4 -0.008 0.025 -0.019 -0.060 0.000 0. the diagonal.562 0.005 -0.075 0.004 0.110 0.873 -0.012 0.008 -0. the communalities.

SPSS Windows To select this procedures using SPSS for Windows click: Analyze>Data Reduction>Factor … .

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