CHaPTeR SeVeN: CoLLeCTiVe BeHaVioR aND SoCiaL MoVeMeNTS

DEFINITION AND CONDITIONS OF COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR
The term collective behavior designates the study of relatively unstructured social situations and the and their products, such as crowds, riotism revivals, rumor, public opinions. Fads and social movements. These phenomena are not fully controlled by cultural norms, and ordered social relations. They are characteristically open to the free play of emotions, a high degree of personal interaction and influence, the give and take of political competition and the emergence of transitory opinions and allegiance. Through collective behavior, new forms of action and new groups are created in response to felt needs, pressures, and excitements, rather than as a result of consciously coordinated activity.

3 Conditions that characterize collective behavior:
1.Absence or weakness of social forms

When existing social arrangements do not prescribe what is proper and acceptable behavior, people improvise a crisis or disaster, such as flood or famine, a revolution or an invasionsomething for which people are usually unprepared. Action is called for, yet routines to cope with the emergency are lacking of inadequate. The ordinary processes of elderly communication breakdown, and rumors, perhaps exaggerated and fear provoking take their place. Panic may also result. In a pioneer country where law-enforcement agencies are weak or non-existent, vigilante groups often go beyond their legitimate limits. In crowds, people come into contact with each other, outside the restraining influence of a social structure.

2. Ambiguous and open decisions
Especially in a democratic society, government policy is frequently deliberately left open to be determined by expressions of public opinion. While a broad framework of orderly rules is maintained, decisions are not reached by agreement on a traditional and commonly accepted authority but are worked out in the interplay of competing interest groups. It is assumed that public opinion is not predetermined and fixed but may be influenced.

3. Changed perspectives and values
Innovation, such as the growth of factory technology, brings about changes in goals and outlooks. Old ways are questioned, and pressure is exerted on customs and traditions.

CROWDS
In common usage any large number of people gathered in one place is called a crowd, but crowds differ in the extent to which interaction occurs or leads to unity of feeling and behavior. We may classify crowds on the basis of such criteria as whether participants have gathered spontaneously or for a scheduled event, whether they are behaving peacefully or violently, and whether they are preoccupied mainly with personal, subjective experiences or with events external to themselves. In addition, we may analyze crowds in terms of their organizational characteristics. Herbert Blumer proposed a relatively simple classification of crowds, using the terms casual, conventionalized, active and expressive to identify distinct types of collectives.

4 Types of collectives according to Blumer:

1.Casual crowd
In casual crowd, onlookers come together spontaneously for brief periods when their attention is drawn to some commonly perceived event. They do very little but view event as passive and fleeting aggregate of people. The members of a casual crowd share no collective goal and do not interact in any organized ways, in example, crowd watching a man hit by a car

2.Conventionalized crowd
In conventionalized crowd such as audiences, the participants have a common goal such as the enjoyment of attending a particular performance or spectacle. In addition, simple norms and rules on its members are followed. For example, the person who laughs when silence is more appropriate or who makes an unnecessary commotion is deviating from expected and approved patterns of audience behavior.

3. Active crowd
The members of both casual and conventionalized crowds, are primarily observed, they do not become directly involved in the event that has brought them together. Members of an active crowd, by contrast, becomes participants in the event, engaging in unpredictable and sometimes violent forms of behavior. Damage to property or injuries to persons often result from the behavior of an active crowd. A theater audience may stampede at the cry of “fire” and sports fan enraged by a series of “bad calls” may swarm the playing field in protest.

4. Expressive crowd
In the expressive crowd, the subjective experiences of the members themselves are the principal features of attention. A highly emotional religious revival meeting is an example. In the context of such a crowd, exaltation, grief, joy, fear and other emotions can be generated in ways unlikely to be experienced by individual members in isolation.

RUMOR
A rumor is a specific belief, passed along from person to person, usually by word of mouth, without secure standards of evidence being presented. Sociologically, rumors, even though at times grossly inaccurate and incredible in content cannot be dismissed as unimportant. Rumoring may have significant consequences. In many instances it represents an effort through interaction with others to develop orientations towards practices, status divisions, leaders, the future and goals for which structured and official definitions do not provide an adequate guide.

According to Shibutani, there are six important factors that facilitate the circulation of rumors: 1. the existense of a high degree of social interaction and

the

necessity for acting or of getting ready to act 2. the intensity and homogeneity of the wishes and the fears of the group 3. the unsatisfied need for information and the dependence of people upon one another for information. 4. monotomy and enforced inactivity 5. some degree of intension 6. some degree of rapport

Furthermore, Shibutani concluded that there are three major factors in the disappearance of rumors: 1. All members of the group have heard it. 2. Sudden change in the public’s interest. 3. Definite news which clears up the matter. Rumoring is one means by which human beings interact and conduct interpersonal relations. It is often a search for clarification and explanation of ambiguous situations. Rumoring can provide a basis for orientation, planning or action.

PUBLICS AND THEIR OPINIONS
Whereas a crowd involves a number of people in close physical contact and whose behavior is distinctly marked by emotion, the behavior of a public is based on discussion and deliberation and need not involve the collection of people together in one place. The only item that members of a public need to have in common is interest in an issue. Since there may be many issues in a given society at a given time, publics tend to overlap and a person may be considered a member of many publics at the same time. While members of a public may not know each other personally, they often react to an issue with the expectation that certain categories of others will display similar reaction to the same issue. Publics are concerned with the process of opinion formation as it leads to group action. In modern society, the opinions of publics have become a powerful force. There are five-phase model formulated and proposed by famous sociologists to describe the evolution of opinion as it leads to group action.

Five-phased model to describe the evolution of opinion:
1. Problem phase
A number of people recognize a situation to be problematic. They develop a sense of the problem as well as the feeling that something should be done about it. Possible solutions are explored on a tentative, grouping, way. Public and problem emerge together in the course of interaction.

2. Proposal phase
Some concrete proposals emerge and are tired out in the form of both rational discussions and unselfconscious interaction. There must be more than one of these potential lines of action, if this is to be an issue to discuss.

4. Policy phase
Here the moment is reached for some kind of decision among the alternative proposals for action.

5. Program phase
Opinions have now emerged from the process of discussion and an action program is initiated. Organizations now exists. The development of opinion usually ceases in relation to the original problem.

5. Appraisal phrase
Systematic or casual evaluation of the effectiveness of action programs are undertaken. Anticipations are found to have been validated or invalidated. In the comparison of actual with expected outcomes, new problems may be defined. This could lead to a new cycle of collective behavior.

FASHIONS, FADS, AND CRAZES
Fashions, fads and crazes are forms of collective behaviors which give man the opportunity to satisfy his need for selfexpression and status. Fashions are those cultural forms that become generally, accepted but are periodically subject to change. Clothing styles, certain styles of furniture, certain sports, certain breeds of dog and certain expressions fall under this category. This behavior patterns we label as fads and crazes appear and disappear even more quickly than fashions. Often they involve limited segments of society and are regarded by the majority as examples of pure foolishness. Whereas fashions are likely to be cyclical like the ups and downs of hemliness and the recurrent appearance and disappearance of shoulder pads, particular fads and crazes seldom become popular again once they have been abandoned. Usually they are abandoned just as

SOCIAL MOVEMENTS
Collective action is called a social movement when it is unified, lasting and has the following:

1. A distinctive perspective and ideology
The ideology of a movement provides direction and selfgratification; it offers weapons of attack and defense; and it holds out inspiration and hope. Social movements place great emphasis on ideology, particularly when other sources of orientation and cohesion are lacking.

2. A strong distinctive sense of solidarity and idealism
Membership in a movement typically means more to be individual than other affiliations. He is a dedicated man and feels part of an idealistic and active enterprise. Especially in early ages, idealism plays a role in all movements, political or religious, progressive or conservative.

3. An orientation toward action
The very word movement suggests unconventional methods of appeal, such as street meetings and the sale propaganda traits. Small movements can sometimes gain wide attention by dramatic actions, particularly if they involve violence. The stress on action reflects the problem of maintaining interest and solidarity. There is a constant need to give members to do something t do keep them from slipping away to other interests and involvements.

Types of Movements:
1. According to goals
1. Value-oriented versus norm-oriented movements A value-oriented movement speaks to a rather general social concern such as democracy, peace, nationalism or Godliness. A norm-oriented movement has a narrower focus. It strives to establish or change a specific social form or practice such as woman’s suffrage, child labor or separation of church and state.

2. Power-centered, persuasion-centered and participation-centered movements A power-centered movement is an instrument for exercising political muscle and winning victory in the political area. A persuasion-centered movement looks to education, including propaganda, and legitimate political action, to forward its aim. A participation-centered movement is mainly interested in its members and political members. It is less concerned to change social policy on the social order, except indirectly.

3. Unconventional, limited objectives, general reforms and revolutionary movements The unconventional movement is characterized by a zealous desire for quick and simple solution to the problems of society. The movement with a limited objective is aimed at curing a specific defect without changing the whole social order. The general reform movement is aimed at changing the various aspects of social living by means of peaceful reforms. The revolutionary movement aims to change the whole social order.

II. According to the direction and degree of the changes
1. Reactionary social movements These movements seek to restore society, or some part of it, to a former condition or state. Example: A movement that looks back to the past is the moral majority, whose members seek to return to the time when only marital sex was approved, homosexuality is regarded as a disease, and abortion was illegal.

2. Conservative movements These movements seeks to retain the status quo, to fight proposed changes that other movements might attempt to bring about. Example: The PROGUN movement-which was organized to prevent the ban on ownership of guns even for self-defense. 3. Revisionary movements These movements wish to make partial or moderate changes in the present state of society. Example: Focusing on specific issues or areas like blocking efforts to build a nuclear plant in Bataan.

4. Revolutionary movements These movements seeks major, sweeping, large-scale change. Example: Gabriela Silang Movement wants society to grant women equal rights as men. 5. Escapist movements These movements do not see to change society at all but attempt to withdraw from it and its corruption. Example: Members of religious sect who go to the mountain to escape or withdraw from the ills of the society.

6. Expressive movements These movements seek to change the psychic, emotional, internal state of individual members, not the external conditions. Their members believe that society and its problems-hunger, poverty, inequality and injustice-are less important that each individual’s attitudes toward them. Example: “Hunger Project”, introduced by the Erhard Training Seminar, aims to make hunger disappear within two decades by convincing its members and sympathizers, not to feel guilty about the starvations of millions of their fellow human being s since guilt is stupid and counterproductive.

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