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An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

PowerPoint Lecture Presentations prepared by Jason LaPres


Lone Star CollegeNorth Harris

2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

An Introduction to Studying the Human Body


Learning Outcomes
1-1 Explain the importance of studying anatomy and physiology. 1-2 Identify basic study skill strategies to use in this course. 1-3 Define anatomy and physiology, describe the origins of anatomical and physiological terms, and explain the significance of Terminologia Anatomica (International Anatomical Terminology).
2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

An Introduction to Studying the Human Body


Learning Outcomes
1-4 Explain the relationship between anatomy and physiology, and describe various specialties of each discipline. 1-5 Identify the major levels of organization in organisms, from the simplest to the most complex, and identify major components of each organ system. 1-6 Explain the concept of homeostasis.

2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

An Introduction to Studying the Human Body


Learning Outcomes
1-7 Describe how negative feedback and positive feedback are involved in homeostatic regulation, and explain the significance of homeostasis. 1-8 Use anatomical terms to describe body sections, body regions, and relative positions. 1-9 Identify the major body cavities and their subdivisions, and describe the functions of each.

2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

An Introduction to Studying the Human Body


Classification of Living Things
Humans and many other animals are vertebrates
Characterized by a segmented vertebral column

Common characteristics suggest the same path in evolution

Homeostasis
The goal of physiological regulation and the key to survival in a changing environment

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1-1 Anatomy and Physiology Directly Affect Your Life


Anatomy
Is the oldest medical science 1600 B.C.

Physiology
Is the study of function

Biochemistry
Biology Chemistry

Genetics
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1-2 Good Study Strategies Crucial for Success


Study Strategies
Attend all lectures, labs, and study sessions Read your lecture and laboratory assignments before going to class or lab Devote a block of time each day to your A&P course Set up a study schedule and stick to it Do not procrastinate Approach the information in different ways Develop the skill of memorization, and practice it regularly As soon as you experience difficulty with the course, seek assistance

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1-2 Good Study Strategies Crucial for Success


Important Features of the Textbook
Learning Outcomes Illustrations, Tables, and Photos End-of-Chapter Study and Review Materials Systems Integrators

Pronunciation Guides
Checkpoint Questions Tips & Tricks

Colored Tabs
End-of-Book Reference Sections

Clinical Notes
Arrow Icons

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1-2 Good Study Strategies Crucial for Success


Supplements
Practice Anatomy Lab (PAL) 3.0 DVD MasteringA&P Study Area Interactive Physiology 10-System Suite (IP-10) CD-ROM Martinis Atlas of the Human Body Get Ready for A&P! A&P Applications Manual Study Guide

Full descriptions in preface of textbook


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1-3 Anatomy and Physiology


Anatomy
Describes the structures of the body
What they are made of Where they are located

Associated structures

Physiology
Is the study of:
Functions of anatomical structures
Individual and cooperative functions

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1-4 Relationships between Anatomy and Physiology


Anatomy
Gross anatomy, or macroscopic anatomy, examines large, visible structures
Surface anatomy: exterior features Regional anatomy: body areas

Systemic anatomy: organ systems


Developmental anatomy: from conception to death Clinical anatomy: medical specialties

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1-4 Relationships between Anatomy and Physiology


Anatomy
Microscopic anatomy examines cells and molecules
Cytology: study of cells and their structures cyt- = cell Histology: study of tissues and their structures

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1-4 Relationships between Anatomy and Physiology


Physiology
Cell physiology: processes within and between cells Organ physiology: functions of specific organs Systemic physiology: functions of an organ system

Pathological physiology: effects of diseases

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1-5 Levels of Organization


The Chemical (or Molecular) Level
Atoms are the smallest chemical units

Molecules are a group of atoms working together

The Cellular Level


Cells are a group of atoms, molecules, and organelles working together

The Tissue Level


A tissue is a group of similar cells working together

The Organ Level


An organ is a group of different tissues working together

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1-5 Levels of Organization


The Organ System Level
An organ system is a group of organs working together Humans have 11 organ systems

The Organism Level


A human is an organism

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Figure 1-1 Levels of Organization

Cellular Level Chemical and Molecular Levels


Heart muscle cell

Protein filaments
Complex protein molecule Atoms in combination

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Figure 1-1 Levels of Organization

Organ system level Organ Level Tissue Level

Organism level

Cardiac muscle tissue

The heart

The cardiovascular system

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1-5 Levels of Organization


The Organ Systems
Integumentary
Major Organs
Skin Hair Sweat glands Nails

Functions
Protects against environmental hazards Helps regulate body temperature Provides sensory information
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1-5 Levels of Organization


The Organ Systems
Skeletal
Major Organs
Bones Cartilages Associated ligaments Bone marrow

Functions
Provides support and protection for other tissues Stores calcium and other minerals Forms blood cells

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1-5 Levels of Organization


The Organ Systems
Muscular
Major Organs
Skeletal muscles and associated tendons

Functions
Provides movement Provides protection and support for other tissues Generates heat that maintains body temperature

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1-5 Levels of Organization


The Organ Systems
Nervous
Major Organs
Brain Spinal cord Peripheral nerves Sense organs

Functions
Directs immediate responses to stimuli Coordinates or moderates activities of other organ systems Provides and interprets sensory information about external conditions

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1-5 Levels of Organization


The Organ Systems
Endocrine Major Organs
Pituitary gland Pancreas Gonads Endocrine tissues in other systems Thyroid gland Adrenal glands

Functions
Directs long-term changes in the activities of other organ systems Adjusts metabolic activity and energy use by the body Controls many structural and functional changes during development
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1-5 Levels of Organization


The Organ Systems
Cardiovascular
Major Organs
Heart Blood Blood vessels

Functions
Distributes blood cells, water and dissolved materials including nutrients, waste products, oxygen, and carbon dioxide Distributes heat and assists in control of body temperature
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1-5 Levels of Organization


The Organ Systems
Lymphatic
Major Organs
Spleen Thymus

Lymphatic vessels
Lymph nodes Tonsils

Functions
Defends against infection and disease Returns tissue fluids to the bloodstream
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1-5 Levels of Organization


The Organ Systems
Respiratory
Major Organs
Nasal cavities Sinuses

Larynx
Trachea Bronchi

Lungs
Alveoli

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1-5 Levels of Organization


The Organ Systems
Respiratory
Functions
Delivers air to alveoli (sites in lungs where gas exchange occurs)

Provides oxygen to bloodstream


Removes carbon dioxide from bloodstream Produces sounds for communication

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1-5 Levels of Organization


The Organ Systems
Digestive Major Organs
Teeth Tongue Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine

Liver
Gallbladder Pancreas

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1-5 Levels of Organization


The Organ Systems
Digestive
Functions
Processes and digests food Absorbs and conserves water Absorbs nutrients Stores energy reserves

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1-5 Levels of Organization


The Organ Systems
Urinary Major Organs
Kidneys Ureters Urinary bladder

Urethra

Functions
Excretes waste products from the blood Controls water balance by regulating volume of urine produced Stores urine prior to voluntary elimination Regulates blood ion concentrations and pH
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1-5 Levels of Organization


The Organ Systems
Male Reproductive
Major Organs
Testes Epididymides

Ductus deferentia
Seminal vesicles Prostate gland

Penis
Scrotum

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1-5 Levels of Organization


The Organ Systems
Male Reproductive Functions
Produces male sex cells (sperm), suspending fluids, and hormones

Sexual intercourse

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1-5 Levels of Organization


The Organ Systems
Female Reproductive

Major Organs
Ovaries Uterine tubes Uterus Vagina Labia Clitoris Mammary glands

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1-5 Levels of Organization


The Organ Systems
Female Reproductive
Functions Produces female sex cells (oocytes) and hormones

Supports developing embryo from conception to delivery


Provides milk to nourish newborn infant

Sexual intercourse

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1-6 Homeostasis
Homeostasis
All body systems working together to maintain a

stable internal environment


Systems respond to external and internal changes to function within a normal range (body

temperature, fluid balance)

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1-6 Homeostasis
Mechanisms of Regulation
Autoregulation (intrinsic)
Automatic response in a cell, tissue, or organ to some environmental change

Extrinsic regulation
Responses controlled by nervous and endocrine
systems

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1-6 Homeostasis
Receptor
Receives the stimulus

Control center
Processes the signal and sends instructions

Effector
Carries out instructions

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Figure 1-2 The Control of Room Temperature

RECEPTOR
Normal condition disturbed Thermometer Information affects

STIMULUS: Room temperature rises

HOMEOSTASIS Normal room temperature

CONTROL CENTER (Thermostat)

RESPONSE: Room temperature drops Normal condition restored EFFECTOR Air conditioner turns on

20 30 40

Room temperature (C)

Air Air conditioner conditioner turns on turns off

22

Normal range

Sends commands to

In response to input from a receptor (a thermometer), a thermostat (the control center) triggers an effector response (either an air conditioner or a heater) that restores normal temperature. In this case, when room temperature rises above the set point, the thermostat turns on the air conditioner, and the temperature returns to normal.

Time With this regulatory system, room temperature fluctuates around the set point.

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1-7 Negative and Positive Feedback


The Role of Negative Feedback
The response of the effector negates the stimulus Body is brought back into homeostasis
Normal range is achieved

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Figure 1-3 Negative Feedback in the Control of Body Temperature

RECEPTORS Temperature sensors in skin and hypothalamus Information affects CONTROL CENTER

Normal temperature disturbed

STIMULUS: Body temperature rises HOMEOSTASIS Normal body temperature Thermoregulatory center in brain

Body temperature (C)

RESPONSE: Increased heat loss, body temperature drops EFFECTORS Sweat glands in skin increase secretion Blood vessels in skin dilate Sends commands to

Vessels Vessels dilate, constrict, sweating sweating increases decreases

Normal temperature restored

37.2 37 36.7

Normal range

Events in the regulation of body temperature, which are comparable to those shown in Figure 12. A control center in the brain (the hypothalamus) functions as a thermostat with a set point of 37C. If body temperature exceeds 37.2C, heat loss is increased through enhanced blood flow to the skin and increased sweating.

Time The thermoregulatory center keeps body temperature fluctuating within an acceptable range, usually between 36.7 and 37.2C.

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1-7 Negative and Positive Feedback


The Role of Positive Feedback
The response of the effector increases change of the

stimulus
Body is moved away from homeostasis
Normal range is lost

Used to speed up processes

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Figure 1-4 Positive Feedback: Blood Clotting

Clotting accelerates Positive feedback loop

Chemicals

Chemicals

Blood clot

Damage to cells in the blood vessel wall releases chemicals that begin the process of blood clotting.

The chemicals start chain reactions in which cells, cell fragments, and soluble proteins in the blood begin to form a clot.

As clotting continues, each step releases chemicals that further accelerate the process.

This escalating process is a positive feedback loop that ends with the formation of a blood clot, which patches the vessel wall and stops the bleeding.

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1-7 Negative and Positive Feedback


Systems Integration
Systems work together to maintain homeostasis

Homeostasis is a state of equilibrium


Opposing forces are in balance
Dynamic equilibrium continual adaptation

Physiological systems work to restore balance


Failure results in disease or death

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1-8 Anatomical Terminology


Superficial Anatomy
Locating structures on or near the body surface

Anatomical Landmarks
Anatomical position: hands at sides, palms forward Supine: lying down, face up Prone: lying down, face down

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1-8 Anatomical Terminology


Superficial Anatomy
Anatomical Landmarks
References to palpable structures

Anatomical Regions
Body regions Abdominopelvic quadrants

Abdominopelvic regions

Anatomical Directions
Reference terms based on subject

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Figure 1-5a Anatomical Landmarks

Frontal or forehead

Nasal or nose Ocular, orbital or eye

Cranial or skull Cephalic or head Facial or face Oral or mouth Mental or chin Axillary or armpit Brachial or arm

Otic or ear
Buccal or cheek Cervical or neck Thoracic or thorax, chest Mammary or breast Abdominal (abdomen) Umbilical or navel Trunk

Antecubital or front of elbow

Anterior view
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Figure 1-5a Anatomical Landmarks

Antebrachial or forearm Carpal or wrist


Palmar or palm

Pelvic (pelvis)

Trunk

Manual or hand

Pollex Digits or thumb (phalanges) or fingers (digital or phalangeal) Patellar or kneecap Crural or leg Tarsal or ankle
Digits (phalanges) or toes (digital or phalangeal) Hallux or great toe
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Inguinal or groin Pubic (pubis) Femoral or thigh

Pedal or foot

Anterior view

Figure 1-5b Anatomical Landmarks

Cephalic or head

Acromial or shoulder Dorsal or back

Cervical or neck

Olecranal or back of elbow

Upper limb

Posterior view

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Figure 1-5b Anatomical Landmarks

Lumbar or loin

Upper limb

Gluteal or buttock

Popliteal or back of knee

Lower limb

Sural or calf Calcaneal or heel of foot

Plantar or sole of foot


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Posterior view

Figure 1-6a Abdominopelvic Quadrants and Regions

Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ) Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ)

Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ) Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ)

Abdominopelvic quadrants. The four abdominopelvic quadrants are formed by two perpendicular lines that intersect at the navel. The terms for these quadrants, or their abbreviations, are most often used in clinical discussions.
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Figure 1-6b Abdominopelvic Quadrants and Regions

Right hypochondriac region


Right lumbar region Right inguinal region

Epigastric region

Left hypochondriac region Left lumbar region Left inguinal region

Umbilical region
Hypogastric (pubic) region

Abdominopelvic regions. The nine abdominopelvic regions provide more precise regional descriptions.

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Figure 1-6c Abdominopelvic Quadrants and Regions

Liver Gallbladder Large intestine Small intestine Appendix

Stomach

Spleen

Urinary bladder

Anatomical relationships. The relationship between the abdominopelvic quadrants and regions and the locations of the internal organs are shown here.

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Figure 1-7 Directional References Cranial

Superior

Right

Left

Proximal

Posterior or dorsal

Anterior or ventral

Lateral Caudal

Medial

Proximal Distal

Inferior

Distal

A lateral view.

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An anterior view. Arrows indicate important directional terms used in this text; definitions and descriptions are given in Table 12.

Table 1-2 Directional Terms

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1-8 Anatomical Terminology


Sectional Anatomy
Planes and sections
Plane: a three-dimensional axis

Section: a slice parallel to a plane


Used to visualize internal organization and structure Important in radiological techniques

MRI
PET CT

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Figure 1-8 Sectional Planes

Frontal plane Sagittal plane

Transverse plane

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Table 1-3 Terms That Indicate Sectional Planes

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1-9 Body Cavities


Essential Functions of Body Cavities
1. Protect organs from accidental shocks 2. Permit changes in size and shape of internal organs

Ventral body cavity (coelom)


Divided by the diaphragm

Thoracic cavity
Abdominopelvic cavity

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Figure 1-9 Relationships among the Subdivisions of the Ventral Body Cavity

Ventral Body Cavity


Provides protection Allows organ movement Linings prevent friction

Subdivides during development into

Thoracic Cavity
Surrounded by chest wall and diaphragm

Abdominopelvic Cavity

Peritoneal Cavity
Extends throughout abdominal cavity and into superior portion of pelvic cavity

Right Pleural Cavity


Surrounds right lung

Mediastinum
Contains the trachea, esophagus, and major vessels

Left Pleural Cavity


Surrounds left lung

Abdominal Cavity
Contains many digestive glands and organs

Pelvic Cavity
Contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, last portion of digestive tract

Pericardial Cavity
Surrounds heart

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1-9 Body Cavities


Serous Membranes
Line body cavities and cover organs Consist of parietal layer and visceral layer
Parietal layer lines cavity Visceral layer covers organ

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1-9 Body Cavities


The Thoracic Cavity
Right and left pleural cavities
Contain right and left lungs

Mediastinum
Upper portion filled with blood vessels, trachea, esophagus, and thymus Lower portion contains pericardial cavity The heart is located within the pericardial cavity

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Figure 1-10a The Ventral Body Cavity and Its Subdivisions

POSTERIOR

ANTERIOR

Pleural cavity Thoracic cavity Pericardial cavity

Diaphragm

Peritoneal cavity Abdominal cavity Pelvic cavity Abdominopelvic cavity

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Figure 1-10b The Ventral Body Cavity and Its Subdivisions

Visceral pericardium Heart Pericardial cavity Air space Balloon

Parietal pericardium

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Figure 1-10c The Ventral Body Cavity and Its Subdivisions

ANTERIOR

Pericardial cavity

Pleural cavity
Parietal pleura Mediastinum Spinal cord

Right lung

Left lung

POSTERIOR

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1-9 Body Cavities


The Abdominopelvic Cavity
Peritoneal cavity: chamber within abdominopelvic cavity
Parietal peritoneum: lines the internal body wall Visceral peritoneum: covers the organs

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1-9 Body Cavities


The Abdominopelvic Cavity
Abdominal cavity superior portion

Diaphragm to top of pelvic bones Contains digestive organs Retroperitoneal space Area posterior to peritoneum and anterior to muscular

body wall
Contains pancreas, kidneys, ureters, and parts of the digestive tract
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1-9 Body Cavities


The Abdominopelvic Cavity
Pelvic cavity inferior portion
Within pelvic bones Contains reproductive organs, rectum, and bladder

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