Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

49 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- KJFCh1BB
- Note Chapter2 SF017
- Chapter 6 Matriculation STPM
- The Expert TA _ 3Aa
- 714363-3-56P
- Physics Exam
- The Expert TA _3.pdf
- Electrodynamics
- magnetisasito densiti
- Fields and Vector_calculus
- Using_Vectors_in_a_3-phase_power_system
- Lesson plan for introduction to vector math.doc
- Physics
- Explicit-STR_16.0_L04_Results_Processing.pdf
- Reduction of a 3D Problem to 2D Problem
- Coplanar Forces
- Experiment 2 Resultant and Equilibrant forces
- Wuhan Key
- chap2
- 2 - Rectangular Components of a Force

You are on page 1of 32

LESSON 3

1

1.4 Scalar & Vector

Objectives

Cartesian coordinate.

visualize resultant vector graphically by applying

a) commutative

b) associative

c) distributive and rules

2

Scalar quantity 1.4 Scalar & Vector

• Examples : mass, work, speed, energy, and density.

Vector quantity

• A quantity that has both magnitude and direction.

• Examples: velocity, acceleration, force, and momentum.

r

• Vector notation : A or A or a

%

• A vector can be represented by an arrow ;

r r

magnitude of A = A or A

vector direction

r

A

3

1.4 Scalar & Vector

• Equality of two vectors

r

P Two vectors are equal if they have equal lengths

r and point in the same direction.

Q r r r r

P = Q P Q and point in the same direction

• Negative of a vector

r

P The negative of a vector is vector having the same

r length but opposite direction.

-P

r r r

positive scalar quantity : m P = mP ; magnitude = mP

r

direction same direction of P

negative scalar quantity :

r r r

(-m) P = -mP ; magnitude = mP

r 4

direction opposite direction of P

Example : 1.4 Scalar & Vector

r

r r r r A

F=2A G= 2A=

1

2

r r r r

• parallel vectors : A ; E ; F ; G

r r r r r r r r

• anti parallel vectors : A and D ; A and H ; F and H ; D and E ;

r r r r r r r r

E and H ; F and D ; D and G ; G and H

r r

• equal vectors : A = E

r r r

• negative of a vector : D = -A = - E

5

1.4 Scalar & Vector

Quiz :

1. Define scalar quantity

2. Define vector quantity

6

1.4 Scalar & Vector

Vector Addition & Subtraction

Vector addition

• A resultant vector is a single vector which produces the same

effect ( in both magnitude and direction) as the vector sum of

two or more vectors.

• 2 methods of vector addition :

graphical method - head to tail / tip to tail

- parallelogram

calculation /algebraically (component method)

• Vector addition obeys commutative, associative and distributive

laws

7

1.4 Scalar & Vector

Additional graphical : head to tail

Example 1

C

r

B A B C

A

8

1.4 Scalar & Vector

Example 2

D

Geometric construction for

summing four vectors.

R =A+B+C+D

C

R is the resultant vector

B

A

9

1.4 Scalar & Vector

Additional graphical : parallelogram

- The resultant of two vectors acting at any angle may be represented

by the diagonal of a parallelogram.

Example

A

The resultant vector , C is the

diagonal of the parallelogram.

C

B B

C=A+B

A

10

1.4 Scalar & Vector

Commutative law :

Example

A A+B = B+A =C

C

B B

A

11

1.4 Scalar & Vector

Associative law :

Example

A + ( B + C) C C

(A + B) + C

B+C A+B

B B

A A

A + ( B + C) = (A + B) + C

12

1.4 Scalar & Vector

Distributive law :

Example

A+B m(A + B)

B mB

A mA

m(A + B) = mA + mB

Vector addition is distributive

13

1.4 Scalar & Vector

Vector subtraction :

A B

C -B A - B = A + (-B) = C

• The vector -B is equal in magnitude to vector B

and points in the opposite direction.

• To subtract B from A , applythe ruleof vector

addition to the combination of A and -B

14

1.4 Scalar & Vector

Example 1

Draw the vectors :

A a) A + B

b) A - B

B

c) 2A + B

15

1.4 Scalar & Vector

Example 1

Draw the vectors :

A a) A + B

b) A - B

B

c) 2A + B

Solution

a) B b)

A -B

A-B

A+B

A

16

1.4 Scalar & Vector

c) 2A + B

B 2A

2A + B

17

1.4 Scalar & Vector

Components of a vector & Unit Vectors

Components of a vector :

A vector A can be resolved into its components that are

perpendicular to each other.

i) In 2 – D

Vector A is resolved into x-component and y -component

y A = Ax + A y

(vector components)

A x = Ax = A cos or A cos

Ay A (scalar

A y = Ay A sin or A sin components)

)θ x

Magnitude : Direction :

Ax Ay

A Ax2 Ay2 tan 1

Ax 18

1.4 Scalar & Vector

ii) In 3 – D

Vector A can be resolved into 3 components : x, y and z components

(vector

y A = Ax + A y + Az components)

Magnitudes :

Ay

A x = Ax = A cos

A

Ay (scalar

β A y = Ay A cos components)

)α A x x

Az

γ Az A z = Az A cos

Ax

z

19

1.4 Scalar & Vector

20

1.4 Scalar & Vector

y

Ay A

x

Ax

Az

21

1.4 Scalar & Vector

22

1.4 Scalar & Vector

REMEMBER !!! The signs of the components of a vector (eg: vector A )

depend on the quadrant in which the vector is located :

y

Ax negative Ax positive

Ay positive Ay positive

x

Ax negative Ax positive

Ay negative Ay negative

23

1.4 Scalar & Vector

Addition of vectors using components (⇒ Cartesian coordinates)

y A = Ax + Ay = A cos A sin

B = Bx + By = B cos B sin

β A

B C = C x + C y = C cos C sin

α

x

γ C Vectors x-component y-component

A A cos A sin

B B cos B sin

C C cos C sin

Let R is the resultant vector,

y

Rx Ax Bx C x A cos B cos C cos

Ry Ay By C y A sin B sin C sin

R

Ry

Magnitude, R Rx2 Ry2 θ x

Rx

Ry

Direction , = tan -1 24

Rx

1.4 Scalar & Vector

Addition of vectors using components (⇒ Cartesan coordinates)

Example 1: Four coplanar forces act on a body at point O. Find their resultant.

y Solution :

110 N

80 N 80 cos 0o = 80 N 80 sin 0o = 0

100 N

30o 45o 100 N 100 cos 45o = 71 N 100 sin 45o = 71 N

x

20o O 80 N 110 N -110 cos 30o = -95 N 110 sin 30o = 55 N

160 N 160 N -160 cos 20o = -150 N -160 sin 20o = -55 N

y

Let R is the resultant vector,

R 71 N

Rx Fx (80 71 95 150)N = -94 N

37o 143o

Ry Fy (0 71 55 55)N = 71 N -94 N

x

Magnitude, R F (94) 2 (71) 2 118 N

-1 71

Direction , = tan 37 o (or, 143o from positive x-axis ) 25

94

1.4 Scalar & Vector

Unit Vectors :

• A dimensionless vector

• Have magnitude of 1, with no units.

• Show direction

• Examples :

î : unit vector in the +ve x- direction

ĵ î

k̂

26

1.4 Scalar & Vector

i) In 2 – D ii) In 3 – D

y

y

4

3

Ay ĵ A

A

Ay ˆj Ax î

x

Az k̂ 0 3

)θ x 2

0 2

Ax î

z

A Ax ˆi Ay ˆj A Ax ˆi Ay ˆj Az kˆ

Example : Example :

A 2iˆ 3jˆ A 3iˆ 4ˆj + 2kˆ 27

1.4 Scalar & Vector

28

1.4 Scalar & Vector

Addition of vectors using components (⇒ unit vectors)

Example 1:

Given two vectors A (6i 3j k) and B (4iˆ 5jˆ 8k)

ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ

Find C A B and its magnitude.

+2

A B

Solution : F

i

C =A+B

n

(6iˆ 3jˆ k)

ˆ (4iˆ -5j+8k)

ˆ ˆ

d

(6 4)iˆ + (3-5)jˆ + (-1+8)kˆ

t

10iˆ - 2jˆ + 7kˆ h

e

Magnitude, C 102 (2) 2 7 2 12.4

m

29

a

1.4 Scalar & Vector

Addition of vectors using components ( unit vectors)

Example 2:

Given two vectors P = (2i + 3j) and Q (3iˆ - 2jˆ + 3k)

ˆ ˆ ˆ

Find R 2P Q and its magnitude.

Solution :

R = 2P - Q

=2(2iˆ + 3jˆ + 0k)

ˆ - (3iˆ - 2jˆ + 3k)

ˆ

ˆ - (3iˆ - 2jˆ + 3k)

ˆ

= (4 - 3)iˆ + (6 + 2)jˆ + (0 - 3)kˆ

= ˆi + 8jˆ - 3kˆ

Magnitude, R 12 82 (3) 2 8.6

30

1.4 Scalar & Vector

Addition of vectors using components ( unit vectors)

Example 3:

Given two vectors A (6i 3j) and B (4iˆ 5j)

ˆ ˆ ˆ

Find C A B and its magnitude.

+2

A B

Solution : Direction ; F

Cy i

C =A+B tan 1

Cx n

(6iˆ 3j)

ˆ (4iˆ -5j)

ˆ

d

(2)

= tan 1

(6 4)iˆ + (3-5)jˆ 10

= -11.30 t

10iˆ - 2jˆ h

y

10

x

e

Magnitude, C 102 (2) 2 10.2

-2

m

31

a

1.4 Scalar & Vector

Conclusion

• Scalar quantity – has magnitude

• Vector quantity – has magnitude and direction

• Vector addition :

head to tail

- graphical

parallelogram

- by calculation ( component method)

• Component of a vector in 2-D : A = Ax ˆi + Ay ˆj

• Component of a vector in 3-D : A = Ax ˆi + Ay ˆj + Az kˆ

32

- KJFCh1BBUploaded byJohn Jones
- Note Chapter2 SF017Uploaded byapi-3699866
- Chapter 6 Matriculation STPMUploaded byJue Saadiah
- The Expert TA _ 3AaUploaded byMuzamil Shah
- 714363-3-56PUploaded byRaagaraja
- Physics ExamUploaded bydeomonhunter1
- The Expert TA _3.pdfUploaded byMuzamil Shah
- ElectrodynamicsUploaded byKirk Douglas
- magnetisasito densitiUploaded byAvisha N Avisena
- Fields and Vector_calculusUploaded byEkambaramMuniyandi
- Using_Vectors_in_a_3-phase_power_systemUploaded bysbsridhar5624
- Lesson plan for introduction to vector math.docUploaded byLeonardo Muñoz
- PhysicsUploaded byJohn Aldren Molina
- Explicit-STR_16.0_L04_Results_Processing.pdfUploaded byRushabh Patel
- Reduction of a 3D Problem to 2D ProblemUploaded byImran Shahzad Khan
- Coplanar ForcesUploaded byMuyanja Fahd
- Experiment 2 Resultant and Equilibrant forcesUploaded byHeather Lao
- Wuhan KeyUploaded byTayyab Saeed
- chap2Uploaded byMd Imran
- 2 - Rectangular Components of a ForceUploaded bymailene
- Generix Content - Measurements, Scalars and VectorsUploaded bysunlias
- phys111Uploaded bysiddansh
- Mecanica VectorialUploaded byLuis Alavarado Diaz
- Vectors 2018Uploaded byPaul Daliwag
- Test 1 Ch 2complete 2015Uploaded byhassan
- CoplanarUploaded byLaxminarsimhaswamy Konda
- cal102Uploaded bynoah
- Vectors and DirectionphsycsUploaded byChristopher Baguistan Reyes
- Chapter 1Uploaded bySayantan
- Loss Allocation 1Uploaded byRey Arnaiz

- UNIT2DUploaded byapi-3699866
- Note Chapter5 SF017Uploaded byapi-3699866
- Note Chapter4 SF017Uploaded byapi-3699866
- Note Chapter3 SF017Uploaded byapi-3699866
- Note Chapter1 SF017Uploaded byapi-3699866
- Work, Energy and PowerUploaded byapi-3699866
- Unit 3Uploaded byapi-3699866
- unit3stdUploaded byapi-3699866
- Unit 1 AUploaded byapi-3699866
- UNIT2CUploaded byapi-3699866
- UNIT2BUploaded byapi-3699866
- Unit 2 AUploaded byapi-3699866
- unit1bUploaded byapi-3699866

- Handbook of Radiotherapy Physics Theory and PracticeUploaded byCamila Gutiérrez Pezo
- Chapter 2 FluidsUploaded byAhmad Ikhwan
- Characterization of Friction Loss in Pelton TurbineUploaded byIan Nishibayaski
- A New Proposal of a Simple Model for the Lateral-Torsional Buckling of Unrestrained Steel I-beams in Case of Fire Experimental and Numerical ValiUploaded byReaditReadit
- Quantum annealing algorithm descriptionUploaded byAlfonso
- Transformation of Stresses and StrainsUploaded byHüseyin Hızlı
- lesson plan 1Uploaded byapi-424436441
- Essential Equations in Anaesthesiaa.pdfUploaded byigor
- Electricity WorksheetsUploaded byMeagan Jorgenson
- Qpedia_Dec07_Understanding Hot Wire AmemometryUploaded byAnchan Saxena
- 96993596-Multiphase-Flow.pdfUploaded byHassan
- Viscosity Exp updated.docx1111.docxUploaded byIbrahim
- Aden - Kerker. scattering efficiency for a layered sphere. 1951Uploaded byİlke Ve Bekir Türedi
- EEU104 01 One Phase AC CircuitUploaded byReginald Anthony
- feaUploaded byFrancis Zigi
- Chapter 9Uploaded byHoejiunn Wong
- CFD LimitationUploaded byPArk100
- 2595 olive oilUploaded byclionpoor
- PhD Thesis R Ribichini FinalUploaded bysoffter2000
- Experiment 8Uploaded byAldoz Karl Polinar Mejos
- Day+2+Drilling+Straight+and+Deviated+WellsUploaded byRadu Chibzui
- 5 Laws of NatureUploaded byMark J. Burton II
- Predicting Non-linear Response of Laterally Loaded Pile Groups via Simple SolutionsUploaded byMoein Mohammadi Zadeh
- Moles and Mole CalculationsUploaded byAhmadElgindy
- Short Circuit CalculationUploaded byMaulana Adi
- BIBO stability proof.pdfUploaded bytasos7639
- PHYICSUploaded byDebayan Biswas
- lecture_slides_lec6.pdfUploaded byg6h
- Salmon - A New Look at CausalityUploaded byjasgdleste
- Section III.4.2.1 Rockets and Launch VehiclesUploaded byshyam_nair555