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# Periodic Table

Chapter 4

VIDEO 1

Aim: To explain the structure of the periodic table.
Learning Outcomes: At the end of the lesson the students should be able to: (a) Indicate period, group and block (s, p, d, f). (b) Specify the position of metals, metalloids and non-metals in the periodic table. (c) Deduce the position of elements in the periodic table from its electronic configuration.

– a chart in which elements having ≈ chemical & physical properties are grouped together.period.CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENT • Periodic table: – a table that arrange all the known elements in order of increasing proton number. b) A horizontal row . VIDEO 2 .group. a) A vertical column .

which means that both of it have 6 valence è .a) GROUP • 18 vertical columns • Elements in the = group have the = number of valence è and similar chemical properties. • For example: oxygen & sulfur are both found in group 16. GROUP NUMBER = NUMBER OF VALENCE ELECTRONS VIDEO 3 .

Group number = number of valence electron. if the element is in block s and d OR Group number = number of v.e. if the element is in block p . + 10.

• Main groups in periodic table: – Group 1: alkali metals (except H) – Group 2: alkaline earth metals – Group 3 .12: transition metals – Group 16: chalcogens – Group 17: halogens – Group 18: inert/noble/rare gases .

He: 1s2 ) PERIOD NUMBER = PRINCIPAL QUANTUM NUMBER. n OF THE ELECTRONS IN THE VALENCE SHELL VIDEO 4 .b) PERIOD • 7 horizontal rows • For example: H & He are in Period 1 because their principal quantum number of the valence electron shell is 1. ( H: 1s1 .

Classification of the Elements .

VIDEO 5 .

BLOCKS • 4 main blocks according to the valence/outermost ground-state electron configuration. . p. • These main blocks are block s. d and f.

s Block • Group 1 VIDEO 6 and 2 VIDEO 7 • Half-filled or completely filled outermost s orbital • Valence electron only in s orbital • Configuration of valence electron : ns1 to ns2 • Eg. 11Na: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 → 3s1 Ca: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 → 4s2 20 .

VIDEO 10. VIDEO 11 . 13Al: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1 → 3s2 3p1 Te: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 52 4d10 5s2 5p4 → 5s2 5p4 VIDEO 8 Block p: VIDEO 9.p Block • Groups 13 to 18 (except He) • Configuration of valence electrons : ns2 np1 to ns2 np6 • Eg.

23V 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d3 4s2 = [Ar] 3d3 4s2  3d3 4s2 where [Ar] = 18 electrons .d Block • transition element • Groups 3 to 12 • Configuration of valence electron : (n-1)d1 ns2 to (n-1)d10 ns2 • Eg.

f Block • Elements in the series of lanthanides (La to Lu) and actinides (Ac to Lr) • Valence electron in the subshell of 4f and 5f. .

Element P Q R S T Grou Perio p d 18 17 2 5 18 Class/period Inert gas/ block p Block p Block s Transition element/ block d Inert gas/block p 3 4 4 4 4 .

ns1 ns2np1 ns2np2 ns2np3 ns2np4 ns2 4f 5f d5 d10 d1 ns2np5 Ground State Electron Configurations of the Elements ns2np6 .

nonmetal and metalloids • All the elements on the left side and in the middle of the periodic table (except for hydrogen) are metallic elements. .Metal. or metals.

.• The metals are separated from the non-metallic elements by the diagonal step-like line that runs from boron (B) to Astatine (At) as shown: • Further across the period towards the right. elements gradually lose their metallic character and gained nonmetallic features.

(semi-metals) VIDEO 13 . such as antimony (Sb) have properties that fall between those of metals and non-metals.• Many of the elements that lie along the line that separates metals from non-metals. • These elements are often referred to as metalloids.

f • Position of metals and non-metals • Position of elements in groups 1 . p. groups & blocks:. d. 14. 17 or 18 based on electron configuration . 16.CONCLUSION • Periods.2. 15. 13.s.

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