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Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing A background and overview

Vision of Mark Weiser  Challenges and Issues of Mobile Computing  Challenges and Issues of Ubiquitous Computing

Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing

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Reference Papers
[1] The Computer for the 21st Century Mark Weiser, Palo Alto Research Center 1991, Scientific American Reprinted in Pervasive Computing January – March 2002 [2] Fundamental Challenges in Mobile Computing M. Satyanarayanan, Carnegie Mellon University Published in 1996 in ACM (PODC’96) [3] Pervasive Computing: Vision and Challenges M. Satyanarayanan, Carnegie Mellon University Published in IEEE Personal Communications August 2001
Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing

Spring 2007

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Preview
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The convergence of technologies Issues pointed to by Mark Weiser Problems and issues of Mobile Computing

Five major research areas

Problems of Ubiquitous Computing
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Integration of different technologies Major areas of research

Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing

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and that she can start walking back The last message is transmitted during her walk. which is only three minutes away It also asks her to prioritize her e-mail. and she is back at Gate 23 in time for her boarding call [3] Spring 2007 4 Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing .An Interesting Scenario           Jane is at Gate 23 at the Pittsburgh airport. waiting for her connecting flight She would like to use her wireless connection to e-mail a number of large documents Many passengers at Gates 22 and 23 are surfing the Web Aura observes that Jane won‟t be able to finish sending her documents before her flight departs After consulting the airport‟s flight schedule service. Aura discovers that wireless bandwidth is excellent at Gate 15 A dialog box pops up on Jane‟s screen suggesting that she go to Gate 15. so that the most critical messages are transmitted first Jane accepts Aura‟s advice and walks to Gate 15 Aura informs her that it is close to being done with her messages.

will be so ubiquitous that no one will notice their presence Ubiquitous Invisible computers embedded in everyday objects that would replace PCs Technology should disappear to make computers ubiquitous Issues: Scale and the knowledge of where the user is located to adapt to the surroundings Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Spring 2007 5 .Vision of Mark Weiser Specialized elements of hardware and software. connected by wires. radio waves and infrared.

Vision of Mark Weiser  Embodied virtuality Modified virtual reality Process of drawing computers out of their electronic shells  Devices that implement the technology Interaction between devices is more important than making them  Parts that build a ubiquitous system    Low cost and low power computers Software Network that ties the computer together Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Spring 2007 6 .

Vision of Mark Weiser   The Computer Hardware is satisfactory The Operating System needs a change Microkernel approach Network requirements:  Transparent and wireless link between modules  Protocols that are efficient in mobile networks  A large number of channels   A future where computers disappear Spring 2007 7 Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing .

Problems and issues of mobile computing  Constraints of mobile computing and their impact on distributed systems  All constraints are intrinsic to mobility Mobile elements are resource poor Mobility is inherently hazardous Mobile connectivity is highly variable Mobile elements rely on a finite energy source      Solution lies in the mobile client being ADAPTIVE Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Spring 2007 8 .

Problems and issues of mobile computing  Adaptive implementation has two extremes   Total autonomy: Adaptation is the responsibility of the individual application Application transparent adaptation: Responsibility of adaptation lies entirely on the system   Actual implementation lies between the two extremes – Application aware adaptation Use an extended client-server model to implement mobile application  The client may have to take the role of a server Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Spring 2007 9 .

effective and usable Use techniques of hoarding. 2. containment and manual repair Spring 2007 10 Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing . Experimental results on Coda file system Experiment conducted to study the effect of mobility and application transparent adaptation Disconnected operation is feasible.Problems and issues of mobile computing  1. update logging and reintegration on reconnection Optimistic replica control strategy is applicable Use techniques of log-based directory resolution. application-specific file resolution.

Server replication can be used to complement disconnected operation Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Spring 2007 11 . rapid cache validation mechanism. Use isolation-only transaction to cope with detection and handling of read-write conflicts during disconnected operations Use database transactions 5. Support weak connectivity to avoid the limitations of disconnected operations Use techniques of adaptive transport protocols.Problems and issues of mobile computing  Experimental results on Coda file system…. 3. trickle reintegration mechanism and model-based cache miss handling 4.

Areas of research in mobile computing  1. Five areas of research are identified Caching Metrics Problems of common metric .Miss ratio Should be consistent and easy to monitor Open problems:  What is an appropriate set of caching metrics for mobile computing?  Under what circumstances does one use each metric?  How does one efficiently monitor these metrics?  What are the implications of these alternative metrics for caching algorithms? Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Spring 2007 12 .

Use cache validation instead of maintaining cache coherence to reduce remote communication   Use callbacks Maintain cache coherence at multiple levels of granularity   Use semantic validation to maintain cache coherence at multiple levels of granularity Open questions are related to predicate Q that is a function of the block value P   How useful are semantic validation and callbacks? What forms can P and Q take for data types? Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Spring 2007 13 .Areas of research in mobile computing 2.

Algorithms for resource revocation  Application aware adaptation complicates the problem of resource management How does one formulate the resource revocation problem? How does one characterize the differential impact of revocation on different applications? What strategies does one use if multiple resources must be simultaneously revoked? How does one distinguish between resources whose revocation is easy to recover from and those which are expensive or impossible to recover from? How does one handle deadlocks during revocation  Open problems are:      Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Spring 2007 14 .Areas of research in mobile computing 3.

Analysis of adaptation Primary figure of merit for mobile clients: Agility Ideal mobile client is highly agile and very stable Open questions:  What are the right metrics to measure agility?  Are there systematic techniques to improve the agility of a system?  How does one decide when a mobile system is “agile enough”?  What are the right metrics to measure system stability?  Can one develop design guidelines to ensure stability?  Can one analytically derive the agility and stability properties of an adaptive system without building it? Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 15 Spring 2007 .Areas of research in mobile computing 4.

Areas of research in mobile computing 5. Global estimation from local observations Adaptive mobile clients should have the capability to infer global changes by detecting local changes Issues are:  Are there systematic ways to perform global estimation from local observations?  Can one bind the error in global estimates?  What is the relationship between global estimation and agility of adaptation?  Can one provide system support to improve global estimation?  Can one quantify the benefits of out-of-band channels? Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Spring 2007 16 .

Problems and Issues of Ubiquitous Computing Pervasive Computing “Technology that disappears”  Relationship with distributed systems and mobile computing Problems solved in distributed systems  Remote communication  Fault tolerance  High availability  Remote information access  Security    Key constraints of mobility forced the development of specialized techniques Four areas of research in ubiquitous computing Spring 2007 17 Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing .

. WaveLan triangulation. Mobile information access Adaptive applications proxies. goal-directed adaptation. . RPC. ACID. . databases. nested transactions . mutual authentication. two-phase commit. . agility. . transcoding. . . . . disconnected operation. . file systems. . ad hoc networks. . encryption. dist.How Did We Get Here? protocol layering. . . context-awareness. . wireless TCP fixes. . end-to-end args . . © 2005-2006 M. . . . Energy-aware systems Location sensitivity Smart spaces Invisibility Localized scalability Uneven conditioning intro-18 GPS. dist. . . weak consistency. . Satyanarayanan . High Availability Remote information access Distributed security Mobile networking Mobile IP. . Remote communication Fault tolerance Distributed Systems Mobile Computing Pervasive Computing replication. . rollback recovery. caching. . . disk spin-down. .

component synthesis and system level engineering Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Spring 2007 19 .Problems and Issues of Ubiquitous Computing Areas of research:  Effective use of smart spaces – context-aware space  Invisibility – minimal user distraction  Localized scalability  Masking uneven conditioning – „smartness‟ of environments vary First requirement for any application is proactivity All technologies for implementing the scenario is available Whole is much greater than simply the sum of its parts Requires seamless integration of component technologies Problems lie in the architecture.

Problems and Issues of Ubiquitous Computing   User Immersed in a PC environment Adaptable and reconfigurable Client May take the role of a server A multilayered architecture Environment Smart space Server Spring 2007 20 Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing .

The structure of an Aura Client Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Spring 2007 21 .

Problems and Issues of Ubiquitous Computing  Problems that need to be solved   User intent needs to be established  A number of research questions need to be answered Deal with the conflicting requirement of higher functionality and limited resources  Use available resources in the smart space  Cyber foraging and surrogate of mobile computing Cyber foraging – living off the land – exploit wired hardware infrastructure Hardware starts playing the role of surrogate of the mobile computer Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Spring 2007 22 .

Problems and Issues of Ubiquitous Computing Areas to explore  Cyber foraging  Adaptation strategies  High level energy management  Client thickness  Context awareness  Balancing proactivity and transparency  Privacy and trust  Impact on layering Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Spring 2007 23 .

Problems and Issues of Ubiquitous Computing  Cyber foraging gives rise to a number of research problems       Discover the presence of surrogates Level of trust with a surrogate Load balancing Time to stage Effect of scalability System support needed for seamless and minimally intrusive surrogate Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Spring 2007 24 .

Problems and Issues of Ubiquitous Computing  Adaptation strategies    Client may guide the application to reduce fidelity Use reservation based Quality of Service Client may suggest the user a corrective action  Unanswered questions:      Factors that affect the decision to choose between the adaptation strategies Is reservation based QoS the best strategy? Multiple and competing requests for reservations Practicality of adaptation using corrective actions Methods of lowering fidelity Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Spring 2007 25 .

Problems and Issues of Ubiquitous Computing  High level energy management  High level system should get involved for energy management  Energy aware memory management Methods of managing energy Impact on invisibility Can knowledge of user intent be exploited in energy management? Use of smart spaces and surrogates to reduce energy demand Remote execution to extend battery life Spring 2007 26  Unanswered questions      Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing .

Problems and Issues of Ubiquitous Computing   Client thickness  The clients need to be as thin as possible but should be thick enough to fulfill the requirements Research questions are:  Quantify client thickness and environmental conditioning  Can the system alert a user when it migrates to a less hospitable environment?  Is transparent migration from a thinner to a thicker client possible?  Can computers be reconfigured to serve as optimal mobile clients under diverse environmental conditions?  Can semi-portable infrastructure be carried with a user to augment less hospitable environments? Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Spring 2007 27 .

Problems and Issues of Ubiquitous Computing  Context awareness  Required for a minimally intrusive computing system How is context represented internally? How frequently does context information need to be consulted? Minimal services that the environment needs to provide What are the relative merits of various location-sensing technologies? Spring 2007 28  Issues:     Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing .

Problems and Issues of Ubiquitous Computing  Balancing proactivity and transparency    Both are important requirements Proactive systems may not always work well Transparency is especially important in distributed systems with scarce resources How are individual user preferences and tolerances specified and taken into account? How is it possible to determine the balance? Can the existing balancing mechanisms be used to provide a systematic design guideline to application designers? Spring 2007 29  Unanswered questions    Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing .

Problems and Issues of Ubiquitous Computing  Privacy and trust   System contains detailed information related to a user User trust is achieved by keeping the information strictly confidential and private Balance between seamless system behavior and the need to alert users to potential loss of privacy What are the authentication techniques best suited to pervasive computing? How is access control enforced using the identity of users?  Research issues    Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Spring 2007 30 .

Problems and Issues of Ubiquitous Computing  Impact on layering   Layering techniques help solve large problems Helps hiding some details but exposes others that are required to solve a problem Preserving the benefits of layering while accommodating the needs of ubiquitous computing Are existing layers best extended for pervasive computing by broadening their primary interfaces or creating secondary interfaces? What is the complexity involved in design and implementation of layers for ubiquitous computing? Spring 2007 31  Issues are:    Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing .

Areas explored – recent publications Research areas (2005-2006) Internet suspend/resume (ISR)    VM technology and Distributed File systems Same hardware architecture at least to ISA level    Remote execution Cyber foraging Resource monitoring and predicting resource demands Spring 2007 32 Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing .

Conclusion      Challenging research problems exist in the field of Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Integration of technologies is the main issue HCI. Software agents. AI are other areas that are integrated in the field A lot has been achieved More to be explored Spring 2007 33 Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing .

Thank you Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Spring 2007 34 .

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