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STBP 1023 Cell Biology

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Hasidah Mohd. Sidek hasidah@pkrisc.cc.ukm.my
Bilik Ketua Program Biokimia Aras G Bangunan Sains Biologi

Course Objectives

To introduce students to the biochemical basis of the living system To understand the concept of the cell as the basic unit of life and appreciate the structure and function of cell components

Course Objectives (continued)

To understand the principles of bioenergetics in order to appreciate how intermediary metabolism though complex is very systematic and orderly To understand the concept of energy utilisation and production of energy (ATP) in the cell

Course Structure
 Lectures  Tutorials

Evaluation
 Mid-semester Examination (40%)  Final Examination (60%)

Lecturers
  

Set 1 Assoc. Prof. Dr. Hasidah Mohd. Sidek (HMS) Prof. Dr. Othman Omar (OO) Dr. Sharom Md. Yusof (SMY) Set 2 Assoc. Prof. Dr. Roohaida Othman (RO) Assoc. Prof. Dr. Sahidan Senafi (SSe) Prof. Dato’ Dr. Mohammed Noor Embi (MNE)

  

COURSE OUTLINE
Hrs 3 Set 1 Set 2 HMS RO Cell as the basic unit of life  Overview of cell structure and function  Cell Theory Prokaryotes and eukaryotes  Structure and function of cells  Organelles (mitochondria, chloroplasts, ribosomes, nucleus, golgi complex, endoplasmic reticulum, bacterial and plant cell walls) Cell buffering system  Characteristics of water, acids, bases and properties of buffers

No. Lecture Topics 1.

2.

3

HMS

RO

3.

6

HMS

RO

COURSE OUTLINE (continued)
Hrs Set 1 Set 2 Macromolecules in Cells I  Proteins Macromolecules in Cells II  Polysaccharides  Lipids Membrane Biology I  Structure and composition of membranes Membrane Biology II  Transport across membranes Reactions in Cells I  Types and functions of enzymes  Catalytic characteristics Reactions in Cells II  Factors influencing enzyme reactions  Isoenzymes and coenzymes

No. Lecture Topics 4.

6

SSe

SSe

5.

3

OO

OO

6.

3

OO

OO

COURSE OUTLINE (continued)
Lecture Topics Bioenergetics  Principles of thermodynamics  Free energy concept  Equilibrium and equilibrium constants  Changes in standard free energy  Roles of ATP  Redox reactions  Coupled reactions Energy metabolism: glycolysis, TCA cycle and ß–oxidation of fatty acids  Role of carbohydrates  Mechanism of ATP production Respiratory chain and synthesis of ATP  Substrate-level phosphorylation  Oxidative phosphorylation Tutorials Total Hrs Set 1 Set 2

No. 7.

3

SMY

MNE

8.

6

SMY

MNE

9.

3 6 42

SMY

MNE

Recommended Text

Campbell N.A. & Reece J.B. Biology. 2005. Seventh Edition. Pearson Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco Campbell M.K. & Farrell S.O. 2006. Biochemistry. Fifth Edition. Thomson Brooks / Cole, Belmont.

CELL AS THE BASIC UNIT OF LIFE
EUKARYOTIC CELL PROKARYOTIC CELL DNA (no nucleus) Membrane


Membrane Objectives Cytoplasm Introduction Cell discovery and the cell theory General characteristics of a cell Organelles Classification Figure 1.8 Nucleus (contains DNA) Different shapes

1 µm

OBJECTIVES

To discuss the cell theory and its formulation To understand the general characteristics of a cell – similarities in structure and biochemical reactions To distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

Much of what is known about cells is based on early works by :


   

Robert Hooke Anton van Leeuwenhoek Robert Brown Matthias Schleiden Theodor Schwann Rudolph Virchow

Significant contributions towards formulation of the cell theory

THE CELL THEORY three basic tenets
1. All organisms consist of one or more cells. 2. The cell is the basic unit of structure for all organisms.
3. All cells arise only from preexisting cells.

HISTORY ON THE FORMULATION OF THE CELL THEORY

Robert Hooke, English scientist (1663) described the network of boxlike compartments (cell walls of plant tissues) observed in cork as ‘cellulae’ (Latin for little rooms). Anton van Leeuwenhoek, Dutch businessman (1632-1723) made microscopic observations of bacteria, protozoa, animal and plant tissues.

HISTORY ON THE FORMULATION OF THE CELL THEORY

Robert Brown, English botanist (1833) described the nucleus as a rounded structure found in every plant cell. Matthias Schleiden, German botanist (1838) concluded that :
 

all plant tissues were made of cells.
an embryonic plant arose from a single cell.

HISTORY ON THE FORMULATION OF THE CELL THEORY

Theodor Schwann, German zoologist (1839) described the cellular composition of plant and animal tissue as a fundamental similarity - the basis of the first two tenets. Rudolph Virchow, German physiologist (1855) concluded that the cell is the basic unit for reproduction :

omnis cellula e cellula Latin for ‘all cells arise only from preexisting cells’ - the third tenet.

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CELLS

The chemical composition of all cells are basically the same

Basic elements – C, H, N, O, P, S ‘Non-living’ elements form cellular macromolecules (proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids) Cell activities depend on properties and functions of macromolecules

All cells are bounded by a plasma membrane

The plasma membrane :
I.

II.

separates activities occurring in neighboring cells gives each cell an independent entity

Lateral movement (~107 times per second)

Flip-flop (~ once per month)

 Cells

are highly complexed and organised

A Hierarchy of Biological Organization

The hierarchy of life

Extends through many levels of biological organization

From the biosphere to organisms
1 The biosphere

2. Ecosystem

3. Community

4. Population

5. Organism
Figure 1.3

From cells to molecules
9 Organelles
Cell 1 µm

8 Cells

Atoms

10 µm

10 Molecules

7 Tissues
50 µm

6 Organs and organ systems
Figure 1.3

Cells possess a genetic program and the means to use it

Genetic information is contained in genes Genes constitute blueprints for cell structure, activities and multiplication

The Cell’s Heritable Information

Cells contain chromosomes made partly of DNA, the substance of genes

Which program the cells’ production of proteins and transmit information from parents to offspring
Sperm cell Nuclei containing DNA Fertilized egg with DNA from both parents

Egg cell
Figure 1.6

Embyro’s cells with copies of inherited DNA

Offspring with traits inherited from both parents

Cells are capable of producing more of themselves

Reproduce by division – mitosis

 Cells

acquire and utilize energy

Developing and maintaining complexity requires energy from the sun Photosynthesis converts light energy into chemical energy – sucrose and starch Animals – prepackaged energy as glucose

Glucose metabolism produces ATP

 Cells

perform a variety of chemical reactions

Cell processes based on biochemical reactions Require enzymes

Increase reaction rate without increase in temperature

 Cells

engage in numerous mechanical activities

Transport, assembly and degradation

Based on dynamic changes in protein structure

 Cells

are able to respond to stimuli

Visible – cilliate moves away from object or moves towards a source of nutrients Less obvious for multicellular organism  Receptors on cell surface interact with substances – hormones, growth factors etc  Respond by altering metabolic activities, preparing for cell division, committing suicide(!)

Cells are capable of selfregulation

To maintain constant ordered state

Failure to correct mistake during DNA replication may cause mutation leading to cancer

Cells are the basic structural units of all living organisms Organisms may be made up of single (unicellular) or multiple cells (multicellular)

We have seen how cells share certain characteristics :


 

 

Chemical composition Enclosure by a plasma membrane Complexity and organisation Use DNA as a store of genetic information and to guide the synthesis of proteins Ability to reproduce themselves Ability to convert energy from one form to another Ability to sense and respond to the environment

Cells vary in size

smallest bacteria - 0.2 m in diameter longest in mammals (nerve cells, giraffe neck) largest volume (yolk of ostrich egg-also the largest single cell in the world)

Animal and plant cells large enough to be seen with a light microscope Smaller molecules only observed with an electron microscope

Cells vary in shape and function

Nerve cells are enormously extended to allow transmission of electrical signals

Human red blood cells are flattened to allow transport of O2

Cell classification

Based on the presence or absence of a nucleus Two main forms of cells

Eukaryotes (from the Greek word eu meaning ‘truly’ and karyon, a ‘nucleus’) Prokaryotes (from pro, meaning ‘before’)

PROKARYOTES
 

Unicellular Small ~1-5 m Examples include bacteria and cyanobacteria (Kingdom = Monera)

Exception:
Thiomargarita "Sulfur Pearl of Namibia"

 0.75

mm wide (>100 X bacterial size)
 large

nitrate-storing vacuole contributes to the size

 Prokaryotic

cells have simpler structures

lack the kinds of membraneenclosed organelles found in eukaryotic cells

PROKARYOTES EVOLVED EARLIER THAN EUKARYOTES A Brief History of Life on Earth
4.5 billion years ago 3.5 billion years ago

Earth formed

First life - prokaryotic bacteria dominate
Nucleated cells arise - eukaryotic Cambrian explosion multicellular eukaryotes arise

1.5 billion years ago 0.5 billion years ago

EUKARYOTES
Larger (~10-100 m)  Multicellular e.g. human, animal, plant, fungi, protist  Unicellular e.g. yeast and paramecium

Exception

Acetabularia (Mermaid's wineglass) Each individual of the tropical algae, ~5-7 cm in length, consists of a single giant cell The nucleus is in holdfast (root).

Eukaryotic cells are more complex in structure

Contain nucleus with membrane Are subdivided by internal membranes into various membraneenclosed organelles

 Some

eukaryotic cells have more than one nuclei

Fungi - fused cells, multinucleate
Human skeletal muscle cells multinucleate.

 Red

blood cell is a eukaryotic cell without nucleus

Unable to undergo mitosis