is the simultaneous transmission of multiple signals across a single data link (multiple channels are combined). N device share the capacity of one link. Signal are multiplexed using 2 techniques: Frequency division multiplexing ( FDM ). Time division multiplexing ( TDM ).

This is a method in which each signal is allocated a frequency slot within the overall line/transmission bandwidth.  The total available frequency bandwidth is divided into frequency channels and each signal occupies one of these channels.  The signal will have exclusive use of this frequency slot all the time. Example: 1]Commercial broadcast radio (AM or FM radio) simultaneously transmits multiple signals over the airwaves. These stations get their own frequency band to use, and radio can be tuned to receive each different station. 2]Cable television which simultaneously transmits every channel, & tv “tunes in” to which channel it wants to watch.

Advantages: 1. Transmits multiple data streams over same channel, at the expense of bandwidth. 2. It provides trade off: Faster data rate for more bandwidth.


 

Is a technique of transmitting multiple digitized data, voice and video signals simultaneously over one communication media at a specified time slot. Public switched telephony network (PSTN) is based on this technology. The transmission order must be maintained so that the input stream can be reassembled at destination.


Becomes inefficient when there is no data to transmit and time slot is still allocated.

Statistical time division multiplexing (STDM):  Generally the time slot in the frame is wasted.  This method involves dynamically allocating time slots on demand.  A statistical TDM system will use synchronous protocol such as HDLC.

Switching Techniques
A switched network consist of a series of interlinked nodes called switches.  Switches are devices capable of creating temporary connections between 2 or more devices linked to the switch (some of these are connected to end systems while others are only used for routing).

3 methods of switching are:

Circuit switching Packet switching: 1]Virtual circuit network 2]Datagram network Message switching

Circuit switching
Circuit switching create a direct physical connection between two devices.  Each session is allocated a fixed fraction of the capacity on each link along its path. – Dedicated resources – Fixed path (needs to setup end to end path).  E.g., telephone network

Advantages of circuit switching
– Fixed delays – Guaranteed continuous delivery

Disadvantages – Circuits are not used when session is idle
– Inefficient for bursty traffic – Circuit switching usually done using a fixed rate stream (e.g., 64 Kbps)

Packet Switching

 

In packet switching ,data are transmitted in discrete unit of variable length blocks called packet. No path is set. It follows different paths. It uses store and forward transmission (the packet is accumulated in a router’s memory, then sent on the next router).

Datagram packet switching
Each packet is treated as a separate entity and contains a header with the full information about intended recipient.  The packets do not follow a pre establish route, and the intermediate nodes do not require prior knowledge of the routes that will be used.  The nodes examine the header of the packets and select an appropriates link to an intermediate node which is nearer the destination.  Analogous to sending a message as a series of postcards thru postal system.

Route chosen on packet-by-packet basis – Different packets may follow different routes – Packets may arrive out of order at the destination E.g., IP (The Internet Protocol)

Virtual Circuit packet switching
All packets associated with a session follow the same path – Route is chosen at start of session – Packets are labeled with a VC# designating the route – The VC number must be unique on a given link but can change from link to link E.g., ATM (Asynchronous transfer mode)

Differences Between Circuit & Packet Switching

3. 4. 5. 1. 2.

Guaranteed capacity Capacity is wasted if data is bursty Before sending data establishes a path All data in a single flow follow one path No reordering; constant delay; no pkt drops No guarantees (best effort) More efficient Send data immediately Different packets might follow different paths Packets may be reordered, delayed, or dropped


4. 5.

HDLC ( High Level Data Link Protocol)
 

Developed by ISO. Is a bit oriented data link protocol designed to support both half-duplex and full-duplex communication over point to point and multipoint links.

Features are divided in to following aspects:

Stations and Configuration. The modes of operation.
   Primary station Secondary station Combined station

Station Types (3 types):

1. 2. 3.  1. 2.  1. 2. 3.

Primary station:
Is responsible for controlling all other secondary station for a network. Takes care of the error control aspect Organizes data flow on the links Secondary station: Is controlled by primary station Gets activated when primary station sends a request. Combined station: Controls the links Overlooks the primary and secondary stations functions. Has complete control over the links and do not need the authorization of any other station.

 Unbalanced-master slave configuration  Symmetrical  Balanced

Unbalanced configuration:
In this one device is primary and others are secondary.

Balanced Configuration:

It is one in which both stations are linked by a single line that can be controlled by either station.

Symmetrical Configuration:
Each station has two kind of status, one is primary and the other is secondary status.  Separate lines link the primary aspect of one physical station to the secondary aspect of another physical station.

Transfer Modes:

Normal Response Mode (NRM):
Used only with unbalanced configurations. Sec has to take permission from primary before transmission (primary requests information). Response is transferred after the pri authorizes the transaction.

Asynchronous Response Mode (ARM):
Sec may initiate a transmission without permission from the primary when channel is idle. Does not need any authorization from primary. Better for point to point nodes

Asynchronous Balanced Mode (ABM)
Either combined station may initiate transmission with other combined station without permission. Same as ARM. Used for multipoint.

HDLC has three types of frames:

Information frames (I-frame): Used to transport user data and control information related to user.

Supervisory frames (s-frame): Are used only to transport control information.
Unnumbered frames (u-frame): Are reserved for system management (information relating to managing a link).

HDLC frame
Frame in HDLC may contain upto six fields: A beginning Flag field.

An address field
A control field An information field A frame check sequence (checksum)

HDLC frame types:

X.25 Protocol:
In 1976 X.25 was recommended as the desired protocol by the International Consultative Committee for Telegraphy and Telephony (CCITT) to provide an interface between public packet switched network and their customers.  X.25 is a packet switched data network protocol which defines an international recommendation for the exchange of data as well as control information between a user device (host) and the network node.  X.25 utilizes a Connection-Oriented service which insures that packets are transmitted in order.

The levels are:

The Physical Level describes the interface with the physical environment. It is similar to the Physical Layer in the OSI model. The Link Level responsible for the reliable communication between the DTE (data terminal equipment) and the DCE (data circuit-terminating equipment). It is similar to the Data Link Layer in the OSI model. The Packet Level describes the data transfer protocol in the packet switched network. It is similar to the Network Layer in the OSI model.

It is currently one of the most widely used interfaces for data communication networks. It also provides provide acknowledgements or normal flow control. Performs better than TCP/IP.

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