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CHAPTER 3

FORCE, IMPULSE &

MOMENTUM

( 5 hours )

2

3.1 Force

3.2 Newton’s Laws of motion

3.3 Linear Momentum & Principle of

conservation of momentum

3.4 Elastic and Inelastic collisions

3.5 Impulse

Chapter outline :

3

3.1 FORCE

•

Force is a physical quantity which causes an object

to :

move

stop

change its direction

change its physical form.

•

Force is a vector quantity ( has both magnitude and direction)

•

Unit of force : Newton (N) or kg m s

-2

1 N = 1kg m s

-2

•

Resultant force (net force) is the summation of forces that act

on a body.

4

A stationary particle moves, because a net external force (resultant

force) has acted on it.

A moving particle stops, or changes its direction, because of a net

external force (resultant force).

Net force = 3 N , the object is moving to the right.

5 N

eg:

Net force = 0 N , the object is stationary. 5 N 5 N

Net force = 5 – 3 = 2N , the object is moving to the right.

5 N 3 N

eg:

5N

Object P is initially moving to the right.

When a force of 5 N acts on it, it changes its direction.

P

2 N 5 N

Net force = 2 –5 = -3N , the object is moving to the left.

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

5

2 methods to determine the resultant force :

1) Geometrical method ( polygon of forces )

1 2

1

......

n

R i n

i

F F F F F

·

· · + + +

¿

r

Example :

So, the resultant force ;

F

1 F

2

F

3

F

4

F

R

F

1

F

2

F

3

F

4

6

1) Mathematical method (resolving of forces)

( ) ( )

2 2

R x y

F F F · +

¿ ¿

r

Magnitude of resultant force :

Direction :

1

tan

y

x

F

F

u

| `

·

÷

÷

. ,

¿

¿

Where :

1 2

1

...........

n

x ix x x nx

i

F F F F F

·

· · + + +

¿

1 2

1

...........

n

y iy y y ny

i

F F F F F

·

· · + + +

¿

7

Example :

Find the resultant force at point O.

0 0 0

10cos 60 5cos30 20cos 45

5 4.33 14.14

14.81

x

F

N

· +

· +

·

¿

0 0 0

10sin 60 5sin30 20sin 45

8.66 2.5 14.14

2.98

y

F

N

· +

· +

·

¿

( ) ( )

2 2

15.1

R x y

F F F

N

· +

·

¿ ¿

30

o

60

o

O 45

o

Solution :

1

0

tan

= 11.38

y

x

F

F

u

| `

·

÷

÷

. ,

¿

¿

∴F = 15.1 N at 11.38

o

below positive x-axis.

10 N

5 N

20 N

8

Types of basic forces :

(1) Gravitational force ;

force of attraction of 2 particles.

always act toward the centre of earth or planet.

‘what goes up must comes down.’

very weak unless the objects involved have a large mass

long range

9

(2) Electromagnetic force ;

the combination of electric force and magnetic

force.

either attractive or repulsive force

force between particles with charges is called

electrostatic force - like charges repel, unlike

charges attract.

Example: electrons are attracted by protons in

nucleus. Protons inside the nucleus repel each

other.

Force between magnetic materials is called

magnetic force - magnets with like poles repel,

unlike poles attract.

A conductor with current experiences a force

called electromagnetic force in a magnetic field.

10

(3) Weak nuclear force

acts on nucleons in the nucleus – causes nucleus to

be unstable and eventually the nucleus decay.

weak

very short range

acts on nucleons in nucleus – binds nucleons in nucleus acts on nucleons in nucleus – binds nucleons in nucleus

keeps protons in nucleus, though they repel each other. keeps protons in nucleus, though they repel each other.

strong strong

short range short range

(4) Strong nuclear force

(4) Strong nuclear force

11

All forces that occur in nature may be grouped into

the following types of interactions:

12

3.2 NEWTON’S LAW of MOTION

Newton’s First Law

(law of inertia)

Newton’s Second Law

(make use of concept of mass

and weight)

Newton’s Third Law

(forces occur in pairs)

13

Newton’s First Law of Motion

States :

•

Every body continues in its state of rest or of

uniform speed in a straight line as long as no net

force acts on it.

-2

0 0 m s F a L · = ·

r

r

where ;

or net force resultant force F L ·

r

•

This law explains what happens to an object when no

forces act on it.

•

In equation :

14

Garfield testing

Newton’s First Law of

Motion

15

Inertia

Definition :

Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist any

changes in its state of rest or motion.

In other words : ‘Objects’ tend to keep on doing

what they’re doing.

Inertia is solely dependent upon mass of the object.

⇒

Object with more mass has more inertia

meaning that it has more tendency to resist

changes in its state of motion.

⇒

If two bodies are moving, it is difficult to stop

the heavier body than the lighter body

16

Snoopy experiencing Inertia

17

Experiments about Inertia

18

19

Real Experiences of Inertia

20

For safety, safety belt must

be fastened to prevent the

body from moving forward

when there is an

emergency break !

21

States :

The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the

net force acting on it and inversely proportional to its

mass. The direction of the acceleration is in the direction

of the net force acting on the object.

F ma L ·

r

r

F

a

m

L

·

r

r

Newton’s Second Law

In equation :

where;

a = acceleration

ΣF = net force

m = mass

Rearranging ;

22

( )

mv

t

A

A

r

Restating of the Newton’s Second Law :

The rate of change of momentum is proportional to the net

applied force and is in the direction of the straight line

along which the force acts.

v

m

t

A

| `

÷

A

. ,

r

For constant m ,

ma

r

a

r

∝

F L

r

F L

r

∝

∝

F L

r

F

m

L

r

∝

In equation :

F ma L ·

r

23

Pull Force

24

Push Force

25

Note :

The direction of the acceleration is the same

as the direction of the applied net force.

S.I. unit of force :

1 newton is the force that produces an

acceleration of 1 m s

-2

when acting on a

1 kg mass.

Therefore, 1 N = 1 kg m s

-2

26

Mass and weight are two different quantities.

REMEMBER !!!

SI unit : kg m s

-2

or newton (N) SI unit : kilogram (kg)

Vector quantity Scalar quantity

Weight varies slightly with altitude

because it depends on the strength of

the gravitational field.

eg : g

earth

≠ g

moon

The value of mass is independent of

location

W = mg = F

g

The force required per unit of

acceleration ,

Force exerted on an object by

gravitational field

•

An inherent property of a body

•

A quantitative measure of the inertia

of a body

Weight Mass

F

m

a

·

27

Definition :

The point at which all the mass can be considered

to be ‘concentrated’.

Note :

A force that exerts on the center of mass will cause the

object to make a translational motion.

1 1

1 1

( , ) ,

n n

i i i i

i i

cm cm

n n

i i

i i

m x m y

x y

m m

· ·

· ·

| `

÷

÷

·

÷

÷

. ,

¿ ¿

¿ ¿

Center of Mass

28

Definition :

The point at which all the weight exerts on the

object.

=

∑

∑

∑

∑

=

=

=

=

n

i

i

i

n

i

i

n

i

i

n

i

i i

cg cg

w

y w

w

x w

y x

1

1

1

1

, ) , (

Center of Gravity

29

Center of mass and center of

gravity for a uniform and

symmetrical object is at the

center point of the object.

30

Example : Centre of mass

An object with two masses m

1

and m

2

at the each end of a

light rod, d in length. Find the center of mass of the object in

terms of m

1

, m

2

and d.

Solution :

m

1

m

2

d

A

x

cm

Centre of mass from A ;

2 1

2 1

) ( ) 0 (

m m

d m m

x

cm

+

+

=

d

m m

m

+

=

2 1

2

31

Example: Centre of mass

Given the masses of A and B are 2 kg and 3 kg respectively.

The coordinates of A and B are ( 1,2) and ( 4,10). Find the

centre of mass of A and B.

3 2

4 3 1 2

+

+ x x

3 2

4 3 1 2

+

+ x x

A

B

Solution:

Using the formula :

(2 1) (3 4)

,

2 3

= 2.8

x

× + ×

·

+

Centre of mass = ( 2.8, 6.8)

(2 2 3 10)

2 3

= 6.8

y

× + ×

·

+

32

Newton’s Third Law of Motion

States :

For every action (force) there is a reaction (opposing

force) of equal magnitude but are opposite in

direction.These two forces act on two different bodies.

Explanation :

Whenever one object exerts a force F

AB

on a second object.

The second exerts an equal and opposite force F

BA

on the

first.

F

AB

= -F

BA

A

B

F

AB

F

BA

33

Example :

When you push on the wall it will push back with the

same magnitude of force but in the opposite direction.

34

Weight, W of the object exerted on the table ⇒ action.

The normal force, N produced by the table to oppose the weight

⇒ reaction.

N and W are equal in magnitude, but are opposite in direction

(the forces are equal and opposite).

Weight, W

Normal

force, N

35

Normal Force

Definition :

The contact force exerted by a surface onto a

body resting or sliding on the surface and acts

perpendicularly to the surface.

θ

N

N

36

A body may be acted on by a number of forces simultaneously. A

free-body diagram shows all forces acting on the object, including

the gravitational force (weight of the object).

Example :

N

r a)

b)

37

c) Two objects connected by a lightweight cord strung over a

frictionless pulley.

Free-body diagram for the ball :

m

2

Free-body diagram

for the block :

38

d) Two objects connected by a massless inextensible cord over

a frictionless pulley.

Free-body

diagram for m

1

:

Free-body

diagram for m

2

:

39

Example : Newton’s Law of Motion

Two boxes A and B of masses 4 kg and 2 kg respectively are

suspended by a string through a pulley . If the system is released, find

the acceleration of the system.

B

A

a

a

T

T

Mg

mg

Solution :

Both balls move with the same acceleration a, as

they are connected.

For ball A: Σ F = Ma

Mg – T = Ma

4g – T = 4a ..................(1)

For ball B: Σ F = ma

T- mg = ma

T- 2g = 2a ....................(2)

(1) + (2) : 2g = 6 a ; ⇒ a = ⅓ g = 3.27 ms

-2

.

40

A

B

Example : Newton’s Law of motion

An object A, of mass 4 kg on a smooth table is connected with another

object B, of mass 2 kg by a string through a pulley. Find the

acceleration of the system and the tension in the string.

Solution :

For object B: ΣF = ma

mg – T = ma

2g – T = 2a .....(1)

For object A: ΣF = ma

T = Ma

T = 4a .....(2)

(1) + (2) : 2g = 6a

⇒ a = ⅓ g = 3.27 m s

-2

From (2) : T = 4a

= 4(3.27) = 13.08 N

a

a

T

W = 2g

T

T

T

41

friction force , f

Forces of Friction

Friction is the force that resists the motion of one surface

relative to another with which it is in contact.

e.g: Friction occurs when a body moves on a rough

surface or through a fluid medium (water, air, etc)

The friction force on an object is opposite to its motion or

impending motion relative to the surface.

Weight, W

Normal force, N

Direction of motion

f ∝ N

⇒ f = µ N

where ;

µ= coefficient of friction

( µ depends on the object involves and on

the condition of the surface)

42

Two Types of Friction Force

Static Friction , f

s

Kinetic Friction , f

k

43

Static Friction

Static friction, f

s

is the force of friction between two objects when there is

no motion.

The friction force produced by the rough surface is called the limiting

friction force.

The limiting friction force is the maximum friction force between two

surfaces.

f

s

changes with the external force, F

ext

.

f

s

≤ µ

s

N where µ

s

= coefficient of static friction

N = magnitude of normal force

If the external force, F

ext

is increased gradually at a certain value, the object

will start to move.

Equality holds when the object is at the point of slipping.

f

s(max)

= µ

s

N

44

Coefficient of Static Friction, µ

s

Coefficient of static friction is given by

from F= µ

s

N

where F = limiting friction force,

N = Normal force.

The magnitude of µ

s

depends on the nature of the two surfaces.

For smooth surfaces, µ

s

= 0

s

F

N

µ ·

45

To determine µ

s

Resolve the weight, W into two perpendicular

components.

Along the plane: W sin θ

Normal to the plane: W cos θ

W

W cos θ

W sin θ

N

F

θ

θ

Along the plane: Along the plane: ∑ ∑F F = 0 = 0

F F = = W W sin sin θ θ ..........(1) ..........(1)

Normal to the plane: Normal to the plane: ∑ ∑F F = 0 = 0

N N = = W W cos cos θ θ ………(2) ………(2)

sin

tan

cos

s

F W

N W

u

µ u

u

· · ·

(1)÷(2) (1)÷(2) ⇒

Note: Note:

θ θ is between 0 is between 0

o o

and 90 and 90

o o

, hence µ , hence µ

s s

is between 0 and infinity. is between 0 and infinity.

46

Kinetic (dynamics) Friction

Kinetic friction, f

k

is the force of friction between two objects

when there is motion.

Kinetic friction force always opposes motion of a moving object.

It is less than static friction force.( the force needed to start the

motion is more than the force needed to maintain its motion.)

f

k

= µ

k

N

where µ

k

= the coefficient of kinetic friction

N = the magnitude of the normal force

f

k

is approximately constant for any given pair of materials.

47

Coefficient of Kinetic Friction, µ

k

Coefficient of static friction is given by

from f

k

= µ

k

N

where f

k

= friction force when the object moves with

uniform velocity

N = normal force (or R )

µ

k

is nearly independent of the velocity of the

object under consideration.

k

k

f

N

µ ·

48

Consider a block on a rough surface. An external

force is applied to the block ;

if F

ext

< f

s (max)

the object won’t move.

as F

ext

increases, f

s

will increase until it reaches its

maximum value.

when F

ext

= f

s (max)

the block will start to move

which is called the point of slipping.

once the block starts to move the force of friction

acting on it is the kinetic friction, f

k

.

49

Note :

Values of µ

s

and µ

k

depend on the nature of the

surfaces that are in contact.

Usually µ

k

< µ

s

f

k

< f

k

.

rubber on concrete µ

s

= 1.0, µ

k

= 0.8

waxed wood on wet snow µ

s

= 0.14, µ

k

= 0.10

µ

s

and µ

k

are nearly independent of the area of

contact between the two surfaces.

50

a) Normal to the plane: N = W cos θ

Along the plane:

Friction force, f = µ N = (0.4)(2 cos 30

o

)

= 0.69 N

∑F = ma

F

ext

– ( f + W sin θ )= ma

20 - (0.69 + 2 sin 30

o

) = 0.2a

a = 96.6 ms

-2

Example : Forces of friction

A block of weight 2 N is placed on a plane inclined at an angle 30

o

with the horizontal. The coefficient of friction of the plane is

0.4 . Find the acceleration of this block :

a) If it is pushed up the plane with a constant force, F = 20 N,

b) If it is pulled down along the plane with the same force.

W = 2 N

W cos θ

W sin θ

N

f

)

3o

o

20N

Solution

51

b) Normal to the plane : N = W cos θ

Along the plane :

Friction force, f = µ N = (0.4)(2 cos 30o)

= 0.69 N

∑F = ma

(20 + W sin θ) - f = ma

(20 + 2 sin 30

o

) - 0.69 = 0.2a

a = 101.6 ms

-2

.

W = 2 N

W cos θ

W sin θ

N

f

)

3o

o

20N

52

f

A

=2 N f

B

=4 N

Example : Forces of Friction Example : Forces of Friction

Two wooden blocks, A and B of mass 2 kg and 4 kg respectively are connected by Two wooden blocks, A and B of mass 2 kg and 4 kg respectively are connected by

a rope. The system is placed on a rough surface and the friction forces on A and B a rope. The system is placed on a rough surface and the friction forces on A and B

are 2 N and 4 N. are 2 N and 4 N.

Find the acceleration of the system, and the tension in the rope, if the system is Find the acceleration of the system, and the tension in the rope, if the system is

pulled by a force of 12 N. pulled by a force of 12 N.

A

B

12 N

a

T

Solution :

The net force acting on the system, The net force acting on the system,

Σ ΣF F = = F F

ext ext

– ( – ( f f

A A

+ + f f

B B

) )

= 12- (2+4) = 12- (2+4)

= 6 N. = 6 N.

For the system , For the system , Σ ΣF F = = ma ma

6 = 6 6 = 6a a

a a = 1 m s = 1 m s

-2 -2

. .

For block A, For block A, Σ ΣF F = = T- f T- f

A A

= = T - T - 2 2

T - T - 2 = 2 2 = 2a a

T - T - 2 = 2(1) 2 = 2(1)

T T = 4 N. = 4 N.

53

An object P, of mass 4 kg on a rough table is connected with another object Q, of

mass 2 kg by a string through a pulley. The friction force acting on P is 10 N.

Find the acceleration of the system and the tension in the string.

Example : Forces of Friction Example : Forces of Friction

Solution :

P

Q

a

a

T

W = 2g

T

T

T

f=10 N

For object Q : ΣF = ma

mg – T = ma

2g – T = 2a .....(1)

For object P : ΣF = ma

T – 10 = ma

T – 10 = 4a .....(2)

(1) + (2) : 2g – 10 = 6a

2(9.81) – 10 = 6a

⇒ a = 1.60 m s

-2

From (2) : T – 10 = 4a

T = 4(1.60) + 10 = 16.4 N

54

3.3 Linear Momentum and the Principle of

Conservation of Linear Momentum

Linear Momentum

Definition :

Linear momentum p is the product of the mass of a particle m

and its velocity v for the particle moving in a straight line.

Momentum = mass x velocity

p = mv

Linear momentum is a vector quantity :

Product of a scalar (m) and a vector (v)

Direction : along v.

Dimension and unit :

Dimension : MLT

-1

SI unit : kg m s

-1

or N s

55

dt

v d

m

dt

dm

v F

dt

v m d

F

dt

p d

F

+ =

=

=

) (

Application of Newton’s First and Second Laws of Motion

From Newton’s Second Law :

56

=

+

=

+

=

dt

dm

v F

m

dt

dm

v F

dt

v d

m

dt

dm

v F

) 0 (

Case 1 :

Object at rest or in motion with constant velocity but with

changing mass :

Example : Rocket propulsion

• Hot burning gases are ejected by the rocket at uniform velocity v

e

, known

as the exhaust speed

•

For m kg of gas per unit time t, the downward force,

e

dm

F v

dt

| `

·

÷

. ,

where dm/dt is the rate of the mass of

gases ejected from the rocket

57

(The thrust on the rocket is the force exerted on it

by the ejected exhaust gases.)

d

Thrust =

d

e

m

v

t

•

By Newton’s 3

rd

Law, an equal and opposite force exerts on the rocket to propel

it upward.

Let,

M = mass of the rocket (and its remaining fuel)

hence,

d dM

d d

m

t t

·

(The rate of mass of the gases ejected equals

the rate of decrease of the mass of the rocket)

v

e

d

d

m

t

d

d

v

t

M

d

d

v

t

= instantaneous acceleration of the rocket

and,

d d d

d d d

e e

v m M

M v v

t t t

· ·

f f

i i

e

d

d -

v M

v M

M

v v

M

= ·

l l

i

f i e

f

ln

M

v v v

M

·

⇒

i

f i e

f

ln

M

v v v

M

· +

(where v

f

= final velocity

of the rocket)

58

(0)

dm dv

F v m

dt dt

F v ma

F ma

| ` | `

· +

÷ ÷

. , . ,

· +

·

Case 2 :

Object with constant mass but with changing velocity ,

The time rate of change of the linear momentum of a particle is

equal to the net force acing on the particle.

⇒ Newton’s second law

59

(0) (0)

0

dm dv

F v m

dt dt

F v m

F

| ` | `

· +

÷ ÷

. , . ,

· +

·

0

constant

dp

F

dt

p

· ·

·

Case 3 :

Object at rest or in motion with constant velocity and

constant mass ,

From Newton’s First Law of Motion :

60

61

The Principle of Conservation of Linear Momentum

“ Provided there are no external forces acting on a system of

particles, the total momentum before collisions equals the

total momentum after collisions.”

“ When the net external force on a system of particles is zero,

the total momentum of the system is conserved.”

Or ;

From Newton’s First Law of Motion,

d

when 0 is constant ,

d

p

F p

t

L · = =

hence,

Σ initial momentum = Σ final momentum

i f

p p L · L

For a collision involving two bodies :

1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2

mu m u mv m v + · +

62

After collision During collision Before collision

A

B

A

B

A

B

u

A

u

B

v

A v

B

A A

A A

v u

F m

t

| `

·

÷

. ,

Consider a system of two objects A and B :

B B

B B

v u

F m

t

| `

·

÷

. ,

A B

F F ·

By Newton’s third law ;

A A

A

v u

m

t

| `

÷

. ,

B B

B

v u

m

t

| `

·

÷

. ,

A A B B A A B B

m u m u m v m v + · +

⇒ Principle of conservation of linear momentum (if there is no external force)

A

u

= initial velocity of A

B

u

= initial velocity of B

A

v

= final velocity of A

B

v

= final velocity of B

A

F

B

F

63

Example: Linear momentum

The rain drops are falling at the rate of 2 kg s

-1

with uniform

velocity 10 m s

-1

on a roof, find the force exerts on the roof.

Solution:

-1

d

2 kg s ;

d

m

t

·

d

Force,

d

= 10 (2)

= 20 N

m

F v

t

| `

·

÷

. ,

Given ,

v = 10 m s

-1

64

The velocity of a particle of mass 200 g moving in a straight

line, increases from 10 to 50 cm s

-1

in 2 s.

Find the force which acted on this particle.

Solution :

Given , m = 200 x 10

-3

kg,

v = 50 x 10

-2

m s

-1

u = 10 x 10

-2

m s

-1

3 2

( ) 200 10 [(50 10) 10 ]

Force,

2

m v u

F

t

× ×

· ·

Example: Linear momentum

= 0.04 s

65

Example : Principle of conservation of linear momentum Example : Principle of conservation of linear momentum

A 1.5 kg ball was kicked with an initial velocity of 40 m s

-1

at the angle of 30° with

the horizontal line. Calculate the initial momentum of the ball and also the

horizontal and vertical components of the initial momentum.

Solution :

v = 40 m s

-1

x

y

)30

o

v

x

v

y

m=1.5 kg

Momentum, p = mv

= (1.5 x 40) kg m s

-1

= 60 kg m s

-1

Horizontal component of the momentum :

p

x

= mv

x

= mv cos θ

= 60 cos 30°

= 51.96 kg m s

-1

Vertical component of the momentum :

p

y

= mv

y

= mv sin θ

= 60 sin 30°

= 30 kg m s

-1

66

3.4 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions

Collision

a process of mutual action between two or more bodies at an

instant

total momentum of the colliding object is conserved , external

forces can be ignored

total kinetic energy may or may not be conserved , may change

to heat or sound energy

2 types of collisions – elastic and inelastic

X √ Kinetic energy

√ √ Linear momentum

Inelastic collision Elastic collision Conservation of :

67

Elastic collision

Elastic collision ⇒ the total momentum and the total kinetic energy of the

system before and after collision is conserved.

Conservation of momentum :

Conservation of kinetic energy :

(i) Elastic collision in one dimension :

1

2

u

1

u

2

1

2

1

2

v

1 v

2

From both conservation of momentum and conservation of kinetic energy:

Before

During

After

1 2 2

1 1 2

1 2 1 2

2 m m m

v u u

m m m m

| ` | `

· +

÷ ÷

+ +

. , . ,

1 2 1

2 1 2

1 2 1 2

2m m m

v u u

m m m m

| ` | `

· +

÷ ÷

+ +

. , . ,

⇒

⇒

and

1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2

mu m u mv m v + · +

2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1

1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2

mu m u mv m v + · +

68

If m

2

is at rest, u

2

= 0 ;

1 2

1 1

1 2

( )

( )

m m

v u

m m

·

+

and

1

2 1

1 2

2

( )

m

v u

m m

·

+

m

1

= m

2

⇒ v

1

= 0 ; v

2

= u

1

m

1

> m

2

⇒ v

1

< u

1

; v

2

> u

1

[after collision , m

1

will slow down]

m

1

< m

2

⇒ v

1

< 0 ; v

2

< u

1

[after collision, m

1

will recoil]

m

1

>> m

2

⇒ v

1

≈ u

1

; v

2

≈ u

1

m

1

<< m

2

⇒ v

1

≈ -u

1

; v

2

≈ 0

⇒

Note :

If ;

69

m

2

is initially at rest,

⇒

initial velocity is along x-axis ,

⇒

initial momentum along y-axis is zero ,

⇒

(ii) Elastic collision in two dimensions :

Consider a glancing collision between two spheres of mass m

1

and m

2

;

Before collision

After collision

2

0 u ·

1 1x

u u ·

iy 1 1 2 2

( ) 0

y y

p mu m u L · + ·

The two spheres move off in

different directions

u

1

u

2

=0

v

1

v

2

v

1y

v

1x

v

2x

v

2y

70

By conservation of momentum ;

1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2

mu m u mv m v + · +

initial final

p p L · L

ix fx

p p L · L

Σmomentum along x ;

1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2

cos cos mu mv m v u u · +

iy fy

p p L · L

Σmomentum along y ;

1 1 1 2 2 2

0 sin sin mv m v u u · +

1 1x 2 2x 1 1x 2 2x

mu m u mv m v + · +

By conservation of kinetic energy ;

2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1

1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2

mu m u mv m v + · +

2 2 2

1 1 1

1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2

mu mv m v · +

initial final

K K L · L

; where u

2

= 0

1 1y 2 2y 1 1y 2 2y

mu m u mv m v + · +

iy

; where 0 p L ·

; where u

2

= 0

71

Example : Elastic collision in one dimension Example : Elastic collision in one dimension

A 3000-kg truck moving with a velocity of 10 m s

-1

hits a 1000-kg parked car.

The impact causes the 1000-kg car to be set in motion at 15 m s

-1

. Assuming

that momentum is conserved during the collision, determine the velocity of

the truck after the collision.

Solution:

m

1

u

1

+ m

2

u

2

= m

1

v

1

+ m

2

v

2

(3000)(10) + (1000)(0) = (3000)v

1

+ (1000)(15)

3000 - 15000 = 3000 v

1

v

1

= 5.0 m s

-1

72

A 200 g tennis ball moving with a speed of 15 m s

-1

collides with a stationary ball

of 800 g in an elastic collision. The tennis ball is scattered at an angle of 45

o

from its original direction with the speed of 5 m s

-1

. Find the final velocity of

the struck ball.

Example : Elastic collision in two dimensions Example : Elastic collision in two dimensions

Solution:

Before collision

After collision

u

2

= 0

u

1

= 15 m s

-1

m

1

m

2

θ

1

=45

o

θ

2

= ?

v

1

= 5 m s

-1

v

2

= ?

v

1y

v

1x

v

2x

v

2y

m

1

= 200 g = 0.2 kg

m

2

= 800 g = 0.8 kg

73

ix fx

p p L · L

Σmomentum along x ;

1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2

cos cos mu mv m v u u · +

iy fy

p p L · L

Σmomentum along y ;

1 1 1 2 2 2

0 sin sin mv m v u u · +

2 2

(0.2)(15) (0.2)(5cos 45 ) (0.8)( cos )

o

v u · +

2 2

cos 2.87 ..........(i) v u ·

2 2

0 (0.2)(5sin 45 ) (0.8)( sin )

o

v u · +

2 2

sin 0.88 ..........(ii) v u ·

2 2

2 2

o

sin 0.88

cos 2.87

tan = 0.31 =17.

(ii

)

01

)

(i

v

v

u

u

u u

= ·

=

From (ii) ; v

2

sin 17.01

o

= 0.88 ⇒ v

2

= 3 m s

-1

74

Inelastic collision

Inelastic collision ⇒ the total momentum of the system before and after collision

is conserved but the total kinetic energy is not conserved.

Conservation of momentum :

Kinetic energy is not conserved:

1 1 2 2 1 2

( ) mu m u m m v + · +

2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1

1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2

mu m u mv m v + / +

(some of the kinetic energy is transformed into other forms of energy such as

heat or sound)

(i) Inelastic collision in one dimension :

For completely inelastic collision , objects stuck together after collision.

By conservation of momentum :

1 1 2 2

1 2

mu m u

v

m m

+

= ·

+

If m

2

is at rest, u

2

= 0 ;

2

1

initial i 1 1 2

(Kinetic energy) = K mu L L ·

2

2

1 1 1 1

final f 1 2 1 2 2 2

1 2

(Kinetic energy) = K ( ) ( )

mu

m m v m m

m m

| `

L L · + · +

÷

+

. ,

before collision:

after collision:

Hence, 1

1 2

1

f

i

K

m

K m m

· <

+

75

a device to measure the speed of a bullet.

Let ;

M = mass of the block

m = mass of the bullet

v

i

= velocity of the bullet (before collision)

v

f

= velocity of both block and the bullet

(after collision)

h = maximum height of the block containing the

bullet after collision

(ii) Ballistic pendulum :

The block is at rest , so its velocity is

zero.

By conservation of linear momentum;

( ) ...... (i)

i f

mv M m v · +

By conservation of energy (of the block and the bullet

after collision) ;

Kinetic energy = Potential energy L L

2

1

2

( ) ( )

f

M m v M m gh + · +

2 .......(ii)

f

v gh ·

⇒ velocity of the bullet

before collision

gh

m

M m

v

i

2

+

=

Substitute (ii) into (i) ;

76

(iii) Inelastic collision in two dimensions :

Let ;

v

1

= velocity of m

1

in the x direction

v

2

= velocity of m

2

in the y direction

v = final velocity

Consider a perfectly inelastic collision .

By conservation of linear momentum;

m

1

v

1

+ m

2

v

2

= (m

1

+ m

2

) v

The x - component of the vector v ;

m

1

v

1

= (m

1

+ m

2

) v

x

2 1

1 1

m m

v m

v

x

+

=

The y - component of the vector v ;

m

2

v

2

= (m

1

+ m

2

) v

y

2 1

2 2

m m

v m

v

y

+

=

Magnitude , 2 2

x y

v v v · +

Direction ,

1

tan

y

x

v

v

u

| `

·

÷

. ,

77

Granny (m=80 kg) whizzes around the rink with a velocity of 6 m s

-1

. She suddenly

collides with Ahmad (m=40 kg) who is at rest directly in her path. Rather than

knock him over, she picks him up and continues in motion without "braking."

Determine the velocity of Granny and Ahmad. Assume that no external forces

act on the system so that it is an isolated system.

Example : Inelastic collision in one dimension Example : Inelastic collision in one dimension

Solution:

m

1

u

1

+ m

2

u

2

= (m

1

+ m

2

) v

(80)(6) + (40)(0) = (80 + 40) v

480 = 120 v

v = 4 m s

-1

78

An object P of mass 3 kg is moving with a velocity of 4 m s

-1

and

collides head on with an object Q of mass 1kg moving in the opposite

direction with a velocity of 2 m s

-1

.After the collision both objects

moves with a common velocity v. Calculate v.

Example : Inelastic collision in one dimension Example : Inelastic collision in one dimension

Solution:

P

Q

u

P

= 4 m s

-1

( both objects move in the positive direction)

u

Q

= - 2 m s

-1

i f

p p L · L

P P Q Q P Q

( ) m u m u m m v + · +

(3)(4) (1)( 2) (3 1)v + · +

-1

2.5 m s v ·

By conservation of linear momentum ;

79

In a ballistic experiment, suppose that ; h = 5.00 cm, m = 5.00 g and M = 1.00 kg.

Find the (a) initial speed of the bullet, v

i

(b) the loss in energy due to the collision

Example : Inelastic collision – ballistic pendulum Example : Inelastic collision – ballistic pendulum

Solution:

(a) The initial speed of the bullet, gh

m

M m

v

i

2

+

=

3

2

3

(5 10 ) (1)

2(9.81)(5 10 )

5 10

× +

· ×

×

= 199 m s

-1

(b) The loss in energy due to the collision, ∆K

i f

K K K A · L L

2 2

1 1

i f 2 2

( ) mv m M v · +

2

1

i 2

( )(2 ) mv m M gh

]

· +

]

= 98.5 J

( )

2

1

2

0.005(199) 0.005 1 (2 9.81 0.05)

]

· + × ×

]

80

A bullet of mass 20 g moving horizontally at 100 m s

-1

, embeds itself

in a block of wood of mass l kg which is suspended by a string.

Calculate the maximum vertical height rises by the block and the

bullet.

Example : Inelastic collision – ballistic pendulum Example : Inelastic collision – ballistic pendulum

Solution:

Using v

f

2

= v

o

2

+2 as

By conservation of momentum;

( ) mu M m v · +

-1

(0.02 100)

=1.96 m s

(1.00 0.02)

v

×

·

+

At maximum height, v

f

= 0 , a = -9.81 m s

-1

;

0 = 1.96

2

+2(-9.81)h

h = 0.1958 m

= 19.58 cm.

u

v

f

81

Two cars approaching each other along streets that meet at a right angle collide at the

intersection. After the crash, they stick together. If one car has a mass of 1450 kg

and an initial speed of 11.5 m s

-1

and the other has a mass of 1750 kg and an initial

speed of 15.5 m s

-1

, what will be their speed and direction immediately after impact ?

Example : Inelastic collision in two dimensions Example : Inelastic collision in two dimensions

v

1

= 11.5 m s

-1

; v

2

= 15.5 m s

-1

; m

1

= 1450 kg ; m

2

= 1750 kg ; v = final velocity

The x - component of vector v ;

-1

1 1

1 2

(1450)(11.5)

5.2 m s

1450 1750

x

mv

v

m m

· · ·

+ +

The y - component of vector v ;

-1

2 2

1 2

(1750)(15.5)

8.5 m s

1450 1750

y

m v

v

m m

· · ·

+ +

Speed ,

2 2

2 2 -1

(5.2) (8.5) 10 m s

x y

v v v · + · + ·

Direction ,

1 1

8.5

tan tan 58.5

5.2

y

o

x

v

v

u

| `

| `

· · ·

÷

÷

. ,

. ,

Solution:

82

Coefficient of restitution is the ratio of the differences in velocities

before and after the collision

2 1

k

2 1

v v

e

u u

| `

·

÷

. ,

where e

k

= coefficient of restitution

u = velocity before collision

v = velocity after collision

Coefficient of restitution , e

k

0 ≤ e

k

≤ 1 )

perfectly elastic collision : e

k

= 1

perfectly inelastic collision : e

k

= 0

e

k

measures the ability of an object to retain its shape after

collision

83

Inelastic Elastic

0 <e

k

<1

e

k

= 0

(perfectly inelastic)

e

k

= 1

(perfectly elastic)

Coefficient of restitution

Not conserved Conserved Total of kinetic energy

Conserved Conserved Total of linear momentum

Collision

Comparison between elastic and inelastic collisions :

84

3.5 Impulse ,

The impulsive force, F is executed in a very short interval of time

e. g : the force to hit a baseball or the force to smash a

badminton shuttle

J

the change in momentum ,

( ) or J p m v u J Ft · A · ·

a vector quantity.

⇒ direction : same as direction of velocity in linear motion.

SI unit : kg m s

-1

or N s

The force that produces impulse is impulsive force.

Ft = impulse ⇒ constant. ∴ F ∝

1

t

(The impulsive force, F increases as the contact time, t decreases)

85

From the Newton’s second law ;

d

d

p

F

t

·

d d p F t ·

f f

i i

d dt

p t

p t

p F ·

l l

f

i

f i

dt

t

t

p p F ·

l

f

i

dt

t

t

p F A ·

l

f

i

Impulse, dt area under graph

t

t

J F F t · ·

l

F

t

t

f

t

i

t

f t

f

t

i t

i

86

Example : Impulse Example : Impulse

The force acting on an object is shown below. Find the

impulse at, (a) t = 6 s and (b) t = 8 s.

0 4 6 8 t(s)

F(N)

20

Solution:

(b)Impulse

= Area under the graph

= ½(4+6)(20)

=100 N s.

(b) Impulse =Area of trapezium (0 to 6s)+ Area under line( 6 to 8s)

= 100 + 0 =100 N s.

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