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System Perspective -Theory

&
Chaos – Complexity Theory
System Perspective - Theory
Viewing things as whole
entities embedded in
context and still larger
wholes
Approaches to system
research lead directly to
and depend heavily on
qualitative inquiry
Systems orientation can
be very helpful in framing
questions and making
sense out of the
qualitative data
System Perspective - Theory
Key points:
Holistic thinking
Interconnected and
interdependent
Change in one part
effect others
Lost when taken
apart
System Perspective - Theory
Synthetic thinking Analysis
Things to be explained is Things to be explained
taken to be a part of the is taken apart
larger whole
Understanding of the Knowledge of the parts
containing whole is is aggregated into
disaggregated to explain knowledge of the whole
the parts
Reveals functions - WHY Reveals structure –
it works the way it does HOW it does so

Synthesis and analysis complement each other. System Thinking


incorporates both.
System Perspective - Theory
Application of system theory as a framework for patient-
focused evaluation in nursing and health care areas

System theory Non system theory


Simultaneous Analysis of
analysis of relationship on one-
relationship on level and reductionist
different levels and design
different methods
Chaos and Complexity Theory
System & complexity theory is
closely related
Complexity theory about
nonlinear dynamics may
become a new paradigm for
approaching human
complexities
Complexity theory offers a new
set of metaphors for thinking
about WHAT we observe, HOW
we observe and WHAT WE
KNOW as a result of our
observations
Chaos and Complexity Theory
Chaos theory challenge us with the
unpredictability and indeterminism in human
behavior (Cziko 1989)
Complexity theory served, at least at
metaphorical level to better define a research
problem
Complexity theory also handle issues such as:
inclusion of the researcher, broadening historical
and political context and the issue of prediction
Chaos and Complexity Theory
Why chaos theory with its non-linearity is
interesting?
It give blurred relationship between simplicity &
complexity
It opens the opportunity to simplify complex
phenomenon
It reveals doubts on traditional scientific
procedure in making models
It shows there are limits on our understanding
and prediction on future in all complexity levels
Chaos and Complexity Theory
Examples:
Study of climate:
although computer
software has some
patterns, climate is still
unpredictable
Study of consumer
behavior: how people
shop, how people
consume, how people
react to promotion etc