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Br ( Bromine

)

Characteristic Physical Elemental bromine exists as a diatomic molecule, Br2. It is a dense, mobile, slightly transparent reddishbrown liquid, that evaporates easily at standard temperature and pressures to give an orange vapor (its color resembles nitrogen dioxide) that has a strongly disagreeable odor resembling that of chlorine. It is one of only two elements on the periodic table that are liquids at room temperature (mercury is the other, although caesium , gallium , and rubidium melt just above room temperature). Chemical Being less reactive than chlorine but more reactive than iodine, bromine reacts vigorously with metals, especially in the presence of water, to give bromide salts. It is also reactive toward most organic compounds, especially upon illumination, conditions that favor the dissociation of the diatomic molecule into bromine radicals: Br2 2 Br·It bonds easily with many elements and has a strong bleaching action. Bromine is slightly soluble in water, but it is highly soluble in organic solvents such as carbon disulfide, carbon tetrachloride, aliphatic alcohols, and acetic acid.

Identification

+ AgNO3 (aq)

beige precipitate formed

+ Ammonia solution
+ HNO3 in a solution of PbCH3COO2

insoluble precipitate, dissolve if exces s ammonia
insoluble white precipitate soluble in hot water

Function Bromine is used for disinfecting, flame retardant , water purification compounds, dyes , medicines , sanitary cleaners, inorganic bromides for photography (sil verbromide (AgBr) ) and others. Organic bromides are also important.

Another utility include: Sodium bromide (NaBr) as a nerve sedative, Methylbromide (CH3Br) substances firefighters, and Ethylene dibromida (C2H4Br2 ) was added to gasoline to turn into PbBr2 Pb.

Storage

Compound of Bromine

Aluminium bromide AlBr3 Aluminium bromide is any chemical compound with the empirical formula AlBrx. The species called "aluminium tribromide," is the most common aluminium bromide. The species aluminium monobromide forms from the reaction of HBr with Al metal at high temperature. It disproportionates near room temperature: 6/n "[AlBr]n" → Al2Br6 + 4 Al This reaction is reversed at temperatures > 1000 °C. The anhydrous form is used as a catalyst for the FriedelCrafts alkylation reaction. Its catalytic activity is similar to anhydrous aluminum chloride. However, commercial applications are rare.

Hydrogen Bromide HBr Hydrogen bromide is the diatomic molecule HBr. HBr is a gas at standard conditions. Hydrobromic acid forms upon dissolving HBr in water. Conversely, HBr can be liberated from hydrobromic acid solutions with the addition of a dehydration agent, but not by distillation. Hydrogen bromide and hydrobromic acid are, therefore, not the same, but they are related. Commonly, chemists refer to hydrobromic acid as "HBr", and this usage, while understood by most chemists, is imprecise and can be confusing to the non-specialist.

Mercury ( Hg )

Characteristic Physical Mercury is a heavy, silvery-white metal. As compared to other metals, it is a poor conductor of heat, but a fair conductor of electricity. Chemical Mercury has an exceptionally low melting temperature for a d-block metal. mercury has a unique electronic configuration where electrons fill up all the available 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 3d, 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f, 5s, 5p, 5d and 6s subshells. As such configuration strongly resists removal of an electron, mercury behaves similarly tonoble gas elements, which form weak bonds and thus easily melting solids. The stability of the 6s shell is due to the presence of a filled 4f shell. An f shell poorly screens the nuclear charge that increases the attractiveCoulomb interaction of the 6s shell and the nucleus (see lanthanide contraction).

Physical

Chemical The absence of a filled inner fshell is the reason for the much higher melting temperature of cadmium. Metals such as gold have atoms with one less 6s electron than mercury. Those electrons are more easily removed and are shared between the gold atoms forming relatively strong metallic bonds.[2][5] At its melting point (−38.86 °C), the density of mercury is[6] 13.534 g/cm3.

Identification

Function Used in thermometers, barometers, diffusion pumps, coulometers, fluorescent lamps, mercury switches, insectisides, and batteries. Gaseous mercury is used in mercury-vapour lamps. It is found in paint, batteries, thermometers, electrical equipment, fluorescent lights and plastics. Batteries account for 88% of the mercury content in municipal solid waste. Mercury was once used in the amalgamation process of refining gold and silver ores.

Storage

Compound of Mercury

Mercury(II) sulfate, commonly called mercuric sulfate is the chemical compound HgSO4. It is an odorless solid that forms white granules or crystalline powder. In water, it separates into an insoluble sulfate with a yellow color and sulfuric acid. An acidic solution of mercury sulfate is known as Denigés' reagent. It was commonly used throughout the 20th century as a qualitative analysis reagent. If Denigés' reagent is added to a solution containing compounds that have tertiary alcohols, a yellow or red precipitate will form

Mercury(II) chloride or mercuric chloride (formerly corrosive sublimate), is the chemical compound with the formula HgCl2. This white crystalline solid is a laboratory reagent and a molecular compound. It is no longer used for medicinal purposes (e.g. treatment of syphilis) because it is highly toxic and superior treatments have become available. Mercury(II) chloride was used as a photographic intensifier to produce positive pictures in the collodion process of the 1800s. When applied to a negative, the mercury(II) chloride whitens and thickens the image, thereby increasing the opacity of the shadows and creating the illusion of a positive image

B ( Boron )

Characteristic Physical Boron is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol W and atomic number 5. Elements of trivalent metalloids, boron borax nu merous in stone. There are twoallotropes of boron; amorphous boron is a brown powder, but metallic boron is black.Loud metallic form (9.3 in the Moh scale) and a bad conductor in room temperatures. Never found free in nature. Chemical Elemental boron is rare and poorly studied because the material is extremely difficult to prepare. Most studies on "boron" involve samples that contain small amounts of carbon. Chemically, boron behaves more closely to silicon than to aluminium. Crystalline boron is chemically inert and resistant to attack by boiling hydrofluoric or hydrochloric acid. When finely divided, it is attacked slowly by hot concentrated hydrogen peroxide, hot concentrated nitric acid, hot sulfuric acid or hot mixture of sulfuric and chromic acids.[16][32] The rate of oxidation of boron depends upon the crystallinity, particle size, purity and temperature. Boron does not react with air at room temperature, but at higher temperatures it burns to form boron

Identification

Function Approximately 35% of the production of boron used dipabrik manufacture highly resistantborosili cate at high temperature heating, 20% of the production of boron as sodiumcompounds are used as ingredients peroksoborat NaBO3 washing detergents are veryeffective at temperatures of 90 degree Celcius . As a vital component in nuclear power plants because ofits ability to absorb neutrons as, fire wood filler, and as a flux in soldering process

Storage

Compound of Bromine

Boric Acid 1. ortoborat acid ( H3BO3 ) 2. metaborat acid ( HBO2 ) 3. tetraborat acid ( H2B4O7 ) form of white crystals, soluble in cold water and hot water. can be obtained from thehydrolysis of boron halides, can be obtained from the oxidation of boron with hydrogenperoxide. in acidic water solution of a weak mono and not acting as a proton donor but as a lewis acid boric acid has a layered structure of a circular field with the connecting hydrogen bonds.molten boric acid dissolves metal oxides produce borate glasses. pyrex borosilicateglass co ntaining compounds

Tetraflouroborat Acid HBF4 is a strong acid and therefore can not be obtained as HBF4. Is common in the trade as an acid solution of Tetraflouroborat with a content of about 40%

Al ( Aluminium )

Characteristic Physical - Density lightweight (only 2.7 g / cm ³, while the iron ± 8.1 g / cm ³) - Good corrosion resistance - Electricity and heat dissipation is good - Easy fabrication / in form - Its strength is low but the integration (alloying) strength can be improved Chemical Pure aluminum , silvery white metal having the desired characteristics of the metal. He islight, not magnetic and not easily splashed, a second metal easie st in terms of formation,and sixth in terms of ductility.

Identification

Function Approximately 35% of the production of boron used dipabrik manufacture highly resistantborosili cate at high temperature heating, 20% of the production of boron as sodiumcompounds are used as ingredients peroksoborat NaBO3 washing detergents are veryeffective at temperatures of 90 degree Celcius . As a vital component in nuclear power plants because ofits ability to absorb neutrons as, fire wood filler, and as a flux in soldering process

Storage

Compound of Alumunium

Alumunium oxide Al2O3 Aluminum oxide is a chemical compound of aluminum and oxygen , with the chemicalformula Al2O3. Mineral name is alumina,and in the mining, ceramic and materials engineering more of these compounds are called by the name of alumina.

Tetraflouroborat Acid HBF4 · At room temperature, solid aluminum chloride having an ionic lattice with a lot of covalent character. · At temperatures around 180-190 ° C (depending on the pressure), aluminum chloride is transformed into the form of the molecule, Al2Cl6. This causes it to melt or evaporate because of the attractiveness intermolekulernya weakened. · With a slight increase in temperature will break into simpler molecules of AlCl3. Solid aluminum chloride does not conduct electricity at room temperature because the ions are not moving freely. Fusion of aluminum chloride (only possible by raising the pressure) does not conduct electricity because of the absence of ions.

Cl ( Chlor )

Characteristic Physical At standard temperature and pressure, two chlorine atoms form the diatomic molecule Cl2. This is a yellow-green gas that has its distinctive strong smell, the smell of bleach. The bonding between the two atoms is relatively weak (only 242.580 ±0.004 kJ/mol), which makes the Cl2 molecule highly reactive. The boiling point at regular atmosphere is around −34 ˚C, but it can be liquefied at room temperature with pressures above 8 atmospheres. Chemical Along with fluorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine, chlorine is a member of the halogen series that forms the group 17 (formerly VII, VIIA, or VIIB) of the periodic table. Chlorine forms compounds with almost all of the elements to give compounds that are usually called chlorides. Chlorine gas reacts with most organic compounds, and will even sluggishly support the combustion of hydrocarbons.

Identification

Function Approximately 35% of the production of boron used dipabrik manufacture highly resistantborosili cate at high temperature heating, 20% of the production of boron as sodiumcompounds are used as ingredients peroksoborat NaBO3 washing detergents are veryeffective at temperatures of 90 degree Celcius . As a vital component in nuclear power plants because ofits ability to absorb neutrons as, fire wood filler, and as a flux in soldering process

Storage

Compound of Chlor

Magnesium Chloride MgCl2 Magnesium chloride is also an ionic compound, but with the arrangement of the ions is more complicated because the amount of chloride ions are two times more than magnesium ions. Same with sodium chloride, the heat necessary to overcome the attraction between the ions is also large, so the melting point and boiling point is also high. Solid magnesium chloride is not a conductor of electricity because the ions are not moving freely. However, electrolysis can be experienced when the ions become free due to melting. Magnesium chloride is soluble in water produces a weak acid solution (pH = approximately 6). If magnesium ions from the lattice is broken down and transformed into the solid solution, there is sufficient attraction between the ions 2 + and water molecules to form coordination bonds (dative covalent) between magnesium ions and the lone pair of electrons around the

Sodium Chloride NaCl In addition to the familiar uses of salt in cooking, salt is also used in many applications, from manufacturing pulp and paper, to setting dyes in textiles and fabric, to producing soaps, detergents, and other bath products. It is the major source of industrial chlorine and sodium hydroxide, and used in almost every industry.

N ( Nitrogen )

Characteristic Physical Phase Density Liquid density atb.p. gas (0 °C, 101.325 kPa) 1.251 g/L −3 0.808 g·cm

Melting point Boiling point
Triple point Critical point Heat of fusion Heat of vaporization Molar heat capacity

63.15 K, -210.00 °C, -346.00 °F 77.36 K, -195.79 °C, -320.33 °F
63.1526 K (-210°C), 12.53 kPa 126.19 K, 3.3978 MPa (N2) 0.72 kJ·mol (N2) 5.56 kJ·mol
−1 −1

(N2) −1 −1 29.124 J·mol ·K

Characteristic Chemical Gas in the form of colorless, tasteless, and odorless Soluble in water, and classified as an element that is difficult to react because its binding energy is very large. Nitrogen reacts only at relatively high temperatures with the aid of a catalyst

Identification

Function Approximately 35% of the production of boron used dipabrik manufacture highly resistantborosili cate at high temperature heating, 20% of the production of boron as sodiumcompounds are used as ingredients peroksoborat NaBO3 washing detergents are veryeffective at temperatures of 90 degree Celcius . As a vital component in nuclear power plants because ofits ability to absorb neutrons as, fire wood filler, and as a flux in soldering process

Storage

Compound of Nitrogen

Ammonium NH3 is a distinctive smelling gas, and colorless, and poisonous. and easily melt if given thepressure usefulness : primary use as a raw material for making ZA raw materials other compounds such as nitric acid, ammonium chloride, and ammonium nitrate in the ice plant is used as a coolant, because the liquid ammonia evaporates andabsorbs lots of heat as a rocket fuel that can burn ownself when mixed produce an oxidant nitrogen gas and heat

Nitric acid HNO3 The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3) is a kind of colorless corrosive liquid, and is a toxic acid which can cause burns. Solution of nitric acid with nitric acid content of more than 86% nitric acid known as smokeless, and can be divided into two types of acid,white fuming nitric acid and red fuming nitric acid. Nitric acid is usually used in laboratories as a reagent. This solution was also used to manufacture explosive materials such as nitroglycerin, trinitrotoluene (TNT) andSiklotrimetilena trinitramin (RDX), and also for the manufacture of ammonium nitrate. Nitric acid is also used in the metallurgy and refining as it can react with the metal. Whenmixed with hydrochloric acid, the mixture wil l form aqua regia, one of the few reagentsthat dissolves gold and platinum. Nitric acid is also a component of acid rain.