# PHYSICS CHAPTER 1

1
CHAPTER 1:
CHAPTER 1:
Physical quantities and
Physical quantities and
measurements
measurements
(5 Hours)
(5 Hours)
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PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
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At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

State State basic quantities and their respective SI units: length basic quantities and their respective SI units: length
(m), time (s), mass (kg), electrical current (A), temperature (m), time (s), mass (kg), electrical current (A), temperature
(K), amount of substance (mol) and luminosity (cd). (K), amount of substance (mol) and luminosity (cd).

State State derived quantities and their respective units and derived quantities and their respective units and
symbols: velocity (m s symbols: velocity (m s
-1 -1
), acceleration (m s ), acceleration (m s
-2 -2
), work (J), ), work (J),
force (N), pressure (Pa), energy (J), power (W) and force (N), pressure (Pa), energy (J), power (W) and
frequency (Hz). frequency (Hz).

Use Use dimensional analysis to check homogeneity and dimensional analysis to check homogeneity and
construct equation of physics. construct equation of physics.

Perform conversion Perform conversion between SI and British units. between SI and British units.
Learning Outcome:
1.1 Physical Quantities and Units (2 hours)
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PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
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Physical quantity Physical quantity is defined as a quantity which can be measured. quantity which can be measured.

It can be categorised into 2 types

Basic (base) quantity Basic (base) quantity

Derived quantity Derived quantity

Basic quantity Basic quantity is defined as a quantity which cannot be derived quantity which cannot be derived
from any physical quantities. from any physical quantities.

Table 1.1 shows all the basic (base) quantities.
1.1 Physical Quantities and Units
cd candela Luminous Intensity
mol mole N Amount of substance
A ampere I Electric current
K kelvin T/θ Temperature
s second t Time
kg kilogram m Mass
m metre l Length
Symbol SI Unit Symbol Quantity
Table 1.1 Table 1.1
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
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Derived quantity Derived quantity is defined as a quantity which can be expressed quantity which can be expressed
in term of base quantity. in term of base quantity.

Table 1.2 shows some examples of derived quantity.
kg m
2
s
-2
@ J
F × s W
Work
kg m s
-2
@ N
m × a F
Force
kg m s
-1
m × v p
Momentum
kg m
-3
m/V ρ
Density
m s
-2
v/t a
Acceleration
M
3
l × w × t V
Volume
m s
-1
s/t v
Velocity
Unit Formulae Symbol Derived quantity
Table 1.2 Table 1.2
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
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Unit Unit is defined as a standard size of measurement of physical a standard size of measurement of physical
quantities. quantities.

Examples :

1 second 1 second is defined as the time required for 9,192,631,770 the time required for 9,192,631,770
vibrations of radiation emitted by a caesium-133 atom. vibrations of radiation emitted by a caesium-133 atom.

1 kilogram 1 kilogram is defined as the mass of a platinum-iridium the mass of a platinum-iridium
cylinder kept at International Bureau of Weights and cylinder kept at International Bureau of Weights and
Measures Paris Measures Paris.

1 meter 1 meter is defined as the length of the path travelled by light the length of the path travelled by light
in vacuum during a time interval of in vacuum during a time interval of
s
, , 458 792 299
1
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
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o
o
o
57.296
180
· ·
·
π
π

The unit of basic quantity is called base unit

unit of plane angle - radian (rd)

unit of solid angle- steradian (sr)

The common system of units used today are S.I unit ( S.I unit (System System
International/metric system International/metric system) ) and cgs unit - UK.

The unit of derived quantity – called derived unit
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
7

It is used for presenting larger and smaller values. for presenting larger and smaller values.

Table 1.3 shows all the unit prefixes.

Examples:

2700000 m = 2700 km = 2.7 Mm

0.00000476 s = 4.76 x 10
-6
s = 4.76 µs
p × 10
-12
pico
n × 10
-9
nano
µ × 10
-6
micro
m × 10
-3
milli
c × 10
-2
centi
d × 10
-1
deci
k × 10
3
kilo
M × 10
6
mega
G × 10
9
giga
T × 10
12
tera
Symbol Value Prefix
1.1.1 Unit Prefixes
Table 1.3 Table 1.3
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
8

Table 1.4 shows the conversion factors between SI and British units for
length and mass only.
1.1.2 Conversion of Unit
1 angstrom ( ) = 10 Å
-10
m
1 kg = 0.0685 slug 1 mi = 5280 ft = 1.609 km
1 lb = 0.453 592 kg 1 km = 0.621 mi
1 slug = 14.59 kg 1 in = 2.54 cm
1 kg = 10
3
g 1 m = 39.37 in = 3.281 ft
Mass Length
Table 1.4 Table 1.4
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
9
Solve the following problems of unit conversion.
a. 30 mm
2
= ? m
2
b. 865 km h
-1
= ? m s
-1
c. 300 g cm
-3
= ? kg m
-3
d. 17 cm = ? in
e. 24 mi h
-1
= ? km s
-1
Solution : Solution :
a. 30 mm
2
= ? m
2
b. 865 km h
-1
= ? m s
-1
1 1
st st
method : method :

,


.
|
×
·

h 1
m 10 865
h km 865
3
1
Example 1 :

,

.
|
×
·

s 3600
m 10 865
h km 865
3
1
1 1
s m 240 h km 865
− −
·
( ) ( )
2
3
2
m 10 mm 1

·
2 6 2
m 10 mm 1

·
2 5 2 6 2
m 10 3.0 or m 10 30 mm 30
− −
× × ·
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
10
2 2
nd nd
method : method :
c. 300 g cm
-3
= ? kg m
-3

,


.
|

,

.
|

,


.
|
·

s 3600
h 1
km 1
m 1000
h 1
km 865
h km 865
1

,

.
|

,


.
|

,

.
|
·

s 3600
h 1
km 1
m 1000
h 1
km 865
h km 865
1
1 1
s m 240 h km 865
− −
·
( )

,


.
|

,

.
|

,


.
|
·
3
3
2 -
3 3 -
3
3 -
m 10
cm 1
g 1
kg 10
cm 1
g 300
cm g 300
-3 5 3
m kg 10 3.0 cm g 300 × ·

PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
11
d. 17 cm = ? in
e. 24 mi h
-1
= ? km s
-1

( )

,

.
|
·
cm 1
in
cm 17 cm 17
2.54
1
in 6.69 cm 17 ·

,


.
|

,

.
|

,


.
|
·
s 3600
h 1
mi 1
km 1.609
h 1
mi 24
h mi 24
1 -
-1 -2 1
s km 10 1.07 h mi 24 × ·

PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
12

Dimension is defined as a technique or method technique or method which the physical physical
quantity quantity can be expressed in terms of combination of basic expressed in terms of combination of basic
quantities quantities.

It can be written as
[physical quantity or its symbol]

Table 1.5 shows the dimension of basic quantities.
1.1.3 Dimensional Analysis
mole
N
[amount of substance]
or [N]
K
θ [temperature] or [T]
A
A @ I [electric current] or [I]
s
T [time] or [t]
m
L [length] or [l]
kg
M [mass] or [m]
Unit Symbol [Basic Quantity]
Table 1.5 Table 1.5
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
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Dimension can be treated as algebraic quantities through the
procedure called dimensional analysis.

The uses of dimensional analysis are

to determine the unit of the physical quantity.

to determine whether a physical equation is correct or not
dimensionally by using the principle of homogeneity.

to derive a physical equation.

Note:

Dimension of dimensionless constant is 1,
e.g. [2] = 1, [refractive index] = 1

The validity of an equation cannot determined by dimensional
analysis.

The validity of an equation can only be determined by experiment.
Dimension on the L.H.S. = Dimension on the R.H.S Dimension on the L.H.S. = Dimension on the R.H.S
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
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Determine a dimension and the S.I. unit for the following quantities:
a. Velocity b. Acceleration c. Linear momentum
d. Density e. Force
Solution : Solution :
a.
The S.I. unit of velocity is m s m s
-1 -1
.
Example 2 :
[ ]
[ ]
[ ] interval time
nt displaceme in change
Velocity ·
[ ]
[ ]
[ ] t
s
v

·
or
[ ]
1
LT
T
L

· · v
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
15
b.
Its unit is m s m s
-2 -2
.
d.
S.I. unit : kg m kg m
-3 -3
.
[ ]
[ ]
[ ] t
v
a

·
[ ]
2
LT

· a
[ ]
T
LT
1 −
· a
[ ] [ ] [ ] v m p × ·
[ ]
1
MLT

· p
[ ] ( ) ( )
1
LT M

· p
c.
S.I. unit : kg m s kg m s
-1 -1
.
[ ]
[ ]
[ ] V
m
ρ ·
[ ]
3
ML

· ρ
[ ]
[ ]
[ ] [ ] [ ] h w l
m
ρ
× ×
·
[ ]
L L L
M
× ×
· ρ
[ ] [ ] [ ] a m F × ·
[ ]
2
MLT

· F
[ ] ( ) ( )
2
LT M

· F
e.
S.I. unit : kg m s kg m s
-2 -2
.
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
16
Determine Whether the following expressions are dimensionally correct
or not.
a. where s, u, a and t represent the displacement,
initial velocity, acceleration and the time of an object respectively.
b. where s, u, v and g represent the displacement,
initial velocity, final velocity and the gravitational acceleration
respectively.
c. where T, l and g represent the period of simple
pendulum , length of the simple pendulum and the gravitational
acceleration respectively.
Example 3 :
2
2
1
at ut s + ·
gs 2 u v − ·
g
l
π 2 T ·
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
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Solution : Solution :
a. Dimension on the LHS :

Dimension on the RHS :
Dimension on the LHS = dimension on the RHS
Hence the equation above is homogeneous homogeneous or dimensionally correct. dimensionally correct.
b. Dimension on the LHS :
Dimension on the RHS :
Thus
Therefore the equation above is not homogeneous not homogeneous or dimensionally dimensionally

incorrect. incorrect.
[ ] L · s
[ ] [ ][ ] ( )( ) L T LT
1
· · ·

t u ut
[ ] [ ][ ][ ] ( ) ( )( ) L T LT
2 -2
· · · 1 t a at
2
2
1
2
2
1
and
[ ]
-1
LT · v
[ ]
1
LT

· u
[ ] [ ][ ][ ] ( ) ( )( )
-2 2 -2
T L L LT · · · 1 s g 2 gs 2
and
[ ] [ ] [ ] gs 2 u v ≠ ·
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
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Solution : Solution :
c. Dimension on the LHS :

Dimension on the RHS :
Therefore the equation above is homogeneous homogeneous or dimensionally dimensionally
correct. correct.
[ ] T · T
[ ][ ] [ ]
2
1
2
1
g l π 2
g
l
π 2

·
]
]
]
]

( ) ( ) ( ) T LT L
2
· ·
]
]
]
]

− 2
1
2
1
1
g
l
π 2
[ ]
]
]
]
]

·
g
l
π 2 T
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
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The period, T of a simple pendulum depends on its length l,
acceleration due to gravity, g and mass, m. By using dimensional
analysis, obtain an equation for period of the simple pendulum.
Solution : Solution :
Suppose that :
Then
where k, x, y and z are dimensionless constants.
Example 4 :
z y x
m g l T ∝
z y x
m g kl T ·
[ ] [ ][ ] [ ] [ ]
z y x
m g l k T ·
( ) ( )
z
y
x
M LT L 1 T
2 −
·
z y y x
M T L T
2 − +
·
z y y x
M T L M T L
2 0 1 0 − +
·
………………… …………………(1) (1)
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
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By equating the indices on the left and right sides of the equation, thus
By substituting eq. (3) into eq. (2), thus
Replace the value of x, y and z in eq. (1), therefore
The value of k can be determined experimentally.
0 · + y x
1 2 · − y
2
1
− · y
0 · z
( ) 0
2
1
· − + x
2
1
· x
………………… …………………(2) (2)
………………… …………………(3) (3)
0
2
1
2
1
m g kl T

·
g
l
k T ·
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
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Determine the unit of γ in term of basic unit by using the equation
below:
where P
i
and P
o
are pressures of the soap bubble and R is the radius
of the bubble.
Solution : Solution :
Example 5 :
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ][ ]
[ ]
2 1
2
2
T ML
L
MLT
− −

· · · ·
A
a m
A
F
P
[ ] L · R
R
4
P P
o i
γ
· −
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
22
Since thus
Therefore the unit of γ is kg s kg s
-2 -2
( )
o i
P P R γ − ·
4
1
[ ] [ ] [ ] P P P
o i
· ·
[ ] [ ] ( ) [ ]
o i
P P R γ −
]
]
]

·
4
1
[ ] ( )( )( )
2 1
T ML L 1
− −
· γ
[ ] [ ][ ] P R γ
]
]
]

·
4
1
[ ]
2
MT

· γ
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
23
1. Deduce the unit of η(eta) in term of basic unit for the equation
below:
where F is the force, A is the area, ∆v is the change in velocity
and ∆l is the change in distance.
ANS. : kg m ANS. : kg m
-1 -1
s s
-1 -1
6. A sphere of radius r and density ρ
s
falls in a liquid of density ρ
f
. It
achieved a terminal velocity v
T
given by the following expression:
where k is a constant and g is acceleration due to gravity.
Determine the dimension of k.
ANS. : M L ANS. : M L
-1 -1
T T
-1 -1
Exercise 1.1 :
Δl
Δv
η
A
F
·
( )
f s
2
T
ρ ρ
k
g r
v − ·
9
2
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
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1. The escape velocity, v for a tomahawk missile which escape the
gravitational attraction of the earth is depend on the radius of the
earth, r and the acceleration due to gravity, g. By using dimensional
analysis, obtain an expression for escape velocity, v.
ANS. : ANS. :
 Show that the equation below is dimensionally correct.
Where R is the inside radius of the tube, L is its length, P
1
-P
2
is
the pressure difference between the ends, η is the coefficient of
viscosity ( N s m
-2
) and Q is the volume rate of flow ( m
3
s
-1
).
Exercise 1.1 :
gr k v ·
( )
ηL 8
P P πR
Q
2 1
4

·
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
25
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

Define Define scalar and vector quantities, unit vectors in scalar and vector quantities, unit vectors in
Cartesian coordinate. Cartesian coordinate.

Explain Explain vector addition and subtraction operations and vector addition and subtraction operations and
their rules. Visualize resultant vector graphically by their rules. Visualize resultant vector graphically by
applying applying

commutative rule commutative rule

associative rule, and associative rule, and

distributive rule distributive rule

Resolve vector Resolve vector into two perpendicular components (2-D) into two perpendicular components (2-D)
and three perpendicular components (3-D): and three perpendicular components (3-D):

Components in the x, y and z axes. Components in the x, y and z axes.

Components in the unit vectors. Components in the unit vectors.
Learning Outcome:
1.2 Scalars and Vectors (3 hours)
k j i
ˆ
,
ˆ
,
ˆ
w
w
w
.
k
m
p
h
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
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m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
w
w
w
.
k
m
p
h
.
m
a
t
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i
k
.
e
d
u
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m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
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At the end of this topic, students should be able to: At the end of this topic, students should be able to:

Define and use Define and use dot (scalar) product; dot (scalar) product;
and the magnitude of cross (vector) product; and the magnitude of cross (vector) product;
Learning Outcome:
1.2 Scalars and Vectors (3 hours)
( ) ( ) θ A B θ B A B A cos cos · · •
 
( ) ( ) θ A B θ B A B A sin sin · · ×
 
w
w
w
.
k
m
p
h
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
w
w
w
.
k
m
p
h
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
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Scalar Scalar quantity is defined as a quantity with magnitude quantity with magnitude only.

e.g. mass, time, temperature, pressure, electric current, work,
energy and etc.

Mathematics operational : ordinary algebra

Vector Vector quantity is defined as a quantity with both magnitude & quantity with both magnitude &
direction. direction.

e.g. displacement, velocity, acceleration, force, momentum,
electric field, magnetic field and etc.

Mathematics operational : vector algebra
1.2 Scalars and Vectors
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
28

Table 1.6 shows written form (notation) of vectors.

Notation of magnitude of vectors.
1.2.1 Vectors
Vector A
Length Length of an arrow– magnitude magnitude of vector A
acceleration velocity displacement
s

v

a

s
a v
v v ·

a a ·

s (bold)
v (bold) a (bold)
Direction Direction of arrow – direction direction of vector A
Table 1.6 Table 1.6
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
29

Two vectors Two vectors equal if both magnitude and direction magnitude and direction are the same. same.
(shown in figure 1.1)

If vector A is multiplied by a scalar quantity k

Then, vector A is

if k k = +ve = +ve, the vector is in the same direction same direction as vector A.

if k k = - ve = - ve, the vector is in the opposite direction opposite direction of vector A.
P

Q

Q P
 
·
Figure 1.1 Figure 1.1
A k

A k

A

A

PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
30

Can be represented by using:

Direction of compass Direction of compass, i.e east, west, north, south, north-east,
north-west, south-east and south-west

Angle with a reference line Angle with a reference line
e.g. A man throws a stone with a velocity of 10 m s
-1
, 30° above
horizontal.
1.2.2 Direction of Vectors
30°
v
x
y
0
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
31

Cartesian Cartesian coordinates

2-Dimension (2-D)
m) 4 m, 2 ( ) , ( · · y x s

s

y/m
x/m
4
2
0
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
32

3-Dimension (3-D)
s

2
3
4
m 2) 3, 4, ( ) , , ( · · z y x s

y/m
x/m
z/m
0
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
33

Polar Polar coordinates

Denotes Denotes with + or – signs + or – signs.
( )

N,120 50 · F
F

120°
+
+
-
-
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
34

There are two methods involved in addition of vectors graphically i.e.

Parallelogram Parallelogram

Triangle Triangle

For example :
Triangle Triangle Parallelogram Parallelogram
B

A

B

A

B A
 
+
O
B A
 
+
B

A

B A
 
+
O
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
35

Triangle of vectors method:

Use a suitable scale to draw vector A.

From the head of vector A draw a line to represent the vector B.

Complete the triangle. Draw a line from the tail of vector A to the
head of vector B to represent the vector A + B.
A B B A
   
+ · +
Commutative Rule Commutative Rule
B

A

A B
 
+
O
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
36

If there are more than 2 vectors therefore

Use vector polygon and associative rule. E.g. R Q P
  
+ +
R

Q

P

R

Q

P

( ) Q P
 
+
( ) ( ) R Q P R Q P
     
+ + · + +
Associative Rule Associative Rule
( ) R Q P
  
+ +
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
37

Distributive Rule :
a.
b.

For example :
Proof of case a: Proof of case a: let α = 2
( ) B A B A
   
α α α + · +
( ) A A A
  
β α β α + · +
number real are , β α
( ) ( ) B A B A
   
+ · + 2 α
B

A

B A
 
+
O
( ) B A
 
+ 2
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
38
A

2
O
B

2
B A
 
2 2 +
( ) B A B A
   
2 2 2 + · +

B A B A
   
2 2 + · +α α
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
39
Proof of case b: Proof of case b: let α = 2 and β = 1
A

( ) ( ) A A A
  
3 1 2 · + · + β α
A

3
A A A A
   
1 2 + · + β α
A

2
A

+
A

3
·
( ) A A A
  
1 2 1 2 + · +

PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
40

For example :
1.2.4 Subtraction of Vectors
Triangle Triangle Parallelogram Parallelogram
D

C

O
D C
 

O
D

( ) D C D C
   
− + · −
C

D

D C
 

C

D

D C
 

PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
41

Vectors subtraction can be used

to determine the velocity of one object relative to another object
i.e. to determine the relative velocity.

to determine the change in velocity of a moving object.

Vector A has a magnitude of 8.00 units and 45° above the positive x
axis. Vector B also has a magnitude of 8.00 units and is directed along
the negative x axis. Using graphical methods and suitable scale to
determine
a) b)
c) d)
(Hint : use 1 cm = 2.00 units)
Exercise 1.2 :
B A
 
+ B A
 

B 2 A
 
+ B A 2
 

PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
42

1 1
st st
method method :
1.2.5 Resolving a Vector
D

y
D

x
D

θ
0
x
y
θ
D
D
x
cos · θ D D
x
cos · ⇒
θ
D
D
y
sin ·
θ D D
y
sin · ⇒

2 2
nd nd
method method :
D

y
D

x
D

φ
0
x
y
φ · sin
D
D
x
φ · ⇒ sin D D
x
φ · cos
D
D
y
φ · ⇒ cos D D
y
φ
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
43

The magnitude of vector magnitude of vector D :

Direction of vector Direction of vector D :

Vector D in terms of unit vectors written as
( ) ( )
2
y
2
x
D D D D + · or

x
y
D
D
θ · tan
or

,

.
|
·

x
y
D
D
θ
1
tan
j D i D D
y x
ˆ ˆ
+ ·

PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
44
A car moves at a velocity of 50 m s
-1
in a direction north 30° east.
Calculate the component of the velocity
a) due north. b) due east.
Solution : Solution :
Example 6 :
N
E W
S
N
v

E
v

v

30°
60°
a)
b)

30 v v
N
cos ·
1
s m 43.3

·
N
v

30 50 v
N
cos ·
or

60 v v
N
sin ·

60 50 v
N
sin ·

30 v v
E
sin ·
1
s m 25

·
E
v

30 50 v
E
sin ·
or

60 v v
E
cos ·

60 50 v
E
cos ·
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
45
A particle S experienced a force of 100 N as shown in figure above.
Determine the x-component and the y-component of the force.
Solution : Solution :
Example 7 :
120°
F

S
x
120°
60°
F

S
x
y
y
F

x
F

y-component x-component Vector

60 F F
x
cos − ·
N 50 − ·
x
F

60 100 F
x
cos − ·
or
F

120 F F
x
cos ·
N 50 − ·
x
F

120 100 F
x
cos ·

60 F F
y
sin ·
N 86.6 ·
y
F

60 100 F
y
sin ·
or

120 F F
y
sin ·
N 86.6 ·
y
F

120 100 F
y
sin ·
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
46
The figure above shows three forces F
1
, F
2
and F
3
acted on a particle O.
Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on particle
O.
Example 8 :
y
45
o
O
) ( N 30 F
2

) ( N 10 F
1

30
o
x
) ( N 40 F
3

20°
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
47
Solution : Solution :
O
y
x
3
F

45
o
30
o
20°
1
F

y 1
F

2
F

y 2
F

x 1
F

y 3
F

x 3
F

+ + · ·
3 2 1 r
F F F F F
    
∑ ∑
+ ·
y x r
F F F
  
x 3 x 2 x 1 x
F F F F
   
+ + ·

y 3 y 2 y 1 y
F F F F
   
+ + ·

x 2
F

PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
48
Solution : Solution :
y-component x-component Vector

20 F F
1 x 1
cos ·
1
F

3
F

2
F

20 10 F
x 1
cos ·
N 9.40 ·
x 1
F

20 F F
1 y 1
sin ·

20 10 F
y 1
sin ·
N 3.42 ·
y 1
F

45 30 F
x 2
cos ·
N 21.2 ·
x 2
F

45 30 F
y 2
sin − ·
N 21.2 − ·
y 2
F

30 40 F
x 3
cos − ·
N 34.6 − ·
x 3
F

30 40 F
y 3
sin − ·
N 20.0 − ·
y 3
F
Vector Vector
sum sum
( ) 34.6 21.2 9.40 − + + ·
∑ x
F
N 4.00 − ·
∑ x
F
( ) ( ) 20.0 21.2 3.42 − + − + ·
∑ y
F
N 37.8 − ·
∑ y
F
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
49
y
x
O
Solution : Solution :
The magnitude of the resultant force is
and its direction is
( ) ( )
2 2
∑ ∑
+ ·
y x r
F F F
N 38.0 ·
r
F
( ) ( )
2 2
37.8 4.00 − + − ·
r
F

,


.
|
·

x
y
F
F
θ
1
tan
( ) ise anticlockw axis - x positive from 264 or 84.0
 
· θ

,

.
|

·

4.00
37.8
tan
1
θ
r
F

∑ y
F

∑ x
F

84.0°

264
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
50
1. Vector has components A
x
= 1.30 cm, A
y
= 2.25 cm; vector
has components B
x
= 4.10 cm, B
y
= -3.75 cm. Determine
 the components of the vector sum ,
 the magnitude and direction of ,
 the components of the vector ,
 the magnitude and direction of . (Young & freedman,pg.35,no.1.42)
ANS. : 5.40 cm, -1.50 cm; 5.60 cm, 345 ANS. : 5.40 cm, -1.50 cm; 5.60 cm, 345° ° ; 2.80 cm, -6.00 cm; ; 2.80 cm, -6.00 cm;
6.62 cm, 295 6.62 cm, 295° °
4. For the vectors and in figure 1.2, use the method of vector
resolution to determine the magnitude and direction of
a) the vector sum ,
b) the vector sum ,
c) the vector difference ,
d) the vector difference .
(Young & freedman,pg.35,no.1.39)
ANS. : 11.1 m s ANS. : 11.1 m s
-1 -1
, 77.6 , 77.6° ° ; U think; ; U think;
28.5 m s 28.5 m s
-1 -1
, 202 , 202° ° ; 28.5 m s ; 28.5 m s
-1 -1
, 22.2 , 22.2° °
Exercise 1.3 :
B A
 
+
A

B A
 
+
A B
 

A B
 

B

A

B

B A
 
+
A B
 
+
B A
 

A B
 

Figure 1.2 Figure 1.2
y
x
0
37.0°
( )
-1
s m 18.0 B

( )
-1
s m 12.0 A

PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
51

notations –

E.g. unit vector a – a vector with a magnitude of 1 unit in the direction
of vector A.

Unit vectors are dimensionless.

Unit vector for 3 dimension axes :
1.2.6 Unit Vectors
A

a
ˆ
c b a
ˆ
,
ˆ
,
ˆ
1
ˆ
· ·
A
A
a

[ ] 1
ˆ
· a
) ( @
ˆ
⇒ - bold j j axis y
1
ˆ
ˆ ˆ
· · · k j i
) ( @
ˆ
⇒ - bold i i axis x
) ( @
ˆ
⇒ - bold k k axis z
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
52

Vector can be written in term of unit vectors as :

Magnitude of vector,
x
z
y
k
ˆ
j
ˆ
i
ˆ
k r j r i r r
z y x
ˆ
ˆ ˆ
+ + ·

( ) ( ) ( )
2
z
2
y
2
x
r r r r + + ·
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
53

E.g. :
( ) m
ˆ
2
ˆ
3
ˆ
4 k j i s + + ·

( ) ( ) ( ) m 5.39 2 3 4
2 2 2
· + + · s
j
ˆ
3
x/m
y/m
z/m
0
s

i
ˆ
4 k
ˆ
2
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
54
Two vectors are given as:
Calculate
e) the vector and its magnitude,
f) the vector and its magnitude,
g) the vector and its magnitude.
Solution : Solution :
a)
The magnitude,
Example 9 :
a b

( ) m
ˆ
5
ˆ
4
ˆ
2 k j i a + − ·

b a

+
( ) m
ˆ
ˆ
8
ˆ
7 k j i b + + − ·

( ) i b a b a
x x x
ˆ
5 7 2 − · − · + · +

( ) j b a b a
y y y
ˆ
4 8 4 · + − · + · +

( ) m
ˆ
6
ˆ
4
ˆ
5 k j i b a + + − · +

( ) k b a b a
z z z
ˆ
6 1 5 · + · + · +

( ) ( ) ( ) m 8.78 6 4 5
2 2 2
· + + − · + b a
b a

+ 2
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
55
b)
The magnitude,
c)
The magnitude,
( ) i a b a b
x x x
ˆ
9 2 7 − · − − · − · −

( ) j a b a b
y y y
ˆ
12 4 8 · + · − · −

( ) m
ˆ
4
ˆ
12
ˆ
9 k j i a b − + − · −

( ) k a b a b
z z z
ˆ
4 5 1 − · − · − · −

( ) ( ) ( ) m 15.5 4 12 9
2 2 2
· − + + − · − a b
( ) ( ) i b a b a
x x x
ˆ
3 7 2 2 2 2 − · − · + · +

( ) ( ) j b a b a
y y y
ˆ
0 8 4 2 2 2 · + − · + · +

( ) m
ˆ
11
ˆ
3 2 k i b a + − · +

( ) ( ) k b a b a
z z z
ˆ
11 1 5 2 2 2 · + · + · +

( ) ( ) m 11.4 11 3 2
2 2
· + − · + b a
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
56
Scalar (dot) product Scalar (dot) product

The physical meaning of the scalar product physical meaning of the scalar product can be explained by
considering two vectors and as shown in figure 1.3a.

Figure 1.3b shows the projection of vector onto the direction of
vector .

Figure 1.3c shows the projection of vector onto the direction of
vector .
1.2.7 Multiplication of Vectors
A

B

θ
A

B

A

B

Figure 1.3a Figure 1.3a
θ
A

B

A

B

θ Bcos
Figure 1.3b Figure 1.3b
θ
A

B

θ Acos
Figure 1.3c Figure 1.3c
( ) A B A B A
   
to parallel of component · •
( ) B A B B A
   
to parallel of component · •
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
57

From the figure 1.3b, the scalar product can be defined as
meanwhile from the figure 1.3c,
where

The scalar product is a scalar quantity scalar quantity.

The angle θ ranges from 0° to 180 °.

When

The scalar product obeys the commutative law of multiplication commutative law of multiplication i.e.
( ) θ B A B A cos · •
 
vectors o between tw angle : θ
( ) θ A B A B cos · •
 
 
90 θ 0 < <
scalar product is positive positive
 
180 θ 0 9 < <
scalar product is negative negative

90 θ ·
scalar product is zero zero
A B B A
   
• · •
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
58

Example of scalar product is work done work done by a constant force where the
expression is given by

The scalar product of the unit vectors are shown below :
( ) ( ) θ F s θ s F s F W cos cos · · • ·

x
z
y
k
ˆ
j
ˆ
i
ˆ
( ) ( ) 1 1 1 cos
ˆ ˆ
2
· · · •
o 2
0 i i i
1
ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
· • · • · • k k j j i i
( ) ( ) 1 1 1 cos
ˆ ˆ
2
· · · •
o 2
0 j j j
( ) ( ) 1 1 1 cos
ˆ ˆ
2
· · · •
o 2
0 k k k
( )( ) 0 9 cos
ˆ ˆ
· · •
o
0 1 1 j i
0
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ ˆ ˆ
· • · • · • k i k j j i
( ) ( ) 0 9 cos
ˆ
ˆ
· · •
o
0 1 1 k i
( ) ( ) 0 9 cos
ˆ
ˆ
· · •
o
0 1 1 k j
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
59
Calculate the and the angle θ between vectors and for the
following problems.
a) b)
Solution : Solution :
a)
The magnitude of the vectors:
The angle θ ,
Example 10 :
A

B A
 
• B

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )( ) k k j j i i B A
ˆ ˆ
5 3
ˆ ˆ
1 2
ˆ ˆ
2 1 • − + • − + • − · •
 
( ) ( ) ( ) 14 3 2 1
2 2 2
· − + + · A
k j i A
ˆ
3
ˆ
2
ˆ
− + ·

k j i A
ˆ
ˆ
3
ˆ
4 + − ·

k j i B
ˆ
5
ˆ ˆ
2 + − − ·

k j B
ˆ
3
ˆ
2 + ·

15 2 2 − − − · • B A
 
19 − · • B A
 
( ) ( ) ( ) 30 5 1 2
2 2 2
· + − + − · B
θ AB B A cos · •
 

,


.
| −
·

,

.
|

·
− −
30 14
19
cos cos
1 1
AB
B A
θ
 

158 θ ·
ANS.:-3; 99.4 ANS.:-3; 99.4° °
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
60
Vector (cross) product Vector (cross) product

Consider two vectors :

In general, the vector product is defined as
and its magnitude magnitude is given by
where

The angle θ ranges from 0° to 180 ° so the vector product always
positive positive value.

Vector product is a vector quantity vector quantity.

The direction of vector is determined by
k r j q i p B
ˆ
ˆ ˆ
+ + ·

k z j y i x A
ˆ
ˆ ˆ
+ + ·

C B A
  
· ×
θ AB θ B A C B A sin sin · · · ×
    
vectors o between tw angle : θ
RIGHT-HAND RULE RIGHT-HAND RULE
C

PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
61

For example:

How to use right hand rule :

Point the 4 fingers to the direction of the 1
st
vector.

Swept the 4 fingers from the 1
st
vector towards the 2
nd
vector.

The thumb shows the direction of the vector product.

Direction of the vector product always perpendicular to the
plane containing the vectors and .
A

C

B

A

B

C

C B A
  
· ×
C A B
  
· ×
A B B A
   
× ≠ × but ( ) A B B A
   
× − · ×
B

) (C

A

PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
62

The vector product of the unit vectors are shown below :

Example of vector product is a magnetic force on the straight a magnetic force on the straight
conductor carrying current places in magnetic field conductor carrying current places in magnetic field where the
expression is given by
x
z
y
k
ˆ
j
ˆ
i
ˆ
i j k k j
ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ
ˆ
· × − · ×
k i j j i
ˆ
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
· × − · ×
j k i i k
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ ˆ
ˆ
· × − · ×
0
ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
· × · × · × k k j j i i
0 in
ˆ ˆ
· · ×
o 2
0 s i i i
0 in
ˆ ˆ
· · ×
o 2
0 s j j j
0 in
ˆ ˆ
· · ×
o 2
0 s k k k
( ) B l I F
  
× ·
θ IlB F sin ·
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
63

The vector product can also be expressed in determinant form as

1 1
st st
method : method :

2 2
nd nd
method : method :

Note : Note :

The angle between two vectors The angle between two vectors can only be determined by using
the scalar (dot) product scalar (dot) product. .
r q p
z y x
k j i
B A
ˆ
ˆ ˆ
· ×
 
( ) ( ) ( ) k yp xq j zp xr i zq yr B A
ˆ
ˆ ˆ
− + − − − · ×
 
( ) ( ) ( ) k yp xq j xr zp i zq yr B A
ˆ
ˆ ˆ
− + − + − · ×
 
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
64
Given two vectors :
Determine
a) and its magnitude b)
c) the angle between vectors and .
Solution : Solution :
a)
The magnitude,
Example 11 :
5 1 1
4 2 5
ˆ
ˆ ˆ
− · ×
k j i
B A
 
B A
 
×
B A
 

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) k j i B A
ˆ
1 2 1 5
ˆ
1 4 5 5
ˆ
1 4 5 2 − − + − − − − · ×
 
k j i B A
ˆ
7
ˆ
21
ˆ
4 1 + − − · ×
 
( ) ( ) ( ) k j i B A
ˆ
2 5
ˆ
4 25
ˆ
4 10 + + − − − − · ×
 
2 . 26 · × B A
 
k j i A
ˆ
4
ˆ
2
ˆ
5 + − ·

k j i B
ˆ
5
ˆ ˆ
+ + ·

A

B

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
7 21 14 + − + − · × B A
 
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
65
b)
c) The magnitude of vectors,
Using the scalar (dot) product scalar (dot) product formula,
( ) ( ) k j i k j i B A
ˆ
5
ˆ ˆ
ˆ
4
ˆ
2
ˆ
5 + + • + − · •
 
23 · • B A
 
( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) k k j j i i B A
ˆ ˆ
5 4
ˆ ˆ
1 2
ˆ ˆ
1 5 • + • − + • · •
 
20 2 5 + − · • B A
 
θ AB B A cos · •
 

,


.
|
·

,

.
|

·
− −
27 45
23
cos cos
1 1
AB
B A
θ
 

7 . 48 · θ
( ) ( ) ( ) 45 4 2 5
2 2 2
· + − + · A
( ) ( ) ( ) 27 5 1 1
2 2 2
· + + · B
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
66
1. If vector and vector , determine
a) , b) , c) .
ANS. : ANS. :
5. Three vectors are given as follow :
Calculate
a) , b) , c) .
ANS. : ANS. :
 If vector and vector ,
determine
a)
b) the angle between and .
ANS. : ANS. :
Exercise 1.4 :
46 ; 26 ;
ˆ
2k
j i a
ˆ
+
ˆ
= 5 3

j i b
ˆ
+
ˆ
= 4 2

b a

× b a

• ( ) b b a
 

• +
k j i c k j i b k j i a
ˆ
ˆ
2
ˆ
2 and
ˆ
2
ˆ
4
ˆ
;
ˆ
2
ˆ
3
ˆ
3 + + · + − − · − + ·

( ) c b a

× •
( ) c b a

+ • ( ) c b a

+ ×
k j i
ˆ
9
ˆ
11
ˆ
5 ; 9 ; 21 − − − −
k j i P
ˆ
ˆ
2
ˆ
3 − + ·

k j i Q
ˆ
3
ˆ
4
ˆ
2 + + − ·

Q P
 
×
P

Q

92.8 ;
ˆ
16
ˆ
7
ˆ
10 k j i + −
PHYSICS CHAPTER 1
67
THE END…
Next Chapter…
CHAPTER 2 :
Kinematics of Linear Motion