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1.

4 Scalar & Vector

LESSON 3

1.4 Scalar & Vector

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1.4 Scalar & Vector
Objectives

• Define scalar and vector quantities, unit vector in


Cartesian coordinate.

• Vector addition operation and their rules and


visualize resultant vector graphically by applying
a) commutative
b) associative
c) distributive and rules

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Scalar quantity 1.4 Scalar & Vector

• A quantity that has magnitude but no direction.


• Examples : mass, work, speed, energy, and density.

Vector quantity
• A quantity that has both magnitude and direction.
• Examples: velocity, acceleration, force, and momentum.
r
• Vector notation : A or A or a
%
• A vector can be represented by an arrow ;
r r
magnitude of A = A or A

vector direction
r
A
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1.4 Scalar & Vector
• Equality of two vectors
r
P Two vectors are equal if they have equal lengths
r and point in the same direction.
Q r r r r
P = Q  P  Q and point in the same direction

• Negative of a vector
r
P The negative of a vector is vector having the same
r length but opposite direction.
-P

• Multiplying a vector by a scalar


r r r
 positive scalar quantity : m  P = mP ; magnitude = mP
r
direction  same direction of P
 negative scalar quantity :
r r r
(-m)  P = -mP ; magnitude = mP
r 4
direction  opposite direction of P
Example : 1.4 Scalar & Vector

r
r r r r A
F=2A G= 2A=
1
2
r r r r
• parallel vectors : A ; E ; F ; G
r r r r r r r r
• anti parallel vectors : A and D ; A and H ; F and H ; D and E ;
r r r r r r r r
E and H ; F and D ; D and G ; G and H
r r
• equal vectors : A = E
r r r
• negative of a vector : D = -A = - E
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1.4 Scalar & Vector

Quiz :
1. Define scalar quantity
2. Define vector quantity

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1.4 Scalar & Vector
Vector Addition & Subtraction
Vector addition
• A resultant vector is a single vector which produces the same
effect ( in both magnitude and direction) as the vector sum of
two or more vectors.
• 2 methods of vector addition :
 graphical method - head to tail / tip to tail
- parallelogram
 calculation /algebraically (component method)
• Vector addition obeys commutative, associative and distributive
laws

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1.4 Scalar & Vector
 Additional graphical : head to tail

Example 1


C
 r  
B A B  C

A

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1.4 Scalar & Vector

 Additional graphical : head to tail

Example 2

D
Geometric construction for
     summing four vectors.
R =A+B+C+D 
C

R is the resultant vector

 B
A

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1.4 Scalar & Vector
 Additional graphical : parallelogram
- The resultant of two vectors acting at any angle may be represented
by the diagonal of a parallelogram.

Example

A

The resultant vector , C is the
  diagonal of the parallelogram.
C 
B B
  
C=A+B

A
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1.4 Scalar & Vector

Commutative law :
Example


    
A A+B = B+A =C

  Vector addition is commutative


C 
B B


A
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1.4 Scalar & Vector
Associative law :
Example

    
A + ( B + C) C    C
(A + B) + C
   
B+C A+B
 
B B
 
A A
     
A + ( B + C) = (A + B) + C

Vector addition is associative

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1.4 Scalar & Vector
Distributive law :
Example
   
A+B m(A + B)
 
B mB
 
A mA

   
m(A + B) = mA + mB
Vector addition is distributive

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1.4 Scalar & Vector

Vector subtraction :

 
A B

      
C -B A - B = A + (-B) = C

 
• The vector -B is equal in magnitude to vector B
and points in the opposite direction.
 
• To subtract B from A , applythe ruleof vector
addition to the combination of A and -B
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1.4 Scalar & Vector

Vector addition & subtraction

Example 1
 Draw the vectors :
 
A a) A + B
 
 b) A - B
B  
c) 2A + B

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1.4 Scalar & Vector

Vector addition & subtraction

Example 1
 Draw the vectors :
 
A a) A + B
 
 b) A - B
B  
c) 2A + B

Solution
  
a) B b)
A -B
 
  A-B
A+B 
A
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1.4 Scalar & Vector

 
c) 2A + B

 
B 2A

 
2A + B

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1.4 Scalar & Vector
Components of a vector & Unit Vectors
Components of a vector :
A vector A can be resolved into its components that are
perpendicular to each other.
i) In 2 – D 
Vector A is resolved into x-component and y -component
  
y A = Ax + A y
(vector components)
  
 A x = Ax = A cos  or A cos 
Ay A   (scalar
A y = Ay  A sin  or A sin  components)

)θ x
 Magnitude : Direction :
Ax  Ay
A  Ax2  Ay2   tan 1

Ax 18
1.4 Scalar & Vector

ii) In 3 – D

Vector A can be resolved into 3 components : x, y and z components
    (vector
y A = Ax + A y + Az components)

Magnitudes :
  
Ay
 A x = Ax = A cos 
A
 Ay   (scalar
β A y = Ay  A cos  components)
 )α A x x
Az  
γ Az A z = Az  A cos 
Ax
z

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1.4 Scalar & Vector

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1.4 Scalar & Vector
y

 
Ay A

 x
 Ax
Az

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1.4 Scalar & Vector

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1.4 Scalar & Vector


REMEMBER !!! The signs of the components of a vector (eg: vector A )
depend on the quadrant in which the vector is located :

y
Ax negative Ax positive
Ay positive Ay positive
x
Ax negative Ax positive
Ay negative Ay negative

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1.4 Scalar & Vector
Addition of vectors using components (⇒ Cartesian coordinates)

y A = Ax + Ay = A cos   A sin 
 
B = Bx + By = B cos   B sin 
 β A 
B C = C x + C y = C cos   C sin 
α
 x
γ C Vectors x-component y-component

A A cos  A sin 

B B cos  B sin 

C C cos  C sin 

Let R is the resultant vector,
y
Rx  Ax  Bx  C x  A cos   B cos   C cos 
Ry  Ay  By  C y  A sin   B sin   C sin  
R
 Ry
Magnitude, R  Rx2  Ry2 θ x
Rx
Ry
Direction ,  = tan -1 24
Rx
1.4 Scalar & Vector
Addition of vectors using components (⇒ Cartesan coordinates)
Example 1: Four coplanar forces act on a body at point O. Find their resultant.

y Solution :

Forces,F x-component y-component


110 N
80 N 80 cos 0o = 80 N 80 sin 0o = 0
100 N
30o 45o 100 N 100 cos 45o = 71 N 100 sin 45o = 71 N
x
20o O 80 N 110 N -110 cos 30o = -95 N 110 sin 30o = 55 N
160 N 160 N -160 cos 20o = -150 N -160 sin 20o = -55 N

 y
Let R is the resultant vector, 
R 71 N
Rx   Fx  (80  71  95  150)N = -94 N
37o 143o
Ry   Fy  (0  71  55  55)N = 71 N -94 N
x

Magnitude, R  F  (94) 2  (71) 2  118 N
-1 71
Direction ,  = tan  37 o (or, 143o from positive x-axis ) 25
94
1.4 Scalar & Vector
Unit Vectors :
• A dimensionless vector
• Have magnitude of 1, with no units.
• Show direction
• Examples :
î : unit vector in the +ve x- direction

ĵ : unit vector in the +ve y-direction

k̂ : unit vector in the +ve z-direction


ĵ î


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1.4 Scalar & Vector

Components of a vector in the form of unit vector :


i) In 2 – D ii) In 3 – D
y
y
4
3 
 Ay ĵ A
A
Ay ˆj Ax î
x
Az k̂ 0 3
)θ x 2
0 2
Ax î
 z 
A  Ax ˆi  Ay ˆj A  Ax ˆi  Ay ˆj  Az kˆ
Example : Example :
 
A  2iˆ  3jˆ A  3iˆ  4ˆj + 2kˆ 27
1.4 Scalar & Vector

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1.4 Scalar & Vector
Addition of vectors using components (⇒ unit vectors)
Example 1:
 
Given two vectors A  (6i  3j  k) and B  (4iˆ  5jˆ  8k)
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
  
Find C  A  B and its magnitude.
+2 
A B

Solution : F
   i
C =A+B
n
 (6iˆ  3jˆ  k)
ˆ  (4iˆ -5j+8k)
ˆ ˆ
d
  (6  4)iˆ + (3-5)jˆ + (-1+8)kˆ 
 
t
 10iˆ - 2jˆ + 7kˆ h
 e
Magnitude, C  102  (2) 2  7 2  12.4
m
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1.4 Scalar & Vector
Addition of vectors using components ( unit vectors)
Example 2:
 
Given two vectors P = (2i + 3j) and Q  (3iˆ - 2jˆ + 3k)
ˆ ˆ ˆ
  
Find R  2P  Q and its magnitude.
Solution :
  
R = 2P - Q
=2(2iˆ + 3jˆ + 0k)
ˆ - (3iˆ - 2jˆ + 3k)
ˆ

=  (4iˆ + 6jˆ + 0k)


ˆ - (3iˆ - 2jˆ + 3k)
ˆ 
 
=  (4 - 3)iˆ + (6 + 2)jˆ + (0 - 3)kˆ 
 
= ˆi + 8jˆ - 3kˆ

Magnitude, R  12  82  (3) 2  8.6
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1.4 Scalar & Vector
Addition of vectors using components ( unit vectors)
Example 3:
 
Given two vectors A  (6i  3j) and B  (4iˆ  5j)
ˆ ˆ ˆ
  
Find C  A  B and its magnitude.
+2 
A B

Solution : Direction ; F
   Cy i
C =A+B   tan 1

Cx n
 (6iˆ  3j)
ˆ  (4iˆ -5j)
ˆ
d
(2)
= tan 1
  (6  4)iˆ + (3-5)jˆ  10
 
= -11.30 t
 10iˆ - 2jˆ h
y
 10
x
e
Magnitude, C  102  (2) 2  10.2
-2
m
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1.4 Scalar & Vector
Conclusion
• Scalar quantity – has magnitude
• Vector quantity – has magnitude and direction

• Vector addition :
head to tail
- graphical
parallelogram
- by calculation ( component method)

• Unit vector – magnitude ‘1’ ; has no unit ; shows direction



• Component of a vector in 2-D : A = Ax ˆi + Ay ˆj

• Component of a vector in 3-D : A = Ax ˆi + Ay ˆj + Az kˆ

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