LESSON 3

2.3 Free Fall Motion

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OBJECTIVES.
To describe and use the Equations of free fall motion :

1 2 s  vo t  gt 2 v  v0  gt v  v  2 gs
2 2 0
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2.3 : Free Fall Motion
•Definition : A motion of an object under the influence of gravity only, regardless of its initial motion. •Freely falling objects have an acceleration due to gravity which is acting in the downward direction, g = 9.81 m s-2.
g = 9.81 m s-2

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Equations of free fall motion – sign convention Upward Motion Displacement, s Velocity, v Acceleration due to gravity, g +ve +ve -ve Downward motion -ve -ve -ve

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Free – fall : downward motion
Object releases from rest at height, h. Its displacement , when it reaches the ground, s = -h
t=0 h

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Example 1 : Downward motion
An object is released from rest at height, 20 m from a building . Calculate the (i) time (ii) velocity when it reaches the ground. Solution : vo = 0 ; s = -20 m ; g = -9.81m s-2 Using s = vo t - ½ gt2 -20 = 0 - ½(9.81)t2 t = 4.08 s v = vo - gt = 0 - (9.81)(4.08) = - 40.02 m s-1 [ -ve: downward]
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Example 2 : Downward motion
An object is released from rest at height, h, from a building. It takes 10 s to reach the ground. Calculate (i) the height of the building (ii) the velocity when the object hits the ground. Solution : v0= 0, t =10 s, g = -9.81 m s-2 Using s = v0 t - ½ gt2 s = 0 - ½(9.81)(10)2 = -491m (the height is 491 m) v = vo - gt = 0 - (9.81)(10) = - 98.1m s-1 (-ve: downward)
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Example 3 : Upward motion
A ball is thrown vertically upward with vo = 20 m s-1 . Calculate (i) the maximum height (ii) the flight time . Solution: v=0 At maximum height, velocity, v = 0. v0= 20 m s-1, g = 9.81 m s-2
2 v 2 = v o − 2 gs

0 = 20 2 − 2(9.81) H H = 20.4 m
Using v = v0 - gt 0 = 20 - 9.81t Flight time, t = 2.04 s

+vo

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Example 4 :Upward and downward motion
An object is thrown vertically upward with velocity 10 m s-1. Calculate (i) its final velocity when it reaches the ground (ii) the flight time Solution : Displacement, s = 0 vo = initial velocity = +10 m s-1 Using v2 = vo2 - 2gs = (+10)2 – 2 (9.81)(0) v = -10 m s-1 Using s = vot - ½ gt2 0 = 10t - ½ (9.81)t2 t = 2.04 s.

vo

v

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Example 5 : Upward and downward motion
t=0 H

An object is launched from a table of height, 5 m with velocity 10 m s-1, calculate ; (b) The maximum height. (c) The time of flight (d) Its velocity and height when t = 2 s (e) Its velocity when it hits the ground.

Solution : (a) Given: vo= 10 m s-1 ; at maximum height, v = 0 Using v2 = vo2 - 2gs 0 = 102 -2 (9.81)H H = 5.10 m Maximum height, H = 5.10 + 5.0 = 10.10 m
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Solution of Example 5 : Upward and downward motion
(b) Displacement, s = -5m, vo = 10 m s-1, time of flight = T Using s = vot - ½ gt2 -5 = 10 T - ½ (9.81) T2 9.81T2 – 20T- 10=0
(20)  (20)2  4(9.81)(10) T 2(9.81)

= 2.45 s (accept positive value only)

(c ) Given t = 2 s, time of flight, T = 2.45 s Using v = vo - gt v = (+10) - (9.81)(2) = - 9.62 m s-1 (downward) Using s = vot - ½ gt2 t=0 = (10)(2) - ½ (9.81)(2)2 = + 0.38 m Initial It is moving downward and stops H position at point, P = 0.38 m above the table. Height = 5 + 0.38 = 5.38 m

P +0.38m
Final position

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Solution of Example 5 : Upward and downward motion (d) Time of flight, T = 2.45 s, vo= +10 m s-1, Displacement, s = -5 m Using v = vo – gt ; v =10 - (9.81)(2.45) v = -14.03 m s-1 (moving downward) Or Using v2 = vo2 - 2as; v2 = 102 -2 (9.81)(-5) v = ± 14.07 = - 14.07 m s-1 (moving downward)

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Conclusion
Equations of free fall motion :

1 2 s  vot  gt 2 v  v0  gt v  v  2 gs
2 2 0
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