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This article provides a general overview of some types and categories and presents the basic components of a network.
Advantage and factors involving risk on the following topics
The Advantages (Benefits) of Networking You have undoubtedly heard the “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts”. This phrase describes networking very well, and explains why it has become so popular. A network isn't just a bunch of computers with wires running between them. Properly implemented, a network is a system that provides its users with unique capabilities, above and beyond what the individual machines and their software applications can provide. Most of the benefits of networking can be divided into two generic categories: connectivity and sharing. Networks allow computers, and hence their users, to be connected together. They also allow for the easy sharing of information and resources, and cooperation between the devices in other ways. Since modern business depends so much on the intelligent flow and management of information, this tells you a lot about why networking is so valuable. Here, in no particular order, are some of the specific advantages generally associated with networking: Connectivity and Communication: Networks connect computers and the users of those computers. Individuals within a building or work group can be connected into local area networks (LANs); LANs in distant locations can be interconnected into larger wide area networks (WANs). Once connected, it is possible for network users to communicate with each other using technologies such as electronic mail. This makes the transmission of business (or non-business) information easier, more efficient and less expensive than it would be without the network.
Data Sharing: One of the most important uses of networking is to allow the sharing of data. Before networking was common, an accounting employee who wanted to prepare a report for her manager would have to produce it on his PC, put it on a floppy disk, and then walk it over to the manager, who would transfer the data to her PC's hard disk. (This sort of “shoe-based network” was sometimes sarcastically called a “sneakernet”.) True networking allows thousands of employees to share data much more easily and quickly than this. More so, it makes possible applications that rely on the ability of many people to access and share the same data, such as databases, group software development, and much more. Intranets and extranets can be used to distribute corporate information between sites and to business partners.
Hardware Sharing: Networks facilitate the sharing of hardware devices. For example, instead of giving each of 10 employees in a department an expensive color printer (or resorting to the “sneakernet” again), one printer can be placed on the network for everyone to share. Internet Access: The Internet is itself an enormous network, so whenever you access the Internet, you are using a network. The significance of the Internet on modern society is hard to exaggerate, especially for those of us in technical fields.
Internet Access Sharing: Small computer networks allow multiple users to share a single Internet connection. Special hardware devices allow the bandwidth of the connection to be easily allocated to various individuals as they need it, and permit an organization to purchase one high-speed connection instead of many slower ones.
Data Security and Management: In a business environment, a network allows the administrators to much better manage the company's critical data. Instead of having this data spread over dozens or even hundreds of small computers in a haphazard fashion as their users create it, data can be centralized on shared servers. This makes it easy for everyone to find the data, makes it possible for the administrators to ensure that the data is regularly backed up, and also allows for the implementation of security measures to control who can read or change various pieces of critical information. Performance Enhancement and Balancing: Under some circumstances, a network can be used to enhance the overall performance of some applications by distributing the computation tasks to various computers on the network. Entertainment: Networks facilitate many types of games and entertainment. The Internet itself offers many sources of entertainment, of course. In addition, many multi-player games exist that operate over a local area network. Many home networks are set up for this reason, and gaming across wide area networks (including the Internet) has also become quite popular. Of course, if you are running a business and have easily-amused employees, you might insist that this is really a disadvantage of networking and not an advantage!
Factors involving risk in Computer Networking
- If Sever develops a fault then users may not be able to run the application programs. - A fault in the network can cause user to lose the data. -If the network stops operating then it may not be possible to access to various computers. - It is difficult to make the system secure from hackers, novices or industrial espionage. - Decisions on resource planning tend to become centralized. - Networks that have grown with little thought can be inefficient in the long term. -As traffic increases on a network the performance degrades unless it is designed properly. - The larger the network becomes difficult to manage.
State any laws and the punishment of the crime enforce by the law makers
the explosive growth of the Internet worldwide, computer crimes increasingly are prone to have international dimensions. Some of the challenges faced by law enforcement on the international front include: harmonization of countries' criminal laws; locating and identifying perpetrators across borders; and securing electronic evidence of their crimes so that they may be brought to justice. Complex jurisdictional issues arise at each step. The Department of Justice is working with foreign governments through many channels to address global threats related to computer crime.
Computer Hacking and Intellectual Property (CHIP) Program In 1995, at the recommendation of what was then called the Computer Crime Unit, and is now the Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section (CCIPS), the Department of Justice created the Computer and Telecommunication Coordinator (CTC) Program to protect the nation's businesses and citizens from the rising tide of computer crime and intellectual property theft by designating one or more prosecutors in every U.S. Attorney's Office to be responsible for these issues. In 2001, following a successful model developed in the Northern District of California that demonstrated the benefits of a unit of prosecutors working closely with the FBI and other agencies to establish a relationship with the local high tech community and encourage them to refer cases to law enforcement, the Department expanded the program in ten cities by designating Computer Hacking and Intellectual Property (CHIP) units. These units typically involved more prosecutors than under the CTC program and were specifically charged with building relationships in-district with the FBI, other agencies, and the local high tech community. New units have been added frequently thereafter. In 2005, the CTC and CHIP programs were combined into a unified CHIP program. More information on the CHIP Program and historical information on the CTC program is available below.
Actions taken on such risk on the company concern the government and you.
Make sure you have a security policy in place -— The security policy is the formal statement of rules on how security will be implemented in your organization. A security policy should define the level of security and the roles and responsibilities of users, administrators and managers. Make sure all of your operating systems and applications are patched with the latest service packs and hotfixes -— Keeping your systems patched will close vulnerabilities that can be exploited by hackers. Keep an inventory of your network devices -— Develop and maintain a list of all hardware/software components, and understand which default software installations provide weak security configurations. Scan TCP/UDP services -— Turn off or remove unnecessary services. Unneeded services can be the entry point attackers use to gain control of your system. Establish a strong password policy -— Weak passwords could mean a compromised user account. Don't trust code from non-trusted sources. Block certain e-mail attachment types -— This list includes .bas, .bat, .exe and .vbs. Don't provide more rights to system resources than necessary -— Implement the concept of "least privilege". Perform your own network security testing -— Find the holes before the attackers do! Implement "defense-in-depth" -— Don't rely on just one control or system to provide all the security you need.
Implementation on law enforcers
The phrase that I hear often from many investigators who feel that technology is being forced upon them is, "But this is the way we've always done it and it's always worked. Why change?" We all tend to resist change and we all fear the unknown. Now I realize that anyone who has arrived at this page and is reading this article probably does not fall into this category, but we are the ones who must help educate our fellow investigators and assist them and be patient with them and do whatever we can to ease them into the twenty-first century!
We owe it to ourselves and to the people we protect to use whatever tools we can to enhance our chances of a successful investigation. This is not to say that old fashioned police work is out-dated. On the contrary, modern technology can help give investigators that elusive starting point, from whence we can use our investigative skills to identify, track down, interview and interrogate witnesses and suspects. These are some of the tools from the realm of computer technology that we should be educating ourselves about and using:
Computer Databases In any investigative unit, especially units that specialize in pattern crime, unitlevel databases can be utilized for: Case management Identification of trends and patterns Suspect MO files Statistical analysis Major case lead control Equipment inventory Track parolees as well as many other uses limited only by one's imagination.
The Internet The internet not only opens us up to a world of information (the life blood of the investigator), but allows us to see what is going on in other locales, police departments, organizations, etc. Surveillance photos can be posted for the public to see. Contacts can be developed with members of other police organizations world-wide and discussions of any subject conducted. Information can be transmitted, exchanged or obtained. The internet is so wide open that we would do ourselves a disservice to not learn everything we can about it. And, of course, the internet opens many new worlds to the criminal. We must stay up with him, if not ahead.
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