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NUCLEAR ENERGY

NUCLEAR POWER

Definition
Nuclear power is the use of sustained nuclear fission to generate heat and do useful work. (Mechanical energy that turns into electrical energy in a steam turbine connected to a Generator).

How it works
Just as many conventional thermal power stations generate electricity by harnessing the thermal energy released from burning fossil fuels, nuclear power plants convert the energy released from the nucleus of an atom via nuclear fission that takes place in a nuclear reactor. The heat is from the reactor core by a cooling system removes heat and used to generate steam which drives a steam turbine connected to a generator which produces electricity.

Inside of the Plant


Nuclear Reactor: A nuclear reactor is a device to initiate and control a sustained nuclear chain reaction. The most common use of nuclear reactors is for the generation of electric energy and for the propulsion of ships. Cooling System: A cooling system removes heat from the reactor core and transports it to another area of the plant, where the thermal energy can be harnessed to produce electricity or to do other useful work. Steam Generator: The cooler transfer the energy removed from the reactor to the freswater and generates vapor, these takes places in a heat exchanger

Stem Turbine: The object of the steam turbine is to convert the heat contained in steam into mechanical energy Generator: The generator converts kinetic energy (mechanical energy) supplied by the turbine into electrical energy. Low-pole AC synchronous generators of high rated power are used. Condenser: The steam that leaves the turbine turn into fresh water when makes contact with liquid water in a heat exchanger so that it can be use again in the process, in this part recycled water is produced.

Nuclear Power Plant

Lets take a trip

Opposites AtractEqual Repel


Opposites charges atract Equal charges repel each other If there are equal charges together, there are big forces with a lot of energy that makes these opposite charges keeps together.

A quick view of the Energy Source


Fission: Inside of the nucleum of an atom we have positive charges together, but accordance to the electrical law, equal charges repel each other, the forces that makes this matter with equal charges is togehter inside of a nucleum are called nuclear forces and keeps a lot of energy, when the nucleum is separated this amount quantitity of energy is released, part of this energy is thermal energy that turns the water that moves the turbine into steam.

The fission is induced by neutrons, inside of the nucleous the protons and neutrons are in steady state beacuse of the action of the nuclear forces and the energy that keeps them together, but when a neutron hits the nucleous the equilibrioum is broken and a big quantitity of energy is released with atomic matter such as neutrons and protons, that hits another atoms, releasing more energy and more atomic matter. The radioctive particules comes from atomic matter released when separating an atom by hitting it with neutrons. These radioactive particule are called alpha and betta particules, neutrons and protons with a lot of energy released from an atomic nucleous separation, FISSION.

Nuclear Power by Country


Country Megawatt Capacity Nuclear share of electricity production %

Argentina Armenia Belgium Brazil Bulgaria Canada China (PRC) Czech Republic

935 376 5,943 1,901 1,906 12,679 10,234 3,686

%7.0 %45.0 %51.7 %3.0 %35.9 %14.8 %1.9 %33.8

Country Finland

Megawatt Capacity 2,721

Nuclear share of electricity Production % %32.9

France
Germany Hungary India Japan South Korea (ROK)

63,236
20,339 1,880 4,780 47,348 18,716

%72.5
%26.1 %43 %2.9 %28.9 %31.1

Mexico
Netherlands Pakistan

1,310
485 725

%4.8
%3.7 %2.7

Country Romania

Megawatt Capacity 1,310

Nuclear Share of Electricity Production % %20.6

Russia
Slovakia Slovenia and Croatia South Africa Spain Sweden

23,084
1,760 696 1,800 7,448 9,399

%17.8
%53.5 %37.9+8 %4.8 %17.5 %37.4

Switzerland
Taiwan (ROC) Ukraine

3,252
4,927 13,168

%39.5
%20.7 %48.6

Country United kingdom United States

Megawatt Capacity 10,962 101,229

Nuclera Share of electricity Production% %17.9 %20.2

World

378,910

%14

Nuclear Fuels
Nuclear fuel is a material that can be 'consumed' (by fission or fusion ) to derive nuclear energy. The material that reacts and generates the thermal energy that turns the liquid water into steam and moves the turbinte that generates the electrical energy. The most common fissile nuclear fuels are Uranium 235 (235U) and Plutonium 239 (239Pu).

Enviromental Impacts
High-level radioactive waste: After about 5% of a nuclear fuel rod has reacted inside a nuclear reactor that rod is no longer able to be used as fuel (due to the build-up of fission products). Low-level radioactive waste: The nuclear industry also produces a large volume of low-level radioactive waste in the form of contaminated items like clothing, hand tools, water purifier resins, and (upon decommissioning) the materials of which the reactor itself is built

After usage in the power plant, the spent fuel is delivered to a reprocessing plant or to a final repository for geological disposition. In reprocessing 95% of spent fuel can be recycled to be returned to usage in a power plant (4).

Climate Changes: Climate change causing weather extremes such as heat waves, reduced precipitation levels and droughts can have a significant impact on nuclear energy infrastructure. Can cause an stop in reactors.

Nuclear Disasters in History


Chernobyl Disaster (1986): There was a sudden power output surge, and when an emergency shutdown was attempted, a more extreme spike in power output occurred, which led to a reactor vessel rupture and a series of explosions

Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster (2011): All power for cooling was lost and reactors started to overheat, owing to natural decay of the fission products created before shutdown Three Mile Island accident (1979): The Three Mile Island accident was a core meltdown in Unit 2 (a pressurized water reactor) of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania near Harrisburg, United States in 1979.

Lets Check The News (Japan 2011, Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster )

Chernobyl 1986

Important Institutions that Deals and Regulate the Nuclear Power Activity

SUPPORTIVE NUCLEAR POWER ORGANIZATIONS World Nuclear Association, a confederation of companies connected with nuclear power production. (International) International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Nuclear Energy Institute (United States) American Nuclear Society (United States) United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (United Kingdom) EURATOM (Europe) Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (Canada) Environmentalists for Nuclear Energy (International)

AGAINST Friends of the Earth International, a network of environmental organizations in 77 countries.[127] Greenpeace International, a nongovernmental environmental organization[128] with offices in 41 countries.[129] Nuclear Information and Resource Service (International) Sortir du nuclaire (Canada) Sortir du nuclaire (France) Pembina Institute (Canada) Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (United States)

New Nuclear Power Resources (New Researches in Nuclear Power Energy)


Nuclear Fussion: Nuclear fusion reactions have the potential to be safer and generate less radioactive waste than fission.[29][30] These reactions appear potentially viable, though technically quite difficult and have yet to be created on a scale that could be used in a functional power plant. Fusion power has been under intense theoretical and experimental investigation since the 1950s.

Conclusions
Nuclear Energy is an efficiency energy resource for generating other forms of energy. In the way we combine Nuclear Power for producing other forms of energy with other sources such as renewable sources, we take the road for a sustainable development and we reduces the pollution of waste materials from this and other industries and eliminate tragedies.

Renowable Sources, Lets Use The energy inside of the earth to generate steam, First a Dry Steam Plant

Inside of the earth, there are steam that can be used to move a turbine an generate electrical energy. The energy of the steam is called geothermal power, the steam moves the turbine that conver the thermal energy of the stema into electrical energy.

There are twoo types of geothermal plants: Dry Steam Plants: Inside of the earth is the steam with geothermal energy Flash Steam Plants. Under the earth there is steam and liquid water mixed, we separte the stean and liquid water first and use the pure steam to move the turbine.

In geothermal power the steam is already under the earth we only use it to move the turbine, we dont have to use another source of energy that heats up the liquid water and turn it into steam that moves the turbine

Hydroelectric Power
In a Hydroelectric power plant the flow of the river moves the turbine and the turbine geneartes the electrical energy, we dont have to turn liquid water into steam that moves the turbine because the flow of the water of the river does it

This is another renowable source of energy

Thermal Plant
In a thermal plant we burn fuel in a boiler, that turns the liquid water into steam that moves the turbine that generates the electrical energy. The Heat release when the fuel is burned is used to heat up the water and generates steam that moves the turbine. This is not a renowable source of energy because we use fuel such as oil or natural gas (Propane)

A Thermal Plant

In a thermal plant we use a fuel that generates the heat release when we burn it (combustion) (This turns the liquid water into steam heating it up, the steam later moves the turbine) In a Nuclear Power Plant we use a material that generates heat when reacts inside of the reactor and the atoms are separated(fissionized) (this heat heats up the liquid water and turn it into steam that moves

Something Interisting
Both in thermal plants and nuclear plants we use a fuel that generates the heat that heats up the water generating steam that moves the turbine later. In a thermal plant the fuel is burned in a combustion (Inside the boiler), a chemical reaction, like burning a amount of leaves this generates the heat, that heats up the water and generates the steam

In a Nuclear reactor the fuel is consumed and the heat is generated (In a Nuclear Reactor), when the atom is separated in a nuclear reaction

Wind Power, Anoter Renowable source of energy


In Wind Power the air acts like the steam in a nuclear plant, water in a hydroelectric power plant ,the air moves wind turbines that generates the electrical energy. The wind turbines that generates the electrical energy are shown in the next slide

THANKS

Class August 2011!!!! (Y)

Questions, Suggestions, Comments.